PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 195,648)

The matricellular protein CCN5 inhibits fibrotic deformation of retinal pigment epithelium

Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an essential role in maintaining retinal function, and its defect is thought to be critically implicated in various ocular disorders. This study demonstrated that the matricellular protein CCN5 was down-regulated in ARPE-19 cells treated with the pro-fibrotic agent transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. A recombinant adenovirus expressing CCN5...

Cardiometabolic risk factors in vegans; A meta-analysis of observational studies

Background There is increasing evidence that plant based diets are associated with lower cardiovascular risk. Objective To evaluate effects of a vegan compared to an omnivorous diet on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods Meta-analysis of observational studies published between 1960 and June 2018 that reported one or more cardio-metabolic risk factors in vegans and controls...

Dosimetric evaluation of the compass program for patient dose analysis in IMRT delivery quality assurance

A practical method was designed to verify the accuracy of dose distributions calculated using Compass, which can reconstruct the dose distribution inside a patient’s body during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Twelve virtual IMRT treatment plans were developed using an ArcCHECK diode detector array, and then the recalculated and reconstructed doses in Compass were...

Auditory-induced response in the primary sensory cortex of rodents

The details of auditory response at the subthreshold level in the rodent primary somatosensory cortex, the barrel cortex, have not been studied extensively, although several phenomenological reports have been published. Multisensory features may act as neuronal representations of links between inputs from one sensory modality to other sensory modalities. Here, we examined the...

A robust intracellular metabolite extraction protocol for human neutrophil metabolic profiling

Neutrophils are phagocytic innate immune cells that play essential roles in host defence, but are also implicated in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) where they contribute to systemic inflammation and joint damage. Transcriptomic analysis of neutrophils has revealed significant changes in gene expression in neutrophils activated in vitro by cytokines and in...

Synergistic enhancement of production of proinflammatory cytokines of human peripheral blood monocytes by anti-Sm and anti-RNP antibodies

The present study was performed to elucidate the roles of serum anti-Sm antibodies in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Highly purified peripheral blood monocytes obtained from healthy donors were cultured in the presence of monoclonal anti-Sm antibody (anti-Sm mAb), monoclonal anti-U1-RNP antibody (anti-RNP mAb) or control murine IgG1 or IgG3. After various...

The Nox1/Nox4 inhibitor attenuates acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in mice

Lung ischemia and reperfusion injury (LIRI) were mediated by several processes including over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory activation. ROS generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucletide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) may play a pivotal role in pathophysiological changes in a range of disease. However, it was poorly understood in LIRI. Thus, the...

Nerve conduction velocity is negatively associated with intima-media thickness and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Objective Previous studies suggest that the presence of diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (DPN) is associated with atherosclerotic diseases; however, little is known about the relationship between diabetic nerve conduction velocity (NCV) versus arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis parameters. Methods The subjects in this study were 292 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM...

Trait impulsivity is not related to post-commissural putamen volumes: A replication study in healthy men

High levels of trait impulsivity are considered a risk factor for substance abuse and drug addiction. We recently found that non-planning trait impulsivity was negatively correlated with post-commissural putamen volumes in men, but not women, using the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). Here, we attempted to replicate this finding in an independent sample using an updated...

Antiretroviral adverse drug reactions pharmacovigilance in Harare City, Zimbabwe, 2017

Introduction Key to pharmacovigilance is spontaneously reporting all Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) during post-market surveillance. This facilitates the identification and evaluation of previously unreported ADR’s, acknowledging the trade-off between benefits and potential harm of medications. Only 41% Antiretroviral (ARV) ADR’s documented in Harare city clinical records for...

Penumbra: A spatially distributed, mechanistic model for simulating ground-level incident solar energy across heterogeneous landscapes

Landscape solar energy is a significant environmental driver, yet it remains complicated to model well. Several solar radiation models simplify the complexity of light by estimating it at discrete point locations or by averaging values over larger areas. These modeling approaches may be useful in certain cases, but they are unable to provide spatially distributed and temporally...

Muscle atrophy in mechanically-ventilated critically ill children

Importance ICU-acquired muscle atrophy occurs commonly and worsens outcomes in adults. The incidence and severity of muscle atrophy in critically ill children are poorly characterized. Objective To determine incidence, severity and risk factors for muscle atrophy in critically ill children. Design, setting and participants A single-center, prospective cohort study of 34 children...

Soil nutrient loss through erosion: Impact of different cropping systems and soil amendments in Ghana

Soil erosion is a multifactor threat to crop production and the environment. Most studies on soil erosion characterization have not focused on soil nutrient loss associated with erosion. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the magnitude of nutrient loss through soil erosion under different cropping systems and amendments to inform agronomic practices in sub-Saharan...

Implementation and maintenance of a pain management quality assurance program at intensive care units: 360 degree feedback of physicians, nurses and patients

Background Pain management quality assurance programs (PMQP) have been successfully implemented in numerous hospitals across Europe. We aimed to evaluate the medium-term sustainability of a PMQP implemented at intensive care units (ICUs). Methods Two surveys, the first in 2012, immediately after introduction of the PMQP, and the second in 2015, were carried out amongst patients...

Diatom evidence of 20th century ecosystem change in Lake Baikal, Siberia

Lake Baikal has been experiencing limnological changes from recent atmospheric warming since the 1950s, with rising lake water temperatures, reduced ice cover duration and reduced lake surface-water mixing due to stronger thermal stratification. This study uses lake sediment cores to reconstruct recent changes (c. past 20 years) in Lake Baikal’s pelagic diatom communities...

An open-data-driven agent-based model to simulate infectious disease outbreaks

Agent-based models are a tool that can be used to better understand the dynamics of an infectious disease outbreak. An infectious disease outbreak is influenced by many factors including vaccination or immunity levels, population density, and the age structure of the population. We hypothesize that these factors along with interactions of factors and the actions of individuals...

Mucopolysaccharidosis type II detection by Naïve Bayes Classifier: An example of patient classification for a rare disease using electronic medical records from the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network

Identifying patients with rare diseases associated with common symptoms is challenging. Hunter syndrome, or Mucopolysaccharidosis type II is a progressive rare disease caused by a deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal enzyme, iduronate 2-sulphatase. It is inherited in an X-linked manner resulting in males being significantly affected. Expression in females varies with the...

Size-dependent cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles to Azotobacter vinelandii: Growth inhibition, cell injury, oxidative stress and internalization

The influence of nanomaterials on the ecological environment is becoming an increasingly hot research field, and many researchers are exploring the mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity on microorganisms. Herein, we studied the effect of two different sizes of nanosilver (10 nm and 50 nm) on the soil nitrogen fixation by the model bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii. Smaller size AgNPs...

Change in fish functional diversity and assembly rules in the course of tidal marsh restoration

Functional trait theory provides a mechanistic framework to understand change in community composition and community assembly through time and space. Despite this, trait-based approaches have seldom been used in ecological restoration. Succession theory predicts that habitat complexity and resource availability will increase with restoration time, leading to increased functional...

Real-life clinical pattern, management, and survival in Thai patients with early-stage or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer

Objectives To characterize the clinical pattern and evaluate real-life practices in the management of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in Thailand. Methods In this multicenter, prospective, observational cohort, females (aged ≥18 years) with histologically and immunohistochemically confirmed TNBC were enrolled. Patient data was collected at four study visits–an...

Value of preoperative spirometry test in predicting postoperative pulmonary complications in high-risk patients after laparoscopic abdominal surgery

Whether preoperative spirometry in non-thoracic surgery can predict postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) is controversial. We investigated whether preoperative spirometry results can predict the occurrence of PPCs in patients who had undergone laparoscopic abdominal surgery. This retrospective observational study analyzed the records of patients who underwent inpatient...

Morphological variations of the interatrial septum in ovine heart

Smooth septum interatrial septum, patent foramen ovale (PFO) channel and atrial septal pouches (SPs) are commonly described variants in humans. Recent discoveries on the clinical significance of left-sided SP may encourage the creation of new strategies and devices for the management of SPs. However, these strategies may first be tested in the ovine model before implementation in...

An exploration of reported food intake among inmates who gained body weight during incarceration in Canadian federal penitentiaries

Background Canadian penitentiaries have recently been shown to be obesogenic. However, little is known about the eating habits of inmates who gained weight while living in the prison environment. Methods This retrospective cohort study examined the reported food intake of inmates during incarceration in federal penitentiaries. During a face to face interview, anthropometric...