Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

http://link.springer.com/journal/128

List of Papers (Total 135)

Analysis of Pesticides and Toxic Heavy Metals Contained in Mosquito Coils

In this study, 10 mosquito coils manufactured in China were obtained in Suriname, South America, where they are used extensively. The coils were analyzed for organics (allethrin, permethrin, and butylated hydroxytoluene) and heavy metals (Cr, Co, As, Cd, and Pb) by GC-MS and ICP-MS, respectively. Allethrin was the only target organic compound detected in all mosquito coils with...

Influence of Formulation on Mobility of Clomazone in Soil

The mobility of clomazone [2-(2-chlorobenzylo)-4,4-dimetylo-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one] in a loamy sand soil and a sand soil was studied in a soil column under laboratory conditions. Commercial clomazone formulation (Command 480 EC) and clomazone immobilized in an alginate matrix were used for a leaching experiment. For both formulations, the same dose of 2.0 mg of the active substance...

Substrate Factors Determine Roadside Vegetation Structure and Species Richness: A Case Study Along a Meridional Gradient in Fennoscandia

This study assessed the effects of road-related alteration of substrate, including increased salinity, on vegetation along a meridional gradient in Fennoscandia. Vegetation community composition were surveyed in 29 randomly selected 1-m2 sized roadside plots. Number of plant species and plant cover (%) on the plots were positively interrelated (p < 0.0001). Both variables also...

Does Uptake of Pharmaceuticals Vary Across Earthworm Species?

This study compared the uptake and depuration of four commonly used pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine and orlistat) in two earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida). L. terrestris are a larger species and often found in deep burrows whereas E. fetida prefer to reside near the soil surface. Species burrowing habits and sizes may alter uptake...

The Presence of Stimulant Drugs in Wastewater from Krakow (Poland): A Snapshot

An analysis of wastewater from Krakow (Poland) for the presence of controlled and uncontrolled stimulant drugs of abuse was performed. Samples were collected from the Plaszow wastewater treatment plant, Krakow, Poland, and prepared by solid phase extraction. The LC-QTOFMS method was applied for identification and quantification of popular stimulants: MDMA, mephedrone, 4-MEC, MDPV...

Potential for Phytoremediation of PCDD/PCDF-Contaminated Sludge and Sediments Using Cucurbitaceae Plants: A Pilot Study

The current study evaluates the impact of sewage sludge and urban reservoir sediment on changes in total and Toxic Equivalency (TEQ) PCDD/PCDF concentration in soil and phytotoxicity measured using three test species: Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba, and Sorghum saccharatum, during 5 weeks of Cucurbita pepo L. cv ‘Atena Polka’ (zucchini) cultivation. ‘Atena Polka’ was found to...

Legacy Pollutants are Declining in Great Skuas (Stercorarius skua) but Remain Higher in Faroe Islands than in Scotland

To monitor environmental pollutants in Faroese biota, samples from a top predator were analysed and put into a spatial and temporal context. Analysis of 20 Great Skua eggs sampled in 2012 from the Faroe Islands showed >70 % lower concentrations of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than in samples analysed in 1977. The 2012 Faroese eggs showed higher concentrations than...

Levels of Contamination by Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Honey from Selected European Countries

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals manufactured for numerous applications. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of 10 PFASs in selected types of honey samples from selected eastern, northern and southern European countries. A total of 26 samples of honey were analyzed. PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids) were detected in almost all (92...

Fractionation and Mobility of Thallium in Volcanic Ashes after Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) in Iceland

Volcanic ash contains thallium (Tl), which is highly toxic to the biosphere. The aim of this study was to determine the Tl concentration in fractions of volcanic ash samples originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. A sequential extraction scheme allowed for a study of element migration in the environment. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a flow...

Leaching of PCBs and Nutrients from Soil Fertilized with Municipal Sewage Sludge

Although sewage sludge is a rich source of nutrients for arable farming and soil improvement, it can also be a source of pollutants. The effects of the land application of sludge on the PCB and nutrient content of leachate were investigated using cylindrical 650 mm length columns filled with poor quality soil. Treatments included no fertilization (control), fertilization using a...

A Market-Basket Approach to Predict the Acute Aquatic Toxicity of Munitions and Energetic Materials

An ongoing challenge in chemical production, including the production of insensitive munitions and energetics, is the ability to make predictions about potential environmental hazards early in the process. To address this challenge, a quantitative structure activity relationship model was developed to predict acute fathead minnow toxicity of insensitive munitions and energetic...

Targeted Gene Expression in Zebrafish Exposed to Chlorpyrifos-Oxon Confirms Phenotype-Specific Mechanisms Leading to Adverse Outcomes

Zebrafish models for mild, moderate, and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning were previously developed by exposing zebrafish larvae to chlopyrifos-oxon. The phenotype of these models was characterized at several levels of biological organization. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were found to be involved in the development of the more severe phenotype. Here we...

Cadmium Accumulation and Pathological Alterations in the Midgut Gland of Terrestrial Snail Helix pomatia L. from a Zinc Smelter Area: Role of Soil pH

The purpose of this study was to determine whether cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in the midgut gland of Helix pomatia snails living in a Cd-contaminated area were related to soil pH. Toxic responses in the midgut gland (i.e., increased vacuolization and lipid peroxidation) occurred in H. pomatia snails exhibiting the highest Cd levels in the gland (265–274 µg/g dry wt...