PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 169,307)

Comparative genetic analysis of the 45S rDNA intergenic spacers from three Saccharum species

The 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing the signals for transcription and processing of rRNAs. For the first time, we sequenced and analyzed the entire IGS region from three original species within the genus Saccharum, including S. spontaneum, S. robustum, and S. officinarum in this study. We have compared the IGS organization ...

Assessment of physicians’ awareness and knowledge of familial hypercholesterolemia in Saudi Arabia: Is there a gap?

Background The scarcity of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases reported in Saudi Arabia might be indicative of a lack of awareness of this common genetic disease among physicians. Objective To assess physicians’ awareness, practice, and knowledge of FH in Saudi Arabia. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted among physicians at four tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, ...

Wave energy resource of Brazil: An analysis from 35 years of ERA-Interim reanalysis data

This paper presents a characterization of the wave power resource and an analysis of the wave power output for three (AquaBuoy, Pelamis and Wave Dragon) different wave energy converters (WEC) over the Brazilian offshore. To do so it used a 35 years reanalysis database from the ERA-Interim project. Annual and seasonal statistical analyzes of significant height and energy period were ...

HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, and measures of endothelial function, inflammation, metabolism, and oxidative stress

Background HIV-infected patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Impaired endothelial function is an early risk factor for CVD in the general population. It is presumed that HIV infection is associated with impaired endothelial function, but results have been inconsistent. Objectives Our objectives were to determine the relationships between HIV infection, ...

Excessive use of WeChat, social interaction and locus of control among college students in China

In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of ...

Heritability Estimation using a Regularized Regression Approach (HERRA): Applicable to continuous, dichotomous or age-at-onset outcome

The popular Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) software uses the random-effects models for estimating the narrow-sense heritability based on GWAS data of unrelated individuals without knowing and identifying the causal loci. Many methods have since extended this approach to various situations. However, since the proportion of causal loci among the variants is typically very ...

Effectiveness of two distinct web-based education tools for bedside nurses on medication administration practice for venous thromboembolism prevention: A randomized clinical trial

Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cause of preventable harm in hospitalized patients. While numerous successful interventions have been implemented to improve prescription of VTE prophylaxis, a substantial proportion of doses of prescribed preventive medications are not administered to hospitalized patients. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the ...

Short-term leprosy forecasting from an expert opinion survey

We conducted an expert survey of leprosy (Hansen’s Disease) and neglected tropical disease experts in February 2016. Experts were asked to forecast the next year of reported cases for the world, for the top three countries, and for selected states and territories of India. A total of 103 respondents answered at least one forecasting question. We elicited lower and upper confidence ...

Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile in infants in Oxfordshire, UK: Risk factors for colonization and carriage, and genetic overlap with regional C. difficile infection strains

Background Approximately 30–40% of children <1 year of age are Clostridium difficile colonized, and may represent a reservoir for adult C. difficile infections (CDI). Risk factors for colonization with toxigenic versus non-toxigenic C. difficile strains and longitudinal acquisition dynamics in infants remain incompletely characterized. Methods Predominantly healthy infants (≤2 ...

Plasma metabolomics reveals membrane lipids, aspartate/asparagine and nucleotide metabolism pathway differences associated with chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax malaria

Background Chloroquine (CQ) is the main anti-schizontocidal drug used in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax. Chloroquine resistant P. vivax (PvCR) malaria in the Western Pacific region, Asia and in the Americas indicates a need for biomarkers of resistance to improve therapy and enhance understanding of the mechanisms associated with PvCR. In this ...

Mechanisms for pattern specificity of deep-brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely used technique for treating advanced stages of neurological and psychiatric illness. In the case of motor disorders related to basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction, several mechanisms of action for the DBS therapy have been identified which might be involved simultaneously or in sequence. However, the identification of a common key ...

Nitrogen and carbon isotopic dynamics of subarctic soils and plants in southern Yukon Territory and its implications for paleoecological and paleodietary studies

We examine here the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of bulk soils (8 topsoil and 7 subsoils, including two soil profiles) and five different plant parts of 79 C3 plants from two main functional groups: herbs and shrubs/subshrubs, from 18 different locations in grasslands of southern Yukon Territory, Canada (eastern shoreline of Kluane Lake and Whitehorse area). The Kluane ...

An intronic LINE-1 insertion in MERTK is strongly associated with retinopathy in Swedish Vallhund dogs

The domestic dog segregates a significant number of inherited progressive retinal diseases, several of which mirror human retinal diseases and which are collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA). In 2014, a novel form of PRA was reported in the Swedish Vallhund breed, and the disease was mapped to canine chromosome 17. The causal mutation was not identified, but ...

Implementation of a comprehensive intervention for patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease in rural China: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial

Objective This study aims to assess whether a standard intervention package of cardiovascular disease (CVD) care was being delivered effectively, and if it was associated with improved lifestyle and biomedical indicators. Methods In rural China, we implemented a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial for 12 months, randomized at the township hospital level, and compared with ...

High hydrostatic pressure induces pro-osteoarthritic changes in cartilage precursor cells: A transcriptome analysis

Due to the high water content of cartilage, hydrostatic pressure is likely one of the main physical stimuli sensed by chondrocytes. Whereas, in the physiological range (0 to around 10 MPa), hydrostatic pressure exerts mostly pro-chondrogenic effects in chondrocyte models, excessive pressures have been reported to induce detrimental effects on cartilage, such as increased apoptosis ...

Is the detection of aquatic environmental DNA influenced by substrate type?

The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to assess the presence-absence of rare, cryptic or invasive species is hindered by a poor understanding of the factors that can remove DNA from the system. In aquatic systems, eDNA can be transported out either horizontally in water flows or vertically by incorporation into the sediment. Equally, eDNA may be broken down by various biotic and ...

Detectable HIV-RNA in semen of HIV controllers

Background Whether spontaneous low levels of HIV-1 RNA in blood plasma correlate with low levels of HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma has never been investigated in HIV controller (HIC) men so far. Methods HIC men enrolled in the ANRS CODEX cohort were eligible for the present study if they had no symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Two paired samples of blood and semen ...

Generalized structural equations improve sexual-selection analyses

Sexual selection is an intense evolutionary force, which operates through competition for the access to breeding resources. There are many cases where male copulatory success is highly asymmetric, and few males are able to sire most females. Two main hypotheses were proposed to explain this asymmetry: “female choice” and “male dominance”. The literature reports contrasting results. ...

Cross-over endocytosis of claudins is mediated by interactions via their extracellular loops

Claudins (Cldns) are transmembrane tight junction (TJ) proteins that paracellularly seal endo- and epithelial barriers by their interactions within the TJs. However, the mechanisms allowing TJ remodeling while maintaining barrier integrity are largely unknown. Cldns and occludin are heterophilically and homophilically cross-over endocytosed into neighboring cells in large, double ...

Social adaptation in multi-agent model of linguistic categorization is affected by network information flow

This paper explores how information flow properties of a network affect the formation of categories shared between individuals, who are communicating through that network. Our work is based on the established multi-agent model of the emergence of linguistic categories grounded in external environment. We study how network information propagation efficiency and the direction of ...

A CRE1- regulated cluster is responsible for light dependent production of dihydrotrichotetronin in Trichoderma reesei

Changing light conditions, caused by the rotation of earth resulting in day and night or growth on the surface or within a substrate, result in considerably altered physiological processes in fungi. For the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma reesei, regulation of glycoside hydrolase gene expression, especially cellulase expression was shown to be a target of light dependent ...

Natural reversal of pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular remodeling in SU5416/hypoxia-treated Sprague-Dawley rats

Aims Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease and improved therapeutic strategies are needed. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure, due to vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, causes right ventricle (RV) failure and death in patients. The treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with SU5416 injection and exposure to chronic hypoxia for three weeks followed by ...