Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

http://link.springer.com/journal/128

List of Papers (Total 135)

The Effect of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) on Bax and Mcl-1 Expression in Human Neutrophils

In the present study we examined a role of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 proteins, participating in the regulation of intrinsic apoptosis pathway in human neutrophils (PMNs) exposed to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), the environmental xenobiotic. For the purpose comparison, the same studies were conducted in autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The...

Comparison of Analytical Methods and Residue Patterns of Pymetrozine in Aster scaber

Residues of the polar pesticide pymetrozine were compared using two methods: hydromatrix and liquid–liquid extraction (LLE). The biological half-life and the final residue level were investigated using Aster scaber over a 10-days cultivation period. The respective biological half-lives of the pesticide were 4.2 and 3.5 days at the recommended and double dose. The final residue...

Comparison of Nitrofen Uptake via Water and Food and its Distribution in Tissue of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were exposed to nitrofen (NIP) by different routes (via water or food) to compare bioaccumulation parameters and tissue distribution. The bioconcentration factor of NIP was 5,100, and the lipid-corrected biomagnification factor was 0.137. Growth-corrected elimination half lives were 2.1–3.0 days via aqueous exposure and 2.7–2.9 days via dietary exposure...

Time- and Dose-Dependent Induction of HSP70 in Lemna minor Exposed to Different Environmental Stressors

The objective of this study was to examine the influence of different stressors, including cadmium (heavy metal), anthracene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon—PAH) and chloridazon (herbicide), on population growth and biosynthesis of cytoplasmic HSP70 in Lemna minor (duckweed) in short (4 h)- and long (7 days)-term tests. A heat shock response was confirmed in Lemna exposed to...

Fate of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Crude Oil Contaminated Wetland Ultisol

The effect of crude oil on the growth of legumes (Calopogonium muconoides and Centrosema pubescens) and fate of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in wetland ultisol was investigated using standard cultural techniques. The results revealed observable effects of oil on soil physico-chemistry, plant growth and nodulation as well as on densities of heterotrophic, hydrocarbonoclastic and...

Persistence of Azoxystrobin in/on Grapes and Soil in Different Grapes Growing Areas of India

Persistence of azoxystrobin was studied in/on grapes when applied @ 150 g ai ha−1 (recommended dose) and 300 g ai ha−1 (double the recommended dose) in three grapes growing states of India, namely Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, in the year 2006–2007. A total of five sprays were given at an interval of about 15 days. Grapes and soil samples were collected after 5th spray...

Preliminary Study of Pesticide Drift into the Maya Mountain Protected Areas of Belize

In Belize, Central America, many farms surrounding the Protected Areas of the Maya Mountains rely heavily on the application of agrochemicals. The purpose of this study was to test whether orographic drift of glyphosate and organophosphates into the nearby Maya Mountain Protected Areas occurred by collecting phytotelmic water from seven sites over 3 years. Regardless of location...

Evaluation of the QuEChERS Method and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis Pesticide Residues in Water and Sediment

A method for the determination of pesticide residues in water and sediment was developed using the QuEChERS method followed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits. The recovery percentages obtained for the pesticides in water at different concentrations ranged from 63 to...

Soil and Water Pollution in a Banana Production Region in Tropical Mexico

The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn—bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha−1week−1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface...

Influence of Environmental Pollution on Leaf Properties of Urban Plane Trees, Platanus orientalis L.

To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf...

Total and Methyl Mercury Contents and Distribution Characteristics in Cicada, Cryptotympana atrata (Fabricius)

Total and methyl mercury concentrations of cicada bodies, wings, and exuviae were investigated to study the mercury distribution characteristics. Results indicated that total and methyl mercury concentrations of cicada bodies were 2.64 mg/kg and 123.93 ng/g on average, respectively. In cicada tissues, total mercury concentrations were found to increase in the order of exuviae (0...

Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04...

Risk Assessment of a Synthetic Pyrethroid, Bifenthrin on Pulses

This work was undertaken to determine the pre-harvest interval of bifenthrin and to minimize its residues in pulses and thereby ensure consumer safety and avoid non-compliance in terms of residues violations in export market. Furthermore the residue dynamics in the soil under pulses was explored to assess the environmental safety. The residues of bifenthrin dissipated following...

Effect Threshold for Selenium Toxicity in Juvenile Splittail, Pogonichthys macrolepidotus A

In fish, selenium can bioaccumulate and cause adverse impacts. One of the fish species potentially at risk from selenium in the San Francisco Bay (California, USA) is the splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus). Previous studies have derived a whole body NOAEL and LOAEL of 9.0 and 12.9 mg/kg-dw, respectively, for selenium in juveniles. However, the NOAEL/LOAEL approach leaves...

Evaluation and Comparison of Measurement Methods for Personal Exposure to Fine Particles in Beijing, China

Ambient measurement and microenvironmental modeling were compared with personal measurement in Beijing, China to evaluate their capacity to determine personal exposure to PM2.5. The comparison showed the association was insignificant between ambient and personal concentrations, but was significant between modeled and personal concentrations. The association between ambient and...

Permeation of a Metalworking Fluid Through a Latex Glove Under Field Use Conditions

Whole glove testing for a metalworking fluid (MWF) in the field was performed for the first time. Green latex gloves used in a machine shop were exposed for 20 min to MWF. The permeated amount (1.0 ± 0.5 μg/cm2) was higher than the threshold (0.25 μg/cm2) for the ASTM F739-99a closed-loop normalized breakthrough time.

Bioaccumulation of Total and Methyl Mercury in Three Earthworm Species (Drawida sp., Allolobophora sp., and Limnodrilus sp.)

We determined total and methyl mercury contents in soil, three earthworm species and their vomitus to study the species-specific differences of mercury bioconcentration in Huludao City, a heavily polluted region by chlor-alkali and nonferrous metal smelting industry in Liaoning Province, northeast China. Total and methyl mercury contents were 7.20 mg/kg and 6.94 ng/g in soil, 1...

Mercury, Cadmium and Lead Biogeochemistry in the Soil–Plant–Insect System in Huludao City

Mercury, cadmium, and lead concentrations of ashed plants and insects samples were investigated and compared with those of soil to reveal their biogeochemical processes along food chains in Huludao City, Liaoning Province, China. Concentration factors of each fragments of the soil–plant–the herbivorous insect–the carnivorous insect food chain were 0.18, 6.57, and 7.88 for mercury...

Blood Cholinesterases from Washington State Orchard Workers

Court-ordered monitoring of blood cholinesterases (ChEs) from orchard workers in Washington State is underway. In 2008, the mean red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity was 9.65 ± 1.11 μmoles/min/ml (n = 1,793) and the mean serum (BChE, 3.1.1.6) activity was 5.19 ± 0.90 μmoles/min/ml (n = 1,811). Determinations were made using the Ellman assay and...

Toxicity of Herbal Pharmaceutical Wastewater to a Freshwater Crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of raw, neutralized and physico-chemically treated and biologically treated effluent of herbal pharmaceutical industry. The acute toxicity test was determined using freshwater crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia under laboratory conditions. LC50 values for raw, neutralized and physico-chemically treated effluent for 12...