PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 192,493)

Racism and health in New Zealand: Prevalence over time and associations between recent experience of racism and health and wellbeing measures using national survey data

Objectives Racism is an important health determinant that contributes to ethnic health inequities. This study sought to describe New Zealand adults’ reported recent experiences of racism over a 10 year period. It also sought to examine the association between recent experience of racism and a range of negative health and wellbeing measures. Methods The study utilised previously...

Disease activity, autoantibodies, and inflammatory molecules in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Cognitive Dysfunction

Objective To determine if cognitive dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) derives from an inflammatory process with continuing disease activity, and increased levels of autoantibodies and inflammatory molecules in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods 100 randomly selected patients participating in an inception SLE cohort were studied. At entry...

The “social brain” is highly sensitive to the mere presence of social information: An automated meta-analysis and an independent study

How the human brain processes social information is an increasingly researched topic in psychology and neuroscience, advancing our understanding of basic human cognition and psychopathologies. Neuroimaging studies typically seek to isolate one specific aspect of social cognition when trying to map its neural substrates. It is unclear if brain activation elicited by different...

Increased resistance to sudden noise by audio stimulation during early ontogeny in German shepherd puppies

The period of early ontogeny constitutes a time when the physical immaturity of an organism is highly susceptible to external stimuli. Thus, early development plays a major role in shaping later adult behavior. The aim of the study was to check whether stimulating puppies at this early stage in life with sound would improve their responsiveness towards unfamiliar noises during...

Adaptation and validation of a short French version of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in male athletes (DMS-FR)

The purpose of this paper was to adapt and examine the psychometric properties of a French-language Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS). First, a preliminary version of the scale, based on both the English-language version of the DMS and the literature on the drive for muscularity, was developed following a committee validation process. Second, the factor structure of the DMS-FR...

Effects of Anma therapy (Japanese massage) on health-related quality of life in gynecologic cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial

Objectives Anma therapy (Japanese massage therapy, AMT) significantly reduces the severity of physical complaints in survivors of gynecologic cancer. However, whether this reduction of severity is accompanied by improvement in health-related quality of life is unknown. Methods Forty survivors of gynecologic cancer were randomly allocated to either an AMT group that received one...

Water and soil loss from landslide deposits as a function of gravel content in the Wenchuan earthquake area, China, revealed by artificial rainfall simulations

A large number of landslides were triggered by the Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake which occurred on 12th May 2008. Landslides impacted extensive areas along the Mingjiang River and its tributaries. In the landslide deposits, soil and gravel fragments generally co-exist and their proportions may influence the hydrological and erosion processes on the steep slopes of the deposit surface...

Protecting the child while preserving the relationship: Using baby’s relational withdrawal to gauge the effect of parental visitation

The impact of children’s interactions with parents in the context of out-of-home placements is receiving much-needed cross-disciplinary attention. However, the paucity of instruments that can reliably represent young children’s experiences of such interactions precludes a nuanced evaluation of their impact on wellbeing and development. In response to this empirical gap, the...

Impact of silencing hepatic SREBP-1 on insulin signaling

Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein-1 (SREBP-1) is a conserved transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family (bHLH-Zip) that plays a central role in regulating expression of genes of carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism in the liver. SREBP-1 activity is essential for the control of insulin-induced anabolic processes during the fed state. In...

Lipidomic profiling reveals free fatty acid alterations in plasma from patients with atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. One method used to restore sinus rhythm is direct current cardioversion (DCCV). Despite the high success rate of DCCV, AF typically recurs within the first 2 weeks. However, our understanding of the pathophysiology of AF recurrence, incidence, and progression are highly...

Molecular structures of cdc2-like kinases in complex with a new inhibitor chemotype

Cdc2-like kinases (CLKs) represent a family of serine-threonine kinases involved in the regulation of splicing by phosphorylation of SR-proteins and other splicing factors. Although compounds acting against CLKs have been described, only a few show selectivity against dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated-kinases (DYRKs). We here report a novel CLK inhibitor family...

Effects of anthracycline, cyclophosphamide and taxane chemotherapy on QTc measurements in patients with breast cancer

Aim Acute and subacute cardiotoxicity are characterized by prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc) and other measures derived from the QTc interval, such as QTc dispersion (QTdc) and transmural dispersion of repolarization (DTpTe). Although anthracyclines prolong the QTc interval, it is unclear whether breast cancer patients who undergo the ACT chemotherapy regimen of...

Pharmacological characterization of potent and selective NaV1.7 inhibitors engineered from Chilobrachys jingzhao tarantula venom peptide JzTx-V

Identification of voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 inhibitors for chronic pain therapeutic development is an area of vigorous pursuit. In an effort to identify more potent leads compared to our previously reported GpTx-1 peptide series, electrophysiology screening of fractionated tarantula venom discovered the NaV1.7 inhibitory peptide JzTx-V from the Chinese earth tiger...

Dependence of credit spread and macro-conditions based on an alterable structure model

The fat-tail financial data and cyclical financial market makes it difficult for the fixed structure model based on Gaussian distribution to characterize the dynamics of corporate bonds spreads. Using a flexible structure model based on generalized error distribution, this paper focuses on the impact of macro-level factors on the spreads of corporate bonds in China. It is found...

Droplet-based microfluidic analysis and screening of single plant cells

Droplet-based microfluidics has been used to facilitate high-throughput analysis of individual prokaryote and mammalian cells. However, there is a scarcity of similar workflows applicable to rapid phenotyping of plant systems where phenotyping analyses typically are time-consuming and low-throughput. We report on-chip encapsulation and analysis of protoplasts isolated from the...

Microvolt T-wave alternans and autonomic nervous system parameters can be helpful in the identification of low-arrhythmic risk patients with ischemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction

Introduction The role of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement in the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in all consecutive patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% is still a matter of hot debate due to the fact that the population of these patients is highly heterogeneous in terms of the SCD risk. Nevertheless, reduced LVEF is...

Associations between structure and function are different in healthy and glaucomatous eyes

Purpose To assess if there are differences in the structure-function associations between healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Methods Structure-function associations were assessed in healthy and glaucomatous eyes in three datasets, globally and in the six sectors of the optic nerve head. Structural parameters included rim area (RA) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT...

Impact of consumer power on consumers’ reactions to corporate transgression

We addressed how individuals’ power influences their judgments regarding corporate transgressions. Based on the Situated Focus Theory of Power, which theorizes that powerful people respond more in accordance to circumstantial factors, we tested the interaction of power and the type of corporate discourse offered by the accused company. Across two studies (overall N = 216), we...

Is the relationship between parental abuse and mobile phone dependency (MPD) contingent across neighborhood characteristics? A multilevel analysis of Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey

Research indicates that mobile phone dependency (MPD) is associated with various behavioral and internalizing problems. While a significant amount of findings points to its negative outcomes, there is a dearth of evidence concerning the determinants of MPD. This study focuses on this critical, yet understudied, subject by analyzing the associations between abusive parenting style...

Causal interpretation of correlational studies – Analysis of medical news on the website of the official journal for German physicians

Background Media frequently draws inappropriate causal statements from observational studies. We analyzed the reporting of study results in the Medical News section of the German medical journal Deutsches Ärzteblatt (DÄ). Methods Study design: Retrospective quantitative content analysis of randomly selected news reports and related original journal articles and press releases. A...

Inhibition of the H3K4 methyltransferase SET7/9 ameliorates peritoneal fibrosis

Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a major mediator of peritoneal fibrosis and reportedly affects expression of the H3K4 methyltransferase, SET7/9. SET7/9-induced H3K4 mono-methylation (H3K4me1) critically activates transcription of fibrosis-related genes. In this study, we examined the effect of SET7/9 inhibition on peritoneal fibrosis in mice and in human peritoneal...

Immigration, citizenship, and the mental health of adolescents

Purpose To examine the reported mental health outcomes of adolescent foreign-born non-citizens and adolescent foreign-born U.S. citizens compared to adolescent U.S.-born citizens. Methods Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in the National Health Interview Survey, we compared mental health status of U.S.-born adolescent citizens to foreign-born citizens and non...

Carbon stocks of three secondary coniferous forests along an altitudinal gradient on Loess Plateau in inland China

Natural forests in inland China are generally distributed in montane area and secondary due to a semi-arid climate and past anthropogenic disturbances. However, quantification of carbon (C) stock in these forests and the role of altitude in determining C storage and its partition among ecosystem components are unclear. We sampled 54 stands of three secondary coniferous forests...

Monoamines differentially modulate neuropeptide release from distinct sites within a single neuron pair

Monoamines and neuropeptides often modulate the same behavior, but monoaminergic-peptidergic crosstalk remains poorly understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the adrenergic-like ligands, tyramine (TA) and octopamine (OA) require distinct subsets of neuropeptides in the two ASI sensory neurons to inhibit nociception. TA selectively increases the release of ASI neuropeptides encoded...

Recognition of early stage thigmotaxis in Morris water maze test with convolutional neural network

The Morris water maze test (MWM) is a useful tool to evaluate rodents’ spatial learning and memory, but the outcome is susceptible to various experimental conditions. Thigmotaxis is a commonly observed behavioral pattern which is thought to be related to anxiety or fear. This behavior is associated with prolonged escape latency, but the impact of its frequency in the early stage...