Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

http://www.fluidsbarrierscns.com/

List of Papers (Total 801)

The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse

Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood–brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood...

Do patients with schizophreniform and bipolar disorders show an intrathecal, polyspecific, antiviral immune response? A pilot study

We previously described inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations in a subgroup of patients with schizophreniform disorders and the synthesis of polyspecific intrathecal antibodies against different neurotropic infectious pathogens in some patients with bipolar disorders. Consequently, we have measured the prevalence of a positive MRZ reaction (MRZR)—a marker for a...

The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse

Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood–brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood...

The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse

Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood–brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood...

The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse

Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood–brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood...

The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse

Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood–brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood...

LDL receptor blockade reduces mortality in a mouse model of ischaemic stroke without improving tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage: towards pre-clinical simulation of symptomatic ICH

Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) following tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) administration is the most feared and lethal complication of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke, creating a significant obstacle for a broader uptake of this beneficial treatment. rt-PA also undermines cerebral vasculature stability in a multimodal process which involves...

Current research into brain barriers and the delivery of therapeutics for neurological diseases: a report on CNS barrier congress London, UK, 2017

This is a report on the CNS barrier congress held in London, UK, March 22–23rd 2017 and sponsored by Kisaco Research Ltd. The two 1-day sessions were chaired by John Greenwood and Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes, respectively, and each session ended with a discussion led by the chair. Speakers consisted of invited academic researchers studying the brain barriers in relation to...

Revisiting atenolol as a low passive permeability marker

Atenolol, a hydrophilic beta blocker, has been used as a model drug for studying passive permeability of biological membranes such as the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the intestinal epithelium. However, the extent of S-atenolol (the active enantiomer) distribution in brain has never been evaluated, at equilibrium, to confirm that no transporters are involved in its transport at...

Characterization of cardiac- and respiratory-driven cerebrospinal fluid motion based on asynchronous phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in volunteers

A classification of cardiac- and respiratory-driven components of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) motion has been demonstrated using echo planar imaging and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, quantitative characterization of the two motion components has not been performed to date. Thus, in this study, the velocities and...

Correlation of CSF flow using phase-contrast MRI with ventriculomegaly and CSF opening pressure in mucopolysaccharidoses

Very little is known about the incidence and prevalence of hydrocephalus in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). The biggest challenge is to distinguish communicating hydrocephalus from ventricular dilatation secondary to brain atrophy, because both conditions share common clinical and neuroradiological features. The main purpose of this study is to assess the relationship...

Comparison of the sagittal sinus cross-sectional area between patients with multiple sclerosis, hydrocephalus, intracranial hypertension and spontaneous intracranial hypotension: a surrogate marker of venous transmural pressure?

There is evidence that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and hydrocephalus share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. Alterations in CSF pressure are known to affect cerebral venous sinus geometry. To further explore these mechanisms, we measured the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) cross-sectional area 3 cm above the torcular using T2 images in 20 MS, 10 spontaneous...

Blood–brain barrier and foetal-onset hydrocephalus, with a view on potential novel treatments beyond managing CSF flow

Despite decades of research, no compelling non-surgical therapies have been developed for foetal hydrocephalus. So far, most efforts have pointed to repairing disturbances in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and to avoid further brain damage. There are no reports trying to prevent or diminish abnormalities in brain development which are inseparably associated with hydrocephalus...

Effect of shear stress on iPSC-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells (dhBMECs)

The endothelial cells that form the lumen of capillaries and microvessels are an important component of the blood–brain barrier. Cell phenotype is regulated by transducing a range of biomechanical and biochemical signals in the local microenvironment. Here we report on the role of shear stress in modulating the morphology, motility, proliferation, apoptosis, and protein and gene...

Profiling of metalloprotease activities in cerebrospinal fluids of patients with neoplastic meningitis

Neoplastic invasion into leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, resulting in neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a fatal complication of advanced solid and hematological neoplasms. Identification of malignant involvement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) early in the disease course has crucial prognostic and therapeutic implications, but remains challenging. As indicators of...

The role of perfusion and diffusion MRI in the assessment of patients affected by probable idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. A cohort-prospective preliminary study

Invasive tests measuring resistance to cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) outflow and the effect of temporary drainage of CSF are used to select candidates affected by idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) for shunt surgery. Neither test, however, completely excludes patients from treatment. Perfusion and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are non-invasive techniques...

A change in brain white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a tract-based spatial statistics study

Background The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in cerebral white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods Twenty-eight consecutive INPH patients whose symptoms were followed for 1 year after shunt placement and 10 healthy control (HC) subjects were enrolled. Twenty of the initial 28 INPH...

Permeability across a novel microfluidic blood-tumor barrier model

Background The lack of translatable in vitro blood-tumor barrier (BTB) models creates challenges in the development of drugs to treat tumors of the CNS and our understanding of how the vascular changes at the BBB in the presence of a tumor. Methods In this study, we characterize a novel microfluidic model of the BTB (and BBB model as a reference) that incorporates flow and...

Misleading early blood volume changes obtained using ferumoxytol-based magnetic resonance imaging perfusion in high grade glial neoplasms treated with bevacizumab

Background Neovascularization, a distinguishing trait of high-grade glioma, is a target for anti-angiogenic treatment with bevacizumab (BEV). This study sought to use ferumoxytol-based dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to clarify perfusion and relative blood volume (rCBV) changes in glioma treated with BEV and to determine potential impact on...

Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study of urate transporters GLUT9/URATv1, ABCG2, and URAT1 in the murine brain

Background Uric acid (UA) is known to exert neuroprotective effects in the brain. However, the mechanism of UA regulation in the brain is not well characterized. In our previous study, we described that the mouse urate transporter URAT1 is localized to the cilia and apical surface of ventricular ependymal cells. To further strengthen the hypothesis that UA is transported...

Improving the clinical management of traumatic brain injury through the pharmacokinetic modeling of peripheral blood biomarkers

Background Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dependence on variables other than the disease condition itself. These include half-life in blood, molecular weight, and marker-specific biophysical properties, as...

Early and delayed assessments of quantitative gait measures to improve the tap test as a predictor of shunt effectiveness in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

Background To improve the diagnostic performance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT), early and delayed assessments of gait were performed after the removal of 30 ml of CSF in patients with probable idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Assessments of gait included the 3-m timed up and go test (TUG), and the 10-m walk in time (10Ti) and in step (10St) tests...