Protoplasma

http://link.springer.com/journal/709

List of Papers (Total 697)

Kinetin induces cell death in root cortex cells of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings

The double fluorescence staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) revealed that treatment of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings with kinetin-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in root cortex cells. Kinetin-induced cell death reflected by the morphological changes of nuclei including their invagination, volume increase, chromatin condensation and degradation as well ...

Organisation of the endosperm and endosperm–placenta syncytia in bladderworts (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae) with emphasis on the microtubule arrangement

Multinucleate cells play an important role in higher plants, especially during reproduction; however, the configurations of their cytoskeletons, which are formed as a result of mitosis without cytokinesis, have mainly been studied in coenocytes. Previous authors have proposed that in spite of their developmental origin (cell fusion or mitosis without cytokinesis), in multinucleate ...

Defects in leaf epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with CDKA;1 activity reduced in the shoot apical meristem

In Arabidopsis thaliana, like in other dicots, the shoot epidermis originates from protodermis, the outermost cell layer of shoot apical meristem. We examined leaf epidermis in transgenic A. thaliana plants in which CDKA;1.N146, a negative dominant allele of A-type cyclin-dependent kinase, was expressed from the SHOOTMERISTEMLESS promoter, i.e., in the shoot apical meristem. Using ...

You need to see what you want to understand—ultrastructure helps to uncover the mysteries of early life

The early evolution of eukaryotes has remained a realm of mystery and surprise. The qualitative leap from the prokaryotes to cells, that bear complex and dynamic compartments, is still one of the hardest nuts to be cracked for evolutionary theory. The concept of “symbiogenesis”, postulated by Mereshkowski at the beginning of the last century and much later solidified through ...

The structure of the fruit peel in two varieties of Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae) before and after storage

The structure of fruit peel of two apple varieties ‘Szampion’ and ‘Jonagold’ was investigated using light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The samples were taken immediately after harvest and after 6-month controlled atmosphere storage. The Szampion and Jonagold fruit differed in terms of the surface type, number of lenticels, thickness of the ...

Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae)

The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. ...

Nucleolar chromatin organization at different activities of soybean root meristematic cell nucleoli

Nucleolar chromatin, including nucleolus-associated chromatin as well as active and inactive condensed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) chromatin, derives mostly from secondary constrictions known as nucleolus organizer regions containing rDNA genes on nucleolus-forming chromosomes. This chromatin may occupy different nucleolar positions being in various condensation states which may imply ...

The effect of pre-incubation of Allium cepa L. roots in the ATH-rich extract on Pb uptake and localization

The positive influence of anthocyanin (ATH) on toxic metal-treated plant material is well documented; however, it is still not explained if it is caused by changes in element absorption and distribution. Therefore, detailed analysis of the effect of the ATH-rich extract from red cabbage leaves on Pb uptake and localization at morphological, anatomical and ultrastructural level was ...

Occurrence of calreticulin during the exchange of nucleohistones into protamine-type proteins in Chara vulgaris spermiogenesis

During spermiogenesis of an alga Chara vulgaris, which resembles that of animals, nucleohistones are replaced by protamine-type proteins. This exchange takes place in a spermatid nucleus during the key V spermiogenesis stage, in which rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site of protamine-type protein synthesis and is also the pathway guiding the proteins to their destination, ...

The mobilization of defence mechanisms in the early stages of pea seed germination against Ascochyta pisi

Ascochyta pisi is a necrotrophic pathogenic fungus, which mainly survives between seasons through infected seeds. Defence responses of pea embryo axes to A. pisi were investigated in the heterotrophic phase of seed germination and during the transition from the heterotrophic to the autotrophic phase. Germinated pea seeds, both non-inoculated and inoculated with A. pisi, were ...

Ultrastructure, distribution, and transovarial transmission of symbiotic microorganisms in Nysius ericae and Nithecus jacobaeae (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae: Orsillinae)

The organization of the symbiotic system (i.e., distribution and ultrastructure of symbionts) and the mode of inheritance of symbionts in two species, Nysius ericae and Nithecus jacobaeae belonging to Heteroptera: Lygaeidae, are described. Like most hemipterans, Nysius ericae and Nithecus jacobaeae harbor obligate prokaryotic symbionts. The symbiotic bacteria are harbored in large, ...

Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining

Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB ...

Plastid genetic engineering in Solanaceae

Plastid genetic engineering has come of age, becoming today an attractive alternative approach for the expression of foreign genes, as it offers several advantages over nuclear transformants. Significant progress has been made in plastid genetic engineering in tobacco and other Solanaceae plants, through the use of improved regeneration procedures and transformation vectors with ...

Morphology and ultrastructure of the midgut in Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea)

This paper presents information on the organization of the midgut and its epithelium ultrastructure in juvenile and adult specimens of Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea), a species which is a widespread ectoparasite found on the body and gills and in the mouth of many types of fish. The analysis of juvenile nonfeeding specimens helped in the explanation of all alterations in ...

Controlling the cortical actin motor

Actin is the essential force-generating component of the microfilament system, which powers numerous motile processes in eukaryotic cells and undergoes dynamic remodeling in response to different internal and external signaling. The ability of actin to polymerize into asymmetric filaments is the inherent property behind the site-directed force-generating capacity that operates ...

Nematode modulation of inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease arising due to a culmination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle-associated factors and resulting in an excessive pro-inflammatory response to bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal tract. The prevalence of IBD in developing nations is relatively low, and it has been proposed that this is directly correlated with a ...

Are there symplastic connections between the endosperm and embryo in some angiosperms?—a lesson from the Crassulaceae family

It is believed that there is symplastic isolation between the embryo (new sporophyte) and the endosperm (maternal-parental origin tissue, which nourishes the embryo) in angiosperms. However, in embryological literature there are rare examples in which plasmodesmata between the embryo suspensor and endosperm cells have been recorded (three species from Fabaceae). This study was ...

Effects of chloroplast dysfunction on mitochondria: white sectors in variegated leaves have higher mitochondrial DNA levels and lower dark respiration rates than green sectors

Co-ordination between plastids and mitochondria is so essential that there should be extensive inter-organellar crosstalk during development of plant cells. Indeed, chloroplast dysfunction in white leaves of plastid ribosome-deficient mutant barley, albostrians, is reportedly accompanied by increases in the levels of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial transcripts, suggesting that ...

Actin cytoskeleton in the extra-ovular embryo sac of Utricularia nelumbifolia (Lentibulariaceae)

The actin cytoskeleton in the mature female gametophyte of angiosperms has been examined in only a few dicot and monocot species. The main purposes of this study were to identify how the actin cytoskeleton is arranged in the mature extra-ovular embryo sac in Utricularia nelumbifolia (Lentibulariaceae). We found that the extra-ovular part of the central cell has a well-developed ...