Protoplasma

http://link.springer.com/journal/709

List of Papers (Total 769)

Germline-specific labeling of the somatic chromosomes by protein phosphatase 2A and histone H3S28 phosphorylation in Acricotopus lucidus

Additional chromosomes limited to the germline (=Ks) were established as a special form of germline–soma differentiation in the Orthocladiinae, a subfamily of the Chironomidae (Bauer and Beermann in Z Naturforsch 7b: 557–563, 1952). The Ks together with the somatic chromosomes (=Ss) pass through a complex chromosome cycle with elimination at mitosis and a monopolar migration of...

Histone H3 and H4 acetylation patterns are more dynamic than those of DNA methylation in Brachypodium distachyon embryos during seed maturation and germination

The transition of seeds from a dry to a metabolically active state requires significant changes in both the spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression, and this transcriptional reprogramming involves various modifications of the chromatin structure. There are several factors that can greatly influence the structure of chromatin, one of which is the chemical modifications of...

The terrestrial green macroalga Prasiola calophylla (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta): ecophysiological performance under water-limiting conditions

The phylogenetic placement of Prasiola calophylla, from an anthropogenic habitat previously shown to contain a novel UV sunscreen compound, was confirmed by analysis of its rbcL gene. This alga has the capacity to tolerate strong water-limiting conditions. The photosynthetic performance and ultrastructural changes under desiccation and osmotic stress were investigated. Freshly...

A journey through the microscopic ages of DNA replication

Scientific discoveries and technological advancements are inseparable but not always take place in a coherent chronological manner. In the next, we will provide a seemingly unconnected and serendipitous series of scientific facts that, in the whole, converged to unveil DNA and its duplication. We will not cover here the many and fundamental contributions from microbial genetics...

RNA processing body (P-body) dynamics in mesophyll protoplasts re-initiating cell division

The ability of plants to regenerate lies in the capacity of differentiated cells to reprogram and re-enter the cell cycle. Reprogramming of cells requires changes in chromatin organisation and gene expression. However, there has been less focus on changes at the post transcription level. We have investigated P-bodies, sites of post transcriptional gene regulation, in plant cell...

Does the grass snake (Natrix natrix) (Squamata: Serpentes: Natricinae) fit the amniotes-specific model of myogenesis?

In the grass snake (Natrix natrix), the newly developed somites form vesicles that are located on both sides of the neural tube. The walls of the vesicles are composed of tightly connected epithelial cells surrounding the cavity (the somitocoel). Also, in the newly formed somites, the Pax3 protein can be observed in the somite wall cells. Subsequently, the somite splits into...

Pattern of callose deposition during the course of meiotic diplospory in Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae, Cichorioideae)

Total absence of callose in the ovules of diplosporous species has been previously suggested. This paper is the first description of callose events in the ovules of Chondrilla juncea, which exhibits meiotic diplospory of the Taraxacum type. We found the presence of callose in the megasporocyte wall and stated that the pattern of callose deposition is dynamically changing during...

Floral structure of two species of Bulbophyllum section Cirrhopetalum Lindl.: B. weberi Ames and B. cumingii (Lindl.) Rchb. f. (Bulbophyllinae Schltr., Orchidaceae)

Flowers of Bulbophyllum weberi and B. cumingii are characterized by fly-pollinated features. The secretory activity was described in dorsal sepals in both species (putative osmophores), petals in B. weberi (possible osmophores) and adaxial surface of lips in both species. In the cells of dorsal sepals and petals of B. weberi proteins, dihydroxyphenols, lipids and starch grains...

Leaf anatomy of two reciprocally non-monophyletic mountain plants (Heliosperma spp.): does heritable adaptation to divergent growing sites accompany the onset of speciation?

Evolution is driven by natural selection, favouring individuals adapted in phenotypic traits to the environmental conditions at their growing site. To shed light on ecological and (epi-) genetically based differentiation between Heliosperma pusillum and Heliosperma veselskyi, two reciprocally non-monophyletic, but morphologically and ecologically divergent species from the south...

Water ascent in trees and lianas: the cohesion-tension theory revisited in the wake of Otto Renner

The cohesion-tension theory of water ascent (C-T) has been challenged over the past decades by a large body of experimental evidence obtained by means of several minimum or non-invasive techniques. The evidence strongly suggests that land plants acquire water through interplay of several mechanisms covered by the multi-force theory of (U. Zimmermann et al. New Phytologist 162...

Formation of a unique structure during microsporogenesis in Tinantia anomala (Commelinaceae) anthers

The analysis of microsporogenesis in Tinantia anomala revealed a unique ring-shaped structure assembling pollen grains into large aggregates. The heterogeneous ring was composed of several segments and was dominated by lipid compounds. Although the ring is a product of the tapetum, such a structure has not been described yet. The authors put forward some hypotheses for...

Low temperature caused modifications in the arrangement of cell wall pectins due to changes of osmotic potential of cells of maize leaves (Zea mays L.)

The cell wall emerged as one of the important structures in plant stress responses. To investigate the effect of cold on the cell wall properties, the content and localization of pectins and pectin methylesterase (PME) activity, were studied in two maize inbred lines characterized by different sensitivity to cold. Low temperature (14/12 °C) caused a reduction of pectin content...

Meiosis, Balbiani body and early asymmetry of Thermobia oocyte

The meiotic division guarantees maintenance of a genetic diversity; it consists of several stages, with prophase I being the longest and the most complex. We decided to follow the course of initial stages of meiotic division in ovaries of Thermobia domestica using modified techniques of squash preparations, semithin sections, and electron microscopy. We show that germaria contain...

Immunodetection of some pectic, arabinogalactan proteins and hemicellulose epitopes in the micropylar transmitting tissue of apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae, Lactuceae)

In apomictic Taraxacum species, the development of both the embryo and the endosperm does not require double fertilisation. However, a structural reduction of ovular transmitting tissue was not observed in apomictic dandelions. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition of the cell walls to describe the presence of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), hemicellulose...

Comparative micromorphology and anatomy of flowers and floral secretory structures in two Viburnum species

In entomogamous plants, the presence and function of floral secretory structures, whose main role is to attract pollinators, is strictly associated with the pollination ecology and hence the reproductive success of the plant. The aims of the present paper were to analyse the micromorphology and anatomy of flower nectaries and stigmas in Viburnum opulus and V. lantana and to...

In silico study on Arabidopsis BAG gene expression in response to environmental stresses

BAG (Bcl-2 athanogene) family proteins are conserved in a wide range of eukaryotes, and they have been proposed to play a crucial role in plant programmed cell death (PCD). During the past decade, with the help of advanced bioinformatics tools, seven homologs of BAG genes have been identified in the Arabidopsis genome; these genes are involved in pathogen attack and abiotic...

Floral ultrastructure of two Brazilian aquatic-epiphytic bladderworts: Utricularia cornigera Studnička and U. nelumbifolia Gardner (Lentibulariaceae)

Utricularia cornigera and Utricularia nelumbifolia are giant, aquatic-epiphytic species of carnivorous bladderwort from southeastern Brazil that grow in the central ‘urns’ of bromeliads. Both species have large, colourful flowers. The main aim of our study is to ascertain whether the prominent floral palate of U. cornigera and U. nelumbifolia functions as an unguentarius—i.e. an...