Protoplasma

http://link.springer.com/journal/709

List of Papers (Total 645)

Photosynthesis-dependent formation of convoluted plasma membrane domains in Chara internodal cells is independent of chloroplast position

The characean green alga Chara australis forms complex plasma membrane convolutions called charasomes when exposed to light. Charasomes are involved in local acidification of the surrounding medium which facilitates carbon uptake required for photosynthesis. They have hitherto been only described in the internodal cells and in close contact with the stationary chloroplasts. Here, ...

High-throughput transformation pipeline for a Brazilian japonica rice with bar gene selection

The goal of this work was to establish a transformation pipeline for upland Curinga rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) with bar gene selection employing bialaphos and phosphinothricin as selection agents. The following genes of interest: AtNCED3, Lsi1, GLU2, LEW2, PLD-alpha, DA1, TOR, AVP1, and Rubisco were cloned into the binary vector p7i2x-Ubi and were transferred into ...

Genome-dependent chromosome dynamics in three successive generations of the allotetraploid Festuca pratensis × Lolium perenne hybrid

We focus on the identification of complete and recombined ribosomal DNA-bearing chromosomes, and the dynamics of chromosomal number and position of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci in the F2-F4 generations derived from the F1 hybrid of Festuca pratensis Huds. (2n = 4x = 28) × Lolium perenne L. (2n = 4x = 28). Lolium genomic DNA and rRNA genes were mapped by means of genomic and ...

Comparison of the structure of floral nectaries in two Euonymus L. species (Celastraceae)

The inconspicuous Euonymus L. flowers are equipped with open receptacular floral nectaries forming a quadrilateral green disc around the base of the superior ovary. The morphology and anatomy of the nectaries in Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz. and Euonymus europaeus L. flowers were analysed under a bright-field light microscope as well as stereoscopic and scanning electron ...

The Oberhäutchen principle—growth and integrity

Growth as central task for life is, at the same time, a challenge for integrity: A growing cell has to continuously increase its surface and the same holds true for a growing organism. At the same time, the integrity of the surface must never be interrupted at any single time point to prevent the chemical gradients sustaining life from breaking down immediately. There is only one ...

Photosynthetic efficiency, desiccation tolerance and ultrastructure in two phylogenetically distinct strains of alpine Zygnema sp. (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta): role of pre-akinete formation

Two newly isolated strains of green algae from alpine regions were compared physiologically at different culture ages (1, 6, 9 and 15 months). The strains of Zygnema sp. were from different altitudes (‘Saalach’ (S), 440 m above sea level (a.s.l.), SAG 2419 and ‘Elmau-Alm’ (E-A), 1,500 m a.s.l., SAG 2418). Phylogenetic analysis of rbcL sequences grouped the strains into different ...

Dedifferentiation of Arabidopsis thaliana cells is accompanied by a strong decrease in RNA polymerase II transcription activity and poly(A+) RNA and 25S rRNA eradication from the cytoplasm

The mechanisms of plant cell dedifferentiation and the acquisition of totipotency are poorly understood. One of the methods to induce the dedifferentiation process in plant cells is simple and requires the removal of the cell wall. After cell wall removal in protoplasts, large-scale chromatin decondensation is observed (Tessadori et al. in J Cell Sci 120:1200–1208, 2007). Here, we ...

Deposition of callose in young ovules of two Taraxacum species varying in the mode of reproduction

Although callose occurs during megasporogenesis in most flowering plants, the knowledge about its general function and the mechanisms by which the callose layer is formed in particular places is still not sufficient. The results of previous studies suggest a total lack of callose in the ovules of diplosporous plants in which meiosis is omitted or disturbed. This report is the first ...

Karyotype structure and chromosome fragility in the grass Phleum echinatum Host

Phleum echinatum Host (2n = 2x = 10) is an annual Mediterranean species which differs from other representatives of the genus Phleum by reduced chromosome number, asymmetric karyotype and unusually high amount of DNA in the genome. Chromosomes of this plant were studied using conventional acetic-orcein staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH showed the major ...

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen (ROS and RNS) species generation and cell death in tomato suspension cultures—Botrytis cinerea interaction

This article reports events connected to cell survival and Botrytis cinerea infection development in cell suspension cultures of two tomato cultivars which show different levels of susceptibility to the pathogen: cv. Corindo (more susceptible) and cv. Perkoz (less susceptible). In parallel changes in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species generation and in ...

Studies on floral nectary, tepals’ structure, and gynostemium morphology of Epipactis palustris (L.) Crantz (Orchidaceae)

The lip of Epipactis palustris consists of two movably joined parts: the basal part (hypochile) with central broad isthmus and epichile with callus. The analysis of flowers provides strong evidence to conclude that the whole surface of lip callus and abaxial side of isthmus are secretory. The exudation at first appears on callus, at early stages, later on isthmus. It could be a ...

The localization of NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species in in vitro-cultured Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. hypocotyls discloses their differing roles in rhizogenesis

This work demonstrated how reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the regulation of rhizogenesis from hypocotyls of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. cultured on a medium containing 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The increase of NADPH oxidase activity was correlated with an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and induction of mitotic activity in vascular cylinder ...

Functional ultrastructure of the plant nucleolus

Nucleoli are nuclear domains present in almost all eukaryotic cells. They not only specialize in the production of ribosomal subunits but also play roles in many fundamental cellular activities. Concerning ribosome biosynthesis, particular stages of this process, i.e., ribosomal DNA transcription, primary RNA transcript processing, and ribosome assembly proceed in precisely defined ...

Morpho-histology and genotype dependence of in vitro morphogenesis in mature embryo cultures of wheat

Cellular totipotency is one of the basic principles of plant biotechnology. Currently, the success of the procedure used to produce transgenic plants is directly proportional to the successful insertion of foreign DNA into the genome of suitable target tissue/cells that are able to regenerate plants. The mature embryo (ME) is increasingly recognized as a valuable explant for ...

Cytochemical and ultrastructural aspects of aquatic carnivorous plant turions

Turions, which are modified shoot apices, are vegetative, dormant overwintering organs produced by perennial aquatic plants. In this study, the turion cytochemistry and ultrastructure of Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Utricularia vulgaris and U. stygia were compared with particular emphasis placed on storage substances. These three aquatic, rootless carnivorous plant species were studied ...

Cutinsomes and lipotubuloids appear to participate in cuticle formation in Ornithogalum umbellatum ovary epidermis: EM–immunogold research

The outer wall of Ornithogalum umbellatum ovary and the fruit epidermis are covered with a thick cuticle and contain lipotubuloids incorporating 3H-palmitic acid. This was earlier evidenced by selective autoradiographic labelling of lipotubuloids. After post-incubation in a non-radioactive medium, some marked particles insoluble in organic solvents (similar to cutin matrix) moved ...

The influence of heat stress on auxin distribution in transgenic B. napus microspores and microspore-derived embryos

Plant embryogenesis is regulated by differential distribution of the plant hormone auxin. However, the cells establishing these gradients during microspore embryogenesis remain to be identified. For the first time, we describe, using the DR5 or DR5rev reporter gene systems, the GFP- and GUS-based auxin biosensors to monitor auxin during Brassica napus androgenesis at cellular ...

Elemental distribution in tissue components of N2-fixing nodules of Psoralea pinnata plants growing naturally in wetland and upland conditions in the Cape Fynbos of South Africa

There is little information on in situ distribution of nutrient elements in N2-fixing nodules. The aim of this study was to quantify elemental distribution in tissue components of N2-fixing nodules harvested from Psoralea pinnata plants grown naturally in wetland and upland conditions in the Cape Fynbos. The data obtained from particle-induced X-ray emission revealed the occurrence ...

The far side of auxin signaling: fundamental cellular activities and their contribution to a defined growth response in plants

Recent years have provided us with spectacular insights into the biology of the plant hormone auxin, leaving the impression of a highly versatile molecule involved in virtually every aspect of plant development. A combination of genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology has established auxin signaling pathways, leading to the identification of two distinct modes of auxin perception ...

Higher sensitivity of pad2-1 and vtc2-1 mutants to cadmium is related to lower subcellular glutathione rather than ascorbate contents

Cadmium (Cd) interferes with ascorbate and glutathione metabolism as it induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), binds to glutathione due to its high affinity to thiol groups, and induces the production of phytochelatins (PCs) which use glutathione as a precursor. In this study, changes in the compartment specific distribution of ascorbate and glutathione were ...

Chicken or egg—Weismann revisited

Multicellularity allows for division of labour. This requires that individual cells adopt different developmental fates. This developmental dichotomy could arise from interactions between the cells, but it could as well be produced by a formative cell division guided by a gradient of developmental determinants within the progenitor cell such that these determinants are ...