eLife

http://elifesciences.org/
eLife publishes outstanding research in the life sciences and biomedicine, from the most fundamental and theoretical work, through to translational, applied, and clinical research. Our 22 Senior editors and 217-member Board of Reviewing Editors are among the most respected and accomplished individuals in their fields – from human genetics and neuroscience to biophysics and epidemiology. eLife Sciences is a unique, non-profit collaboration between the funders and practitioners of research to improve the way important results are presented and shared. The open-access eLife journal is the first step in this initiative to make science publishing more effectively benefit science and scientists.

List of Papers (Total 1,977)

Preservation of three-dimensional anatomy in phosphatized fossil arthropods enriches evolutionary inference

External and internal morphological characters of extant and fossil organisms are crucial to establishing their systematic position, ecological role and evolutionary trends. The lack of internal characters and soft-tissue preservation in many arthropod fossils, however, impedes comprehensive phylogenetic analyses and species descriptions according to taxonomic standards for Recent ...

Loss of the transcription factor Meis1 prevents sympathetic neurons target-field innervation and increases susceptibility to sudden cardiac death

Although cardio-vascular incidents and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are among the leading causes of premature death in the general population, the origins remain unidentified in many cases. Genome-wide association studies have identified Meis1 as a risk factor for SCD. We report that Meis1 inactivation in the mouse neural crest leads to an altered sympatho-vagal regulation of cardiac ...

Layer specific and general requirements for ERK/MAPK signaling in the developing neocortex

Aberrant signaling through the Raf/MEK/ERK (ERK/MAPK) pathway causes pathology in a family of neurodevelopmental disorders known as 'RASopathies' and is implicated in autism pathogenesis. Here, we have determined the functions of ERK/MAPK signaling in developing neocortical excitatory neurons. Our data reveal a critical requirement for ERK/MAPK signaling in the morphological ...

Waltzing around cofactors

The metallocofactor involved in fixing nitrogen is not a rigid scaffold, as was previously thought.

Cohesin-interacting protein WAPL-1 regulates meiotic chromosome structure and cohesion by antagonizing specific cohesin complexes

Wapl induces cohesin dissociation from DNA throughout the mitotic cell cycle, modulating sister chromatid cohesion and higher-order chromatin structure. Cohesin complexes containing meiosis-specific kleisin subunits govern most aspects of meiotic chromosome function, but whether Wapl regulates these complexes remains unknown. We show that during C. elegans oogenesis WAPL-1 ...

Recombinational branch migration by the RadA/Sms paralog of RecA in Escherichia coli

RadA (also known as 'Sms') is a highly conserved protein, found in almost all eubacteria and plants, with sequence similarity to the RecA strand exchange protein and a role in homologous recombination. We investigate here the biochemical properties of the E. coli RadA protein and several mutant forms. RadA is a DNA-dependent ATPase, a DNA binding protein and can stimulate the ...

Non-canonical Wnt signalling modulates the endothelial shear stress flow sensor in vascular remodelling

Endothelial cells respond to molecular and physical forces in development and vascular homeostasis. Deregulation of endothelial responses to flow-induced shear is believed to contribute to many aspects of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. However, how molecular signals and shear-mediated physical forces integrate to regulate vascular patterning is poorly ...

PCH1 integrates circadian and light-signaling pathways to control photoperiod-responsive growth in Arabidopsis

Plants react to seasonal change in day length through altering physiology and development. Factors that function to harmonize growth with photoperiod are poorly understood. Here we characterize a new protein that associates with both circadian clock and photoreceptor components, named PHOTOPERIODIC CONTROL OF HYPOCOTYL1 (PCH1). pch1 seedlings have overly elongated hypocotyls ...

Localized epigenetic silencing of a damage-activated WNT enhancer limits regeneration in mature Drosophila imaginal discs

Many organisms lose the capacity to regenerate damaged tissues as they mature. Damaged Drosophila imaginal discs regenerate efficiently early in the third larval instar (L3) but progressively lose this ability. This correlates with reduced damage-responsive expression of multiple genes, including the WNT genes wingless (wg) and Wnt6. We demonstrate that damage-responsive expression ...

Novel origin of lamin-derived cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in tardigrades

Intermediate filament (IF) proteins, including nuclear lamins and cytoplasmic IF proteins, are essential cytoskeletal components of bilaterian cells. Despite their important role in protecting tissues against mechanical force, no cytoplasmic IF proteins have been convincingly identified in arthropods. Here we show that the ancestral cytoplasmic IF protein gene was lost in the ...

Active machine learning-driven experimentation to determine compound effects on protein patterns

High throughput screening determines the effects of many conditions on a given biological target. Currently, to estimate the effects of those conditions on other targets requires either strong modeling assumptions (e.g. similarities among targets) or separate screens. Ideally, data-driven experimentation could be used to learn accurate models for many conditions and targets without ...

Fibroblastic reticular cell-derived lysophosphatidic acid regulates confined intranodal T-cell motility

Lymph nodes (LNs) are highly confined environments with a cell-dense three-dimensional meshwork, in which lymphocyte migration is regulated by intracellular contractile proteins. However, the molecular cues directing intranodal cell migration remain poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) produced by LN fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) acts ...

Dopamine regulates stimulus generalization in the human hippocampus

The ability to generalize previously learned information to novel situations is fundamental for adaptive behavior. However, too wide or too narrow generalization is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. Previous research suggests that interactions between the dopaminergic system and the hippocampus may play a role in generalization, but whether and how the degree of generalization ...

A mathematical model explains saturating axon guidance responses to molecular gradients

Correct wiring is crucial for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Molecular gradients provide critical signals to guide growth cones, which are the motile tips of developing axons, to their targets. However, in vitro, growth cones trace highly stochastic trajectories, and exactly how molecular gradients bias their movement is unclear. Here, we introduce a mathematical ...

Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis

Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ...

The horizontally-acquired response regulator SsrB drives a Salmonella lifestyle switch by relieving biofilm silencing

A common strategy by which bacterial pathogens reside in humans is by shifting from a virulent lifestyle, (systemic infection), to a dormant carrier state. Two major serovars of Salmonella enterica, Typhi and Typhimurium, have evolved a two-component regulatory system to exist inside Salmonella-containing vacuoles in the macrophage, as well as to persist as asymptomatic biofilms in ...

Mapping oxygen concentration in the awake mouse brain

Although critical for brain function, the physiological values of cerebral oxygen concentration have remained elusive because high-resolution measurements have only been performed during anesthesia, which affects two major parameters modulating tissue oxygenation: neuronal activity and blood flow. Using measurements of capillary erythrocyte-associated transients, fluctuations of ...

Maternal LSD1/KDM1A is an essential regulator of chromatin and transcription landscapes during zygotic genome activation

Upon fertilization, the highly specialised sperm and oocyte genomes are remodelled to confer totipotency. The mechanisms of the dramatic reprogramming events that occur have remained unknown, and presumed roles of histone modifying enzymes are just starting to be elucidated. Here, we explore the function of the oocyte-inherited pool of a histone H3K4 and K9 demethylase, LSD1/KDM1A ...

Nucleophosmin integrates within the nucleolus via multi-modal interactions with proteins displaying R-rich linear motifs and rRNA

The nucleolus is a membrane-less organelle formed through liquid-liquid phase separation of its components from the surrounding nucleoplasm. Here, we show that nucleophosmin (NPM1) integrates within the nucleolus via a multi-modal mechanism involving multivalent interactions with proteins containing arginine-rich linear motifs (R-motifs) and rRNA. Importantly, these R-motifs are ...

Waves of actin and microtubule polymerization drive microtubule-based transport and neurite growth before single axon formation

Many developing neurons transition through a multi-polar state with many competing neurites before assuming a unipolar state with one axon and multiple dendrites. Hallmarks of the multi-polar state are large fluctuations in microtubule-based transport into and outgrowth of different neurites, although what drives these fluctuations remains elusive. We show that actin waves, which ...

Fast turnover of genome transcription across evolutionary time exposes entire non-coding DNA to de novo gene emergence

Deep sequencing analyses have shown that a large fraction of genomes is transcribed, but the significance of this transcription is much debated. Here, we characterize the phylogenetic turnover of poly-adenylated transcripts in a comprehensive sampling of taxa of the mouse (genus Mus), spanning a phylogenetic distance of 10 Myr. Using deep RNA sequencing we find that at a given ...

A feedback mechanism converts individual cell features into a supracellular ECM structure in Drosophila trachea

The extracellular matrix (ECM), a structure contributed to and commonly shared by many cells in an organism, plays an active role during morphogenesis. Here we used the Drosophila tracheal system to study the complex relationship between the ECM and epithelial cells during development. We show that there is an active feedback mechanism between the apical ECM (aECM) and the apical ...

Freewheeling sisters cause problems

The factors that lead to errors in chromosome segregation during the production of egg cells in humans are becoming clearer.

The Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Protein 2 promotes food intake through inhibition of the prokineticin receptor-1

The Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Protein 2 (MRAP2) is an important regulator of energy homeostasis and its loss causes severe obesity in rodents. MRAP2 mediates its action in part through the potentiation of the MC4R, however, it is clear that MRAP2 is expressed in tissues that do not express MC4R, and that the deletion of MRAP2 does not recapitulate the phenotype of Mc4r KO ...

A common mechanism underlies changes of mind about decisions and confidence

Decisions are accompanied by a degree of confidence that a selected option is correct. A sequential sampling framework explains the speed and accuracy of decisions and extends naturally to the confidence that the decision rendered is likely to be correct. However, discrepancies between confidence and accuracy suggest that confidence might be supported by mechanisms dissociated from ...