Urban Ecosystems

http://link.springer.com/journal/11252

List of Papers (Total 47)

Canopy precipitation interception in urban forests in relation to stand structure

Urban forests provide important ecosystem services. In terms of hydrological benefits, forest ecosystems in urban environments represent qualitative and quantitative filter for rainwater. We quantified the canopy interception in relation to urban forest stand structure and rainfall intensity in an urban transect of the mixed (upland) forest in the city centre, towards a riparian ...

Variability of bumblebee communities (Apidae, Bombini) in urban green areas

Based on current research the agglomerations are potentially desirable habitats for bumblebees. However, the relationship between the biodiversity of these bees and the green areas where they live is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of green areas (ranging from 8 to 102 ha) of big cities on bumblebee species richness, composition, and the ...

Is there a relationship between socio-economic factors and biodiversity in urban ponds? A study in the city of Stockholm

Urban small water bodies, such as ponds, are essential elements of human socio-economic landscapes. Ponds also provide important habitats for species that would otherwise not survive in the urban environment. Knowledge on the biodiversity of urban ponds and the relationship between their ecological value and factors linked to urbanization and socio-economic status is crucial for ...

Taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of an urban Amazonian avifauna

Amazonia is undergoing rapid urbanisation, but nothing has been published on the structure and function of urban Amazonian avifaunas. Here we present the results of a year-long survey of the avifauna of an Amazonian city, exploring temporal variation in its taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity. We found urban bird communities to be taxonomically depauperate and ...

Estimating urban lawn cover in space and time: Case studies in three Swedish cities

Lawns are considered monocultures and lesser contributors to sustainability than diverse nature but are still a dominating green area feature and an important cultural phenomenon in cities. Lawns have esthetical values, provide playground, are potential habitat for species, contribute to carbon sequestration and water infiltration, but also increase pesticides, fertilization, are ...

A socio-ecological perspective of urban green networks: the Stockholm case

Landscape fragmentation threatens habitats, biodiversity and other ecosystem services. In tackling this threat, the dynamic processes of social-ecological systems should be recognised and understood. Although network analysis based on graph theory has been recognised as an efficient way of spatially understanding landscape or habitat connectivity, only few studies have offered ...

How small cities affect the biodiversity of ground-dwelling mammals and the relevance of this knowledge in planning urban land expansion in terms of urban wildlife

Fundamental principles regarding urban biodiversity are based on studies conducted in large cities. However we cannot know whether the same phenomena occur in smaller cities or how small cities affect biodiversity. Small cities are an inherent element of urbanization and in the future, most global urban growth is expected to take place in small and medium-sized cities. ...

Annual variation in prey composition of domestic cats in rural and urban environment

The threat that domestic cats pose to wildlife has gained increased recognition by researchers and conservationists, and in this study, we investigated the seasonal variability and the effects of environment type (rural vs. urban) on the prey composition of free-ranging house cats in Poland. We analysed the variability in 307 monthly prey samples of different prey items killed by ...

The spatial genetic structure of the yellow-necked mouse in an urban environment – a recent invader vs. a closely related permanent inhabitant

We analyse the genetic variability in the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) population in the city of Warsaw, Poland, and its surroundings - a species that has begun to occupy the city only in the last 30 years. We also compare the genetic variability of this species with corresponding data collected in the same time and areas for another species - the striped field mouse ...

Big data from tiny flies: patterns revealed from over 42,000 phorid flies (Insecta: Diptera: Phoridae) collected over one year in Los Angeles, California, USA

The first ever large-scale inventory of an urban phorid fly fauna is described. Collections from 30 Malaise traps from urban Los Angeles over one year from the BioSCAN Project document the presence of 99 species from 42,480 specimens identified. Species accumulation curves predict 102–106 species actually occurring in this area. Collections are overwhelmingly dominated by the North ...

Ecological lands for conservation of vascular plant diversity in the urban environment

Conservation of biodiversity in urban areas has become crucial to urban green area management. There are several legislative solutions for preservation of species and habitats in cities. One of them is ‘ecological lands’ – a low-restrictive form of protected areas in Poland. We aimed to assess their efficiency in vascular flora biodiversity conservation in the urban environment in ...

Habitat type, food resources, noise and light pollution explain the species composition, abundance and stability of a winter bird assemblage in an urban environment

At present, urban areas cover almost 3% of the Earth’s terrestrial area, and this proportion is constantly increasing. Although urbanization leads to a decline in biodiversity, at the same time it creates extensive habitats that are exploited by an assemblage of organisms, including birds. The species composition and density of birds nesting in towns and cities are determined by ...

Investigating suburban micromoth diversity using DNA barcoding of malaise trap samples

Micromoths can be challenging to identify based on morphology and are frequently omitted in assessments of moth diversity. However, their species richness and biology make them important components of terrestrial ecosystems. In this study we identified 1227 micromoths from a suburban garden at 63° north using DNA barcoding of Malaise trap samples. We recorded 78 different species ...

Sustainable drainage system site assessment method using urban ecosystem services

The United Kingdom’s recently updated approach to sustainable drainage enhanced biodiversity and amenity objectives by incorporating the ecosystem approach and the ecosystem services concept. However, cost-effective and reliable methods to appraise the biodiversity and amenity values of potential sustainable drainage system (SuDS) sites and their surrounding areas are still ...

Effects of biodiversity and environment-related attitude on perception of urban green space

Green space in cities contributes to the quality of life for city dwellers, e.g., by increasing the opportunity for recreation. However, perception of urban green space is influenced by multiple factors. We investigated effects of biodiversity and environment-related attitudes on visual and auditory perceptions of urban green space. Field measurements of biodiversity were conducted ...

Dynamic heterogeneity: a framework to promote ecological integration and hypothesis generation in urban systems

Urban areas are understood to be extraordinarily spatially heterogeneous. Spatial heterogeneity, and its causes, consequences, and changes, are central to ecological science. The social sciences and urban design and planning professions also include spatial heterogeneity as a key concern. However, urban ecology, as a pursuit that integrates across these disciplines, lacks a ...

Beyond the urban stream syndrome: organic matter budget for diagnostics and restoration of an impaired urban river

In response to water quality standard violations linked to excessive organic matter (OM) and a lack of sampling data informing the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), an organic matter budget was created to quantify and identify sources of OM in the lower Jordan River (Salt Lake City, UT). By sampling dissolved, fine and coarse particulate OM, as well as measuring ecosystem metabolism ...

Beyond the urban stream syndrome: organic matter budget for diagnostics and restoration of an impaired urban river

In response to water quality standard violations linked to excessive organic matter (OM) and a lack of sampling data informing the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), an organic matter budget was created to quantify and identify sources of OM in the lower Jordan River (Salt Lake City, UT). By sampling dissolved, fine, and coarse particulate OM, as well as measuring ecosystem ...

Social-ecological innovation: adaptive responses to urban environmental conditions

Novel approaches to natural resource management, particularly those which promote stakeholder participation, have been put forward as fundamental ingredients for establishing resilient, polycentric forms of environmental governance. This is nowhere more pertinent than in the case of the complex adaptive systems associated with urban areas. Decentralisation of urban green space ...

Differences in biometry and body condition of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) in urban and rural population during breeding season

Data collected out of the breeding season suggest that House sparrows (Passer domesticus) from the urban populations are characterized by a smaller body size and poorer body condition compared to birds from rural populations. Considering an urbanized Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) and other potential predators, a new predator-prey dependency is developing that can also be a ...

Effects of human-related disturbance on breeding success of urban and non-urban blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus)

There is a need to study the effects of urbanization on wildlife in order to understand the ecological implications of increasing urbanization and find out how to reduce its threats to biodiversity. The blue tit evolved as a forest species and prefers deciduous and mixed forests, whereas its nesting in urban habitats is a more recent phenomenon. Our long-term study of blue tit ...

Patterns of plant invasions at small spatial scale correspond with that at the whole country scale

Invasions were studied at different spatial scales, however these scales were rarely compared. The aim of this study is to compare the rate of expansion of eight alien plant species within the borders of the city with expansion in the whole country and to analyse changes in distribution of these plant species in the last 30 years. We hypothesised that at the scale of the city, ...

Parent tree distance-dependent recruitment limitation of native and exotic invasive seedlings in urban forests

Urban forests are more vulnerable to exotic species invasions than natural forests and are often a pathway for exotic invasions into natural areas. Investigating the mechanisms responsible for species coexistence in urban ecosystems is important to prevent forest invasions and conserve native biodiversity. In this experiment, we studied seedling recruitment for two exotic invasive ...