PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,866)

How accurate are runners’ prospective predictions of their race times?

Metacognition is a domain which has illuminated our understanding of the regulation of cognition, but has yet to be applied in detail to more physical activities. We used half marathon finish time predictions from 7211 runners to investigate the factors that influence running performance metacognitive accuracy. In particular, we were concerned with the effects of experience...

Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in physic nut

Auxin response factors (ARF) are important transcription factors which mediate the transcription of auxin responsive genes by binding directly to auxin response elements (AuxREs) found in the promoter regions of these genes. To date, no information has been available about the genome-wide organization of the ARF transcription factor family in physic nut. In this study, 17 ARF...

Galectin-3 level predicts response to ablation and outcomes in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and systolic heart failure

Introduction Mechanisms of maintenance of both atrial fibrillation and structural left ventricular disease are known to include fibrosis. Galectin-3, a biomarker of fibrosis, is elevated both in patients with heart failure and persistent atrial fibrillation. We sought to find whether galectin-3 has a prognostic value in patients with heart failure and a reduced left ventricular...

7-Ketocholesterol enhances leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via p38MAPK pathway

7-Ketocholesterol is a major dietary cholesterol oxidation product found in high concentrations in atherosclerotic plaques, which contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 7-ketocholesterol on endothelial inflammation, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Pretreatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with 7...

Targeting the Mincle and TLR3 receptor using the dual agonist cationic adjuvant formulation 9 (CAF09) induces humoral and polyfunctional memory T cell responses in calves

There is a need for the rational design of safe and effective vaccines to protect against chronic bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a number of species. One of the main challenges for vaccine development is the lack of safe adjuvants that induce protective immune responses. Cationic Adjuvant Formulation 01...

Evaluation of the SpO2/FiO2 ratio as a predictor of intensive care unit transfers in respiratory ward patients for whom the rapid response system has been activated

Efforts to detect patient deterioration early have led to the development of early warning score (EWS) models. However, these models are disease-nonspecific and have shown variable accuracy in predicting unexpected critical events. Here, we propose a simpler and more accurate method for predicting risk in respiratory ward patients. This retrospective study analyzed adult patients...

Long-term moderately elevated LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure and risk of coronary heart disease

Background Harmful effects of long-term exposure to moderately elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and blood pressure on coronary heart disease (CHD) have not been rigorously examined. We estimated the risk of CHD under long-term exposure to moderately elevated LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure compared with the risk under shorter exposures to higher levels of the...

Molecular characterization of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Switzerland and France with a new multilocus sequence typing scheme

Syphilis is an important public health problem and an increasing incidence has been noted in recent years. Characterization of strain diversity through molecular data plays a critical role in the epidemiological understanding of this re-emergence. We here propose a new high-resolution multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA). We...

Comparison of the sympathetic stimulatory abilities of B-type procyanidins based on induction of uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and increased plasma catecholamine (CA) in mice

Objectives We previously found that elevated energy expenditure following a single oral dose of flavan 3-ols (FL), a mixture of catechins and B type procyanidins, is caused by sympathetic nerve activation. In the present study, we compared the activity of the FL components (-)-epicatechin (EC; monomer), procyanidin B2 (B2; dimer), procyanidin C1 (C1; trimer), cinnamtannin A2 (A2...

Development and characterization of penta-flowering and triple-flowering genotypes in garden pea (Pisum sativum L. var. hortense)

This study reports the development of a garden pea genotype ‘VRPM–901–5’ producing five flowers per peduncle at multiple flowering nodes, by using single plant selection approach from a cross ‘VL-8 × PC-531’. In addition, five other stable genetic stocks, namely VRPM-501, VRPM–502, VRPM–503, VRPM–901–3 and VRPSeL–1 producing three flowers per peduncle at multiple flowering nodes...

Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) sentinel surveillance in the country of Georgia, 2015-2017

Background Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) causes substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The country of Georgia conducts sentinel surveillance to monitor SARI activity and changes in its infectious etiology. This study characterizes the epidemiology of SARI in Georgia over the 2015/16 and 2016/17 influenza seasons, compares clinical presentations by etiology...

Health services costs for cancer care in Australia: Estimates from the 45 and Up Study

Background Cancer care represents a substantial and rapidly rising healthcare cost in Australia. Our aim was to provide accurate population-based estimates of the health services cost of cancer care using large-scale linked patient-level data. Methods We analysed data for incident cancers diagnosed 2006–2010 and followed to 2014 among 266,793 eligible participants in the 45 and...

Characterization of hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma using microRNA profiling and targeted gene sequencing

Background Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are benign liver tumors that may transform into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the molecular drivers of this transformation remain ill-defined. This study evaluates the molecular changes in HCA and HCC and in comparison to their adjacent non-neoplastic liver. Methods 11 patients with HCA and 10 patients with HCC without underlying...

Development of monoclonal anti-PDGF-CC antibodies as tools for investigating human tissue expression and for blocking PDGF-CC induced PDGFRα signalling in vivo

PDGF-CC is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family that stimulates PDGFRα phosphorylation and thereby activates intracellular signalling events essential for development but also in cancer, fibrosis and neuropathologies involving blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. In order to elucidate the biological and pathological role(s) of PDGF-CC signalling, we have...

A multi-level test of the seed number/size trade-off in two Scandinavian communities

Seed size is a fundamental life-history trait for plants. A seed number/size trade-off is assumed because the resources invested in reproduction are limited; however, such a trade-off is not always observed. This could be a consequence of the method used for testing it, where the null hypothesis is dictated by common statistical practice, rather than being based on any underlying...

Overview of three influenza seasons in Georgia, 2014–2017

Background Influenza epidemiological and virologic data from Georgia are limited. We aimed to present Influenza Like Illness (ILI) and Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) surveillance data and characterize influenza viruses circulating in the country over three influenza seasons. Methods We analyzed sentinel site ILI and SARI data for the 2014–2017 seasons in Georgia...

Exposure to domestic violence influences pregnant women’s preparedness for childbirth in Nepal: A cross-sectional study

Objective This study aimed to evaluate if domestic violence affected women’s ability to prepare for childbirth. Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) includes saving money, arranging transportation, identifying a skilled birth attendant, a health facility, and a blood donor before childbirth. During data collection, Nepal experienced two earthquakes and therefore...

Restricting the nonlinearity parameter in soil greenhouse gas flux calculation for more reliable flux estimates

The static chamber approach is often used for greenhouse gas (GHG) flux measurements, whereby the flux is deduced from the increase of species concentration after closing the chamber. Since this increase changes diffusion gradients between chamber air and soil air, a nonlinear increase is expected. Lateral gas flow and leakages also contribute to non linearity. Several models...

T cell LFA-1-induced proinflammatory mRNA stabilization is mediated by the p38 pathway kinase MK2 in a process regulated by hnRNPs C, H1 and K

Activation of the β2 integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) in T cells induces stabilization of proinflammatory AU-rich element (ARE)-bearing mRNAs, by triggering the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of the mRNA-binding and -stabilizing protein HuR. However, the mechanism by which LFA-1 engagement controls HuR localization is not known. Here, we identify...

Concrete surface crack detection with the improved pre-extraction and the second percolation processing methods

Monitoring the instantaneous and changing concrete surface condition is paramount to cost-effectively managing tunnel assets. In practice, detecting cracks efficiently and accurately is a very challenging task due to concrete blebs, stains, and illumination over the concrete surface. Unclear and tiny cracks cannot be detected effectively. In this paper, we proposed an ultra...

Quantification of unbound concentration of ticagrelor in plasma as a proof of mechanism biomarker of the reversal agent, MEDI2452

Ticagrelor, a P2Y12 antagonist, is approved for prevention of thromboembolic events. MEDI2452 is a potential reversal agent for ticagrelor and ticagrelor active metabolite (TAM). The total plasma exposure of ticagrelor and TAM in patients are roughly 0.5–1 and 0.2–0.5 μmol/L, respectively. Both have similar high potency vs. P2Y12 (Ki 2 nmol/L) but are plasma protein-bound to 99.8...

Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback training in athletes exposed to stress of university examinations

Introduction Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BFB) training, a method whereby one controls an unusually low breathing rate to reach cardiac coherence, has been shown to reduce anxiety and improve cardiac autonomic markers in diseased people, but much less is known about HRV-BFB benefits in healthy people. Here we investigated potential benefits in young competitors...

Crowdsourcing architectural beauty: Online photo frequency predicts building aesthetic ratings

The aesthetic quality of the built environment is of paramount importance to the quality of life of an increasingly urbanizing population. However, a lack of data has hindered the development of comprehensive measures of perceived architectural beauty. In this paper, we demonstrate that the local frequency of geotagged photos posted by internet users in two photo-sharing websites...

Automated size selection for short cell-free DNA fragments enriches for circulating tumor DNA and improves error correction during next generation sequencing

Circulating tumor-derived cell-free DNA (ctDNA) enables non-invasive diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment susceptibility testing in human cancers. However, accurate detection of variant alleles, particularly during untargeted searches, remains a principal obstacle to widespread application of cell-free DNA in clinical oncology. In this study, isolation of short cell-free DNA...

The role of older women in contesting norms associated with female genital mutilation/cutting in Senegambia: A factorial focus group analysis

Social norms theory has become prominent framework for understanding the perpetuation of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), and has influenced the design of interventions aimed at stopping the practice. Theoretical advances draw attention to the fact that FGM/C is often upheld by multiple interconnected norms that may vary and shift over time, offering a potential...