Protoplasma

http://link.springer.com/journal/709

List of Papers (Total 771)

Karyotype structure and chromosome fragility in the grass Phleum echinatum Host

Phleum echinatum Host (2n = 2x = 10) is an annual Mediterranean species which differs from other representatives of the genus Phleum by reduced chromosome number, asymmetric karyotype and unusually high amount of DNA in the genome. Chromosomes of this plant were studied using conventional acetic-orcein staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH showed the major...

Elemental distribution in tissue components of N2-fixing nodules of Psoralea pinnata plants growing naturally in wetland and upland conditions in the Cape Fynbos of South Africa

There is little information on in situ distribution of nutrient elements in N2-fixing nodules. The aim of this study was to quantify elemental distribution in tissue components of N2-fixing nodules harvested from Psoralea pinnata plants grown naturally in wetland and upland conditions in the Cape Fynbos. The data obtained from particle-induced X-ray emission revealed the...

The far side of auxin signaling: fundamental cellular activities and their contribution to a defined growth response in plants

Recent years have provided us with spectacular insights into the biology of the plant hormone auxin, leaving the impression of a highly versatile molecule involved in virtually every aspect of plant development. A combination of genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology has established auxin signaling pathways, leading to the identification of two distinct modes of auxin...

Higher sensitivity of pad2-1 and vtc2-1 mutants to cadmium is related to lower subcellular glutathione rather than ascorbate contents

Cadmium (Cd) interferes with ascorbate and glutathione metabolism as it induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), binds to glutathione due to its high affinity to thiol groups, and induces the production of phytochelatins (PCs) which use glutathione as a precursor. In this study, changes in the compartment specific distribution of ascorbate and glutathione were...

Chicken or egg—Weismann revisited

Multicellularity allows for division of labour. This requires that individual cells adopt different developmental fates. This developmental dichotomy could arise from interactions between the cells, but it could as well be produced by a formative cell division guided by a gradient of developmental determinants within the progenitor cell such that these determinants are...

P53 protein in proliferation, repair and apoptosis of cells

The p53 protein is an important factor of many intra- and extracellular processes. This protein regulates the repair of cellular DNA and induces apoptosis. It is also responsible for the regulation of the senescence and the cell entering the subsequent stages of the cellular cycle. The protein p53 is also involved in inhibiting angiogenesis and the induction of oxidative shock...

High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy on macromolecular complexes and cell organelles

Cryo-electron microscopy techniques and computational 3-D reconstruction of macromolecular assemblies are tightly linked tools in modern structural biology. This symbiosis has produced vast amounts of detailed information on the structure and function of biological macromolecules. Typically, one of two fundamentally different strategies is used depending on the specimens and...

Development of a quantitative Correlative Light Electron Microscopy technique to study GLUT4 trafficking

Correlative Light Electron Microscopy (CLEM) combines advantages of light microscopy and electron microscopy in one experiment to deliver information above and beyond the capability of either modality alone. There are many different CLEM techniques, each having its own special advantages but also its technical challenges. It is however the biological question that (should) drive...

Cryo-soft X-ray tomography: a journey into the world of the native-state cell

One of the ultimate aims of imaging in biology is to achieve molecular localisation in the context of the structure of cells in their native state. Here, we review the current state of the art in cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT), which is the only imaging modality that can provide nanoscale 3D information from cryo-preserved, unstained, whole cells thicker than 1 μm...

The influence of heat stress on auxin distribution in transgenic B. napus microspores and microspore-derived embryos

Plant embryogenesis is regulated by differential distribution of the plant hormone auxin. However, the cells establishing these gradients during microspore embryogenesis remain to be identified. For the first time, we describe, using the DR5 or DR5rev reporter gene systems, the GFP- and GUS-based auxin biosensors to monitor auxin during Brassica napus androgenesis at cellular...

Release of single cells from the colonial oil-producing alga Botryococcus braunii by chemical treatments

We tested for chemical reagents that would be useful in preparing a large number of vital single cells from colonial Botryococcus braunii B-race, variety Showa. Among the 18 reagents assayed, glycerol and erythritol showed the highest potency for releasing single cells. Incubation in medium containing these reagents released 40–50 % single cells in 15 min. Fluorescent staining...

Characterization of polarity development through 2- and 3-D imaging during the initial phase of microspore embryogenesis in Brassica napus L

Isolated microspores of B. napus in culture change their developmental pathway from gametophytic to sporophytic and form embryo-like structures (ELS) upon prolonged heat shock treatment (5 days at 32 °C). ELS express polarity during the initial days of endosporic development. In this study, we focussed on the analysis of polarity development of ELS without suspensor. Fluorescence...

Co-expression of the Arabidopsis SOS genes enhances salt tolerance in transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

Crop productivity is greatly affected by soil salinity; therefore, improvement in salinity tolerance of crops is a major goal in salt-tolerant breeding. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) signal-transduction pathway plays a key role in ion homeostasis and salt tolerance in plants. Here, we report that overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana SOS1+SOS2+SOS3 genes enhanced salt...

A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava

This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived...

Synergids and filiform apparatus in the sexual and apomictic dandelions from section Palustria (Taraxacum, Asteraceae)

An evolutionary trend to reduce “unnecessary costs” associated with the sexual reproduction of their amphimictic ancestors, which may result in greater reproductive success, has been observed among the obligatory apomicts. However, in the case of the female gametophyte, knowledge about this trend in apomicts is not sufficient because most of the ultrastructural studies of the...

The problem of morphogenesis: unscripted biophysical control systems in plants

The relative simplicity of plant developmental systems, having evolved within the universal constraints imposed by the plant cell wall, may allow us to outline a consistent developmental narrative that is not currently possible in the animal kingdom. In this article, I discuss three aspects of the development of the mature form in plants, approaching them in terms of the role...

The very many faces of presenilins and the γ-secretase complex

Presenilin is a central, catalytic component of the γ-secretase complex which conducts intramembrane cleavage of various protein substrates. Although identified and mainly studied through its role in the development of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer disease, γ-secretase has many other important functions. The complex seems to be evolutionary conserved throughout the Metazoa, but...