PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,765)

Impact of intense disturbance on the structure and composition of wet-eucalypt forests: A case study from the Tasmanian 2016 wildfires

Fire is a key process in eucalypt communities, exerting a strong influence on the composition, structure and functioning of forests. Much of the research on the fire response of temperate, wet-sclerophyll trees in Australia comes from Victoria, where the dominant eucalypt is Eucalyptus regnans. In contrast, central and northern Tasmanian forests, dominated by Eucalyptus...

Distribution of vesicle pools in cerebellar parallel fibre terminals after depression of ectopic transmission

At parallel fibre terminals in the cerebellar cortex, glutamate released outside of the active zone can activate AMPA receptors on juxtaposed Bergmann glial cell processes. This process is termed “ectopic” release, and allows for directed transmission to astroglial cells that is functionally independent of synaptic transmission to postsynaptic Purkinje neurons. The location of...

Germination ecology of turnip weed (Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.) in the northern regions of Australia

In Australia, turnip weed has been rapidly emerging as one of the major weeds in conservation agricultural systems. Germination and emergence of turnip weed were examined for two populations collected from Gatton and St George regions of Australia; two locations with high and low rainfall, respectively. The seeds of turnip weed germinated at all the tested temperatures, but...

Mosquito control practices and perceptions: An analysis of economic stakeholders during the Zika epidemic in Belize, Central America

The tourist-based economy of Belize, a tropical hub for eco-tourism, is at high risk to be disproportionately impacted by established and emerging mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika. An online survey was used to probe economic stakeholders working in the Belize tourism industry about their mosquito control practices and perceptions. Responses demonstrated that the respondents...

If it doesn’t help, it doesn’t hurt? Information elaboration harms the performance of gender-diverse teams when attributions of competence are inaccurate

Information elaboration—the act of exchanging, discussing, and integrating information and perspectives through verbal communication—tends to be considered as the silver bullet that drives the performance of diverse teams. We challenge this notion by proposing that the effect of information elaboration on team performance depends on the accuracy of within-group competence...

Skin mucosome activity as an indicator of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans susceptibility in salamanders

Recently emerged fungal diseases, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) are an increasing threat to amphibians worldwide. In Europe, the threat of Bsal to salamander populations is demonstrated by the rapid decline of fire salamander populations in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. Although most European urodelans are susceptible to...

No evidence that facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is associated with women's sexual desire

Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been linked to many different behavioral tendencies. However, not all of these correlations have replicated well across samples. Arnocky et al. (in press, Archives of Sexual Behavior) recently reported that sexual desire was correlated with fWHR. The current study aimed to test this relationship in a large sample of women. fWHR was measured...

The mathematics of market timing

Market timing is an investment technique that tries to continuously switch investment into assets forecast to have better returns. What is the likelihood of having a successful market timing strategy? With an emphasis on modeling simplicity, I calculate the feasible set of market timing portfolios using index mutual fund data for perfectly timed (by hindsight) all or nothing...

Usefulness of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing Whipple’s disease in rheumatology

Objectives To determine when Tropheryma whipplei polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is appropriate in patients evaluated for rheumatological symptoms. Methods In a retrospective observational study done in rheumatology units of five hospitals, we assessed the clinical and radiological signs that prompted T. whipplei PCR testing between 2010 and 2014, the proportion of patients...

Reinforcement learning for solution updating in Artificial Bee Colony

In the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, the employed bee and the onlooker bee phase involve updating the candidate solutions by changing a value in one dimension, dubbed one-dimension update process. For some problems which the number of dimensions is very high, the one-dimension update process can cause the solution quality and convergence speed drop. This paper proposes a...

Effects of infection by Turnip mosaic virus on the population growth of generalist and specialist aphid vectors on turnip plants

Recent studies have revealed that relationships between plant pathogens and their vectors differ depending on species, strains and associated host plants. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most important plant viruses worldwide and is transmitted by at least 89 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. TuMV is fundamentally divided into six phylogenetic groups; among which...

Questionable research practices in ecology and evolution

We surveyed 807 researchers (494 ecologists and 313 evolutionary biologists) about their use of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs), including cherry picking statistically significant results, p hacking, and hypothesising after the results are known (HARKing). We also asked them to estimate the proportion of their colleagues that use each of these QRPs. Several of the QRPs...

A standardized protocol for quantification of saccadic eye movements: DEMoNS

Objective Quantitative saccadic testing is a non-invasive method of evaluating the neural networks involved in the control of eye movements. The aim of this study is to provide a standardized and reproducible protocol for infrared oculography measurements of eye movements and analysis, which can be applied for various diseases in a multicenter setting. Methods Development of a...

Investigating global phase diagrams (GPDs) with reentrant transition behavior

In this paper we calculate the global phase diagrams with the closed-loop behavior for the phase transition of physical systems by means of the transverse field Ising model with nearest neighbor interaction. The 3D graph plotted by the various physical parameters gives a clear appreciation and qualitative understanding of the reentrant phase behavior of the system. Meanwhile the...

Clinical correlation between erectile function and ejaculatory function in the Czech male population

Introduction This study explores the relationship between erectile function and ejaculatory function, to inform the clinical psychosexological and sexual medicine practice treatment protocols. Materials and methods A total of 1,004 Czech males aged between 15 and 84 years (m = 42.8 yrs; sd = 17.6 years) completed a sexual behavior questionnaire. A cross-sectional design was...

Surfactant replacement therapy in combination with different non-invasive ventilation techniques in spontaneously-breathing, surfactant-depleted adult rabbits

Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) holds great potential as a primary ventilation support method for Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS). The use of NIPPV may also be of great value combined with minimally invasive surfactant delivery. Our aim was to implement an in vivo model of RDS, which can be managed with different non-invasive ventilation (NIV...

Efficacy of two PBO long lasting insecticidal nets against natural populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in experimental huts, Kolokopé, Togo

LLINs containing an insecticide plus the synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) have been designed for increased efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors. In this study, two LLINs with PBO, PermaNet® 3.0 and Olyset® Plus, and a pyrethroid-only LLIN, Yorkool®, were evaluated in experimental huts against a free-flying, wild population of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Kolokop...

Social reference managers and their users: A survey of demographics and ideologies

Altmetric indicators are increasingly present in the research landscape. Among this ecosystem of heterogeneous indicators, social reference managers have been proposed as indicators of broader use of scholarly work. However, little work has been done to understand the data underlying this indicator. The present work uses a large-scale survey to study the users of two prominent...

Prevention of laparoscopic surgery induced hypothermia with warmed humidified insufflation: Is the experimental combination of a warming blanket synergistic?

Introduction Maintaining normothermia during anesthesia is imperative to provide quality patient care and to prevent adverse outcomes. Prolonged laparoscopic procedures have been identified as a potential risk factor for hypothermia, due to continuous insufflation of cold and dry carbon dioxide. Perioperative hypothermia is associated with increased hospital cost and many...

Forest elephant movement and habitat use in a tropical forest-grassland mosaic in Gabon

Poaching of forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) for ivory has decimated their populations in Central Africa. Studying elephant movement can provide insight into habitat and resource use to reveal where, when, and why they move and guide conservation efforts. We fitted 17 forest elephants with global positioning system (GPS) collars in 2015 and 2016 in the tropical forest...

Bright lights, big city: Causal effects of population and GDP on urban brightness

Cities are arguably both the cause, and answer, to societies’ current sustainability issues. Urbanization is the interplay between a city’s physical growth and its socio-economic development, both of which consume a substantial amount of energy and resources. Knowledge of the underlying driver(s) of urban expansion facilitates not only academic research but, more importantly...

When conflict influences liking: The case of the Stroop task

Research suggests that cognitive conflict is accompanied by a negative signal. Building on the demonstrated role of negative affect in attitude formation and change, the present research investigated whether the experience of cognitive conflict negatively influences subsequent evaluations of neutral stimuli. Relying on the emergence of conflict in the Stroop task, participants...

P-wave duration is a predictor for long-term mortality in post-CABG patients

Risk stratification in secondary prevention has emerged as an unmet clinical need in order to mitigate the Number-Needed-to-Treat and make expensive therapies both clinically relevant and cost-effective. P wave indices reflect atrial conduction, which is a sensitive marker for inflammatory, metabolic, and pressure overload myocardial cell remodeling; the three stimuli are...

Genome-wide identification and characterization of the CKII gene family in the cultivated banana cultivar (Musa spp. cv Tianbaojiao) and the wild banana (Musa itinerans)

Plant casein kinase II (CKII) plays an essential role in regulating plant growth and development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the CKII family genes in Musa spp. cv. ‘Tianbaojiao’ (AAA group) and the wild banana (Musa itinerans). The 13 cDNA sequences of the CKII family members were identified both in...