Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

http://www.fluidsbarrierscns.com/

List of Papers (Total 783)

A change in brain white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a tract-based spatial statistics study

Background The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in cerebral white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods Twenty-eight consecutive INPH patients whose symptoms were followed for 1 year after shunt placement and 10 healthy control (HC) subjects were enrolled. Twenty of the initial 28 INPH ...

Permeability across a novel microfluidic blood-tumor barrier model

Background The lack of translatable in vitro blood-tumor barrier (BTB) models creates challenges in the development of drugs to treat tumors of the CNS and our understanding of how the vascular changes at the BBB in the presence of a tumor. Methods In this study, we characterize a novel microfluidic model of the BTB (and BBB model as a reference) that incorporates flow and induces ...

Misleading early blood volume changes obtained using ferumoxytol-based magnetic resonance imaging perfusion in high grade glial neoplasms treated with bevacizumab

Background Neovascularization, a distinguishing trait of high-grade glioma, is a target for anti-angiogenic treatment with bevacizumab (BEV). This study sought to use ferumoxytol-based dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to clarify perfusion and relative blood volume (rCBV) changes in glioma treated with BEV and to determine potential impact on clinical ...

Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study of urate transporters GLUT9/URATv1, ABCG2, and URAT1 in the murine brain

Background Uric acid (UA) is known to exert neuroprotective effects in the brain. However, the mechanism of UA regulation in the brain is not well characterized. In our previous study, we described that the mouse urate transporter URAT1 is localized to the cilia and apical surface of ventricular ependymal cells. To further strengthen the hypothesis that UA is transported ...

Improving the clinical management of traumatic brain injury through the pharmacokinetic modeling of peripheral blood biomarkers

Background Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dependence on variables other than the disease condition itself. These include half-life in blood, molecular weight, and marker-specific biophysical properties, as ...

Early and delayed assessments of quantitative gait measures to improve the tap test as a predictor of shunt effectiveness in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

Background To improve the diagnostic performance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT), early and delayed assessments of gait were performed after the removal of 30 ml of CSF in patients with probable idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Assessments of gait included the 3-m timed up and go test (TUG), and the 10-m walk in time (10Ti) and in step (10St) tests. Methods ...

Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia selectively disrupts tight junctions complexes in stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells

Background Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) is an important stress factor involved in the disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) following stroke injury, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms on how the human BBB responds to such injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cellular response of the human BBB to chemical and environmental H/I in vitro. Methods ...

A comparison between the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis and normal pressure hydrocephalus: is pulse wave encephalopathy a component of MS?

Background It has been suggested there is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, underlying the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is distinct from the more obvious immune-mediated attack on the white matter. Limited data exists indicating there is an alteration in pulse wave propagation within the craniospinal cavity in MS, similar to the findings in normal pressure ...

The restorative role of annexin A1 at the blood–brain barrier

Annexin A1 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule that has been extensively studied in the peripheral immune system, but has not as yet been exploited as a therapeutic target/agent. In the last decade, we have undertaken the study of this molecule in the central nervous system (CNS), focusing particularly on the primary interface between the peripheral body and CNS: the blood–brain ...

Small cisterno-lumbar gradient of phosphorylated Tau protein in geriatric patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus

Background The composition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not homogeneous, and concentrations of proteins from different origins diverge among ventricular, cisternal and lumbar CSF fractions. Concentrations of blood-derived proteins increase and of brain-derived proteins decrease from ventricular to lumbar fractions. We studied whether the origin of the CSF portion analysed ...

Inhibition of ADAM10 promotes the clearance of Aβ across the BBB by reducing LRP1 ectodomain shedding

Background Transport across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is an important mediator of beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in the brain and a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One of the receptors responsible for the transport of Aβ in the BBB is the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). LRP1 is susceptible to proteolytic shedding ...

Amyloid mis-metabolism in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

Background Patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) have reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of amyloid-β (Aβ) and α- and β-cleaved soluble forms of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα and sAPPβ). The aims of this study were to examine if changes could also be seen in the CSF for secreted metabolites of APP-like protein 1 (APLP1) and to explore the ...

In vitro characterization of pralidoxime transport and acetylcholinesterase reactivation across MDCK cells and stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BC1-hBMECs)

Background Current therapies for organophosphate poisoning involve administration of oximes, such as pralidoxime (2-PAM), that reactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Studies in animal models have shown a low concentration in the brain following systemic injection. Methods To assess 2-PAM transport, we studied transwell permeability in three Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) ...

Increased CSF aquaporin-4, and interleukin-6 levels in dogs with idiopathic communicating internal hydrocephalus and a decrease after ventriculo-peritoneal shunting

Background Studies in animal models, in which internal hydrocephalus has been induced by obstructing the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, have documented an up-regulation of the concentrations of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the brain. In this study, the concentrations of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), AQP1, AQP4 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined in the CSF of dogs with idiopathic communicating ...

Directional cerebrospinal fluid movement between brain ventricles in larval zebrafish

Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained within the brain ventricles contacts neuroepithelial progenitor cells during brain development. Dynamic properties of CSF movement may limit locally produced factors to specific regions of the developing brain. However, there is no study of in vivo CSF dynamics between ventricles in the embryonic brain. We address CSF movement using ...

Diffusion tensor imaging with direct cytopathological validation: characterisation of decorin treatment in experimental juvenile communicating hydrocephalus

Background In an effort to develop novel treatments for communicating hydrocephalus, we have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist, decorin, inhibits subarachnoid fibrosis mediated ventriculomegaly; however decorin’s ability to prevent cerebral cytopathology in communicating hydrocephalus has not been fully examined. Furthermore, the capacity for ...

Magnesium sulfate treatment for juvenile ferrets following induction of hydrocephalus with kaolin

Background Previous work with 3-week hydrocephalic rats showed that white matter damage could be reduced by the calcium channel antagonist magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ). We hypothesized that MgSO 4 therapy would improve outcomes in ferrets with hydrocephalus induced with kaolin at 15 days. Methods MRI was performed at 29 days to assess ventricle size and stratify ferrets to treatment ...

Growth-factor reduced Matrigel source influences stem cell derived brain microvascular endothelial cell barrier properties

Background Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an innovative source as an in vitro model for neurological diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated the differentiation of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) from various stem cell sources, including iPSC lines. However, the impact of the culturing conditions used to maintain such stem cell ...

Evolutionary development of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid composition and regulation: an open research field with implications for brain development and function

Within the consolidated field of evolutionary development, there is emerging research on evolutionary aspects of central nervous system development and its implications for adult brain structure and function, including behaviour. The central nervous system is one of the most intriguing systems in complex metazoans, as it controls all body and mind functions. Its failure is ...

Cerebral microbleeds in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

Background A vascular disease could be involved in pathophysiology of normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). If so, there should be an association between INPH and cerebral microbleeds (CMB). This study aims to analyze if CMB are associated with INPH. Methods In this case-control study we included 14 patients with INPH (mean age 76 years, 60 % female) and 41 healthy controls (HeCo; ...

Nonsurgical therapy for hydrocephalus: a comprehensive and critical review

Pharmacological interventions have been tested experimentally and clinically to prevent hydrocephalus and avoid the need for shunting beginning in the 1950s. Clinical trials of varied quality have not demonstrated lasting and convincing protective effects through manipulation of cerebrospinal fluid production, diuresis, blood clot fibrinolysis, or manipulation of fibrosis in the ...

Modeling immune functions of the mouse blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier in vitro: primary rather than immortalized mouse choroid plexus epithelial cells are suited to study immune cell migration across this brain barrier

Background The blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) established by the choroid plexus (CP) epithelium has been recognized as a potential entry site of immune cells into the central nervous system during immunosurveillance and neuroinflammation. The location of the choroid plexus impedes in vivo analysis of immune cell trafficking across the BCSFB. Thus, research on cellular ...

Advances in brain barriers and brain fluid research and news from Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

Research into brain barriers and brain fluids has been advancing rapidly in recent years. This editorial aims to highlight some of the advances that have improved our understanding of this complex subject. It also brings you news of developments for Fluids and Barriers of the CNS including a new affiliation between the journal and the International Society for Hydrocephalus and CSF ...

The intrathecal, polyspecific antiviral immune response in neurosarcoidosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and autoimmune encephalitis compared to multiple sclerosis in a tertiary hospital cohort

Background A polyspecific, intrathecal humoral immune response against the neurotropic viruses, measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus, called “MRZ reaction” (MRZR), is present in the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Neurosarcoidosis (NS) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are important clinical differential diagnoses of MS. Autoimmune ...

Fabrication of three-dimensional hydrogel scaffolds for modeling shunt failure by tissue obstruction in hydrocephalus

Background Shunt obstruction in the treatment of hydrocephalus is poorly understood, is multi-factorial, and in many cases is modeled ineffectively. Several mechanisms may be responsible, one of which involves shunt infiltration by reactive cells from the brain parenchyma. This has not been modeled in culture and cannot be consistently examined in vivo without a large sample size. ...