Protoplasma

http://link.springer.com/journal/709

List of Papers (Total 771)

Floral ultrastructure of two Brazilian aquatic-epiphytic bladderworts: Utricularia cornigera Studnička and U. nelumbifolia Gardner (Lentibulariaceae)

Utricularia cornigera and Utricularia nelumbifolia are giant, aquatic-epiphytic species of carnivorous bladderwort from southeastern Brazil that grow in the central ‘urns’ of bromeliads. Both species have large, colourful flowers. The main aim of our study is to ascertain whether the prominent floral palate of U. cornigera and U. nelumbifolia functions as an unguentarius—i.e. an...

Plant ER geometry and dynamics: biophysical and cytoskeletal control during growth and biotic response

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an intricate and dynamic network of membrane tubules and cisternae. In plant cells, the ER ‘web’ pervades the cortex and endoplasm and is continuous with adjacent cells as it passes through plasmodesmata. It is therefore the largest membranous organelle in plant cells. It performs essential functions including protein and lipid synthesis, and its...

Morphometric analysis of young petiole galls on the narrow-leaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia, by the sugarbeet root aphid, Pemphigus betae

An insect-induced gall is a highly specialized structure resulting from atypical development of plant tissue induced by a reaction to the presence and activity of an insect. The insect induces a differentiation of tissues with features and functions of an ectopic organ, providing nutrition and protection to the galling insect from natural enemies and environmental stresses. In...

Development of mechanical papillae of the tongue in the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica) during the embryonic period

Three types of mechanical papillae, i.e., conical, filiform, and hair-like papillae, are present on the tongue in the domestic goose. Within conical papillae, we distinguish three categories: large and small conical papillae on the body and conical papillae on the lingual prominence. The arrangement of mechanical papillae on the tongue in Anseriformes is connected functionally...

Floral nectar production and carbohydrate composition and the structure of receptacular nectaries in the invasive plant Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae)

The data relating to the nectaries and nectar secretion in invasive Brassicacean taxa are scarce. In the present paper, the nectar production and nectar carbohydrate composition as well as the morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of the floral nectaries in Bunias orientalis were investigated. Nectary glands were examined using light, fluorescence, scanning electron and...

Floral micromorphology of the Australian carnivorous bladderwort Utricularia dunlopii, a putative pseudocopulatory species

Flowers of sexually deceptive taxa generally possess a set of morphological and physiological characters that mimic their insect pollinators. These characters often include a specific insect-like floral configuration, together with scent glands (osmophores) that produce fragrances which chemically resemble insect sex pheromones. Furthermore, these flowers tend not to produce...

Integument cell differentiation in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae, Lactuceae) with special attention paid to plasmodesmata

The aim of the paper is to determine what happens with plasmodesmata when mucilage is secreted into the periplasmic space in plant cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the periendothelial zone mucilage cells was performed on examples of the ovule tissues of several sexual and apomictic Taraxacum species. The cytoplasm of the periendothelial zone cells was dense, filled by numerous...

Entransia and Hormidiella, sister lineages of Klebsormidium (Streptophyta), respond differently to light, temperature, and desiccation stress

The green-algal class Klebsormidiophyceae (Streptophyta), which occurs worldwide, comprises the genera Klebsormidium, Interfilum, Entransia, and Hormidiella. Ecophysiological research has so far focused on the first two genera because they are abundant in biological soil crust communities. The present study investigated the photosynthetic performances of Hormidiella attenuata and...

Asymmetry in structure of the eggshell in Osmylus fulvicephalus (Neuroptera: Osmylidae): an exceptional case of breaking symmetry during neuropteran oogenesis

Ovaries of neuropterans are of meroistic-polytrophic type. The ovarian tubes, the ovarioles, are divided into two major parts: a germarium, comprised of newly formed germ cell clusters; and a vitellarium, housing linearly arranged ovarian follicles. Each ovarian follicle consists of the germ cell cluster diversified into different number of nurse cells, and the oocyte enclosed by...

Xenopus LAP2β protein knockdown affects location of lamin B and nucleoporins and has effect on assembly of cell nucleus and cell viability

Xenopus LAP2β protein is the single isoform expressed in XTC cells. The protein localizes on heterochromatin clusters both at the nuclear envelope and inside a cell nucleus. The majority of XLAP2β fraction neither colocalizes with TPX2 protein during interphase nor can be immunoprecipitated with XLAP2β antibody. Knockdown of the XLAP2β protein expression in XTC cells by synthetic...

Sulcia symbiont of the leafhopper Macrosteles laevis (Ribaut, 1927) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) harbors Arsenophonus bacteria

The leafhopper Macrosteles laevis, like other plant sap-feeding hemipterans, lives in obligate symbiotic association with microorganisms. The symbionts are harbored in the cytoplasm of large cells termed bacteriocytes, which are integrated into huge organs termed bacteriomes. Morphological and molecular investigations have revealed that in the bacteriomes of M. laevis, two types...

Unique features of myogenesis in Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae)

During early stages of myotomal myogenesis, the myotome of Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) is composed of homogenous populations of mononucleated primary myotubes. At later developmental phase, primary myotubes are accompanied by closely adhering mononucleated cells. Based on localization and morphology, we assume that mononucleated cells share features with satellite cells involved...

Analysis of Triticum aestivum seedling response to the excess of zinc

The effects of 50 and 300 mg L−1 Zn2+ (50 Zn and 300 Zn) were investigated in Triticum aestivum (cv. Żura) grown hydroponically for 7 days. Although wheat treated with 50 Zn took up relatively high amount of the metal (8,943 and 1,503 mg kg−1 DW in roots and shoots, respectively), none of the morphological and cytological parameters were changed. After 300 Zn, the metal...

Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae)

Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular...

High expression of SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE coincides with initiation of various developmental pathways in in vitro culture of Trifolium nigrescens

The aim of this study was to identify and examine the expression pattern of the ortholog of SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE gene from Trifolium nigrescens (TnSERK) in embryogenic and non-regenerative cultures of immature cotyledonary-stage zygotic embryos (CsZEs). In the presence of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and N6-[2-isopentenyl]-adenine, the CsZE regenerated embryoids...

Allocation of the S-genome chromosomes of Aegilops variabilis Eig. carrying powdery mildew resistance in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack)

It has been hypothesized that the powdery mildew adult plant resistance (APR) controlled by the Pm13 gene in Aegilops longissima Schweinf. & Muschl. (SlSl) has been evolutionary transferred to Aegilops variabilis Eig. (UUSS). The molecular marker analysis and the visual evaluation of powdery mildew symptoms in Ae. variabilis and the Ae. variabilis × Secale cereale amphiploid...