PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,217)

Effect of seawater temperature, pH, and nutrients on the distribution and character of low abundance shallow water benthic foraminifera in the Galápagos

In order to help predict the effects of anthropogenic stressors on shallow water carbonate environments, it is important to focus research on regions containing natural oceanographic gradients, particularly with respect to interactions between oceanography and ecologically sensitive carbonate producers. The Galápagos Archipelago, an island chain in the eastern equatorial Pacific...

Simple changes of individual studies can improve the reproducibility of the biomedical scientific process as a whole

We developed a new probabilistic model to assess the impact of recommendations rectifying the reproducibility crisis (by publishing both positive and ‘negative‘ results and increasing statistical power) on competing objectives, such as discovering causal relationships, avoiding publishing false positive results, and reducing resource consumption. In contrast to recent...

Effect of joint mimicking loading system on zonal organization into tissue-engineered cartilage

Cartilage tissue engineering typically involves the combination of a biodegradable polymeric support material with chondrocytes. The culture environment in which cell–material constructs are created and stored is an important factor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of combined stimuli on cartilage zonal organization which is important to maintain...

Increased H. pylori stool shedding and EPIYA-D cagA alleles are associated with gastric cancer in an East Asian hospital

Background Helicobacter pylori infection increases risk for gastric cancer. Geographic variation in gastric cancer risk has been attributed to variation in carriage and type of the H. pylori oncogene cagA. Colonization density may also influence disease and cagA has been associated with higher shedding in stool. However, the relationship between H. pylori load in the stool and in...

Keratinocyte stem cells are more resistant to UVA radiation than their direct progeny

The epidermis undergoes constant renewal during its lifetime. This is possible due to a special population of keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) located at the basal layer. These cells are surrounded by their direct progeny, keratinocyte progenitors or transient amplifying cells (TAs), which arise from cell division. Skin is exposed every day to sun radiation; in particular, UVA...

Evaluating the psychometric quality of school connectedness measures: A systematic review

Introduction There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of school connectedness measures to inform school based assessment and intervention planning. Objective To systematically review the literature on the psychometric properties of self-report measures of school connectedness for students aged six to 14 years. Methods A...

Complication patterns in patients undergoing venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in intensive care unit: Multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical ascendant classification

Background Treatment by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is widely used today, even though it is associated with high risks of complications and death. While studies have focused on the relationship between some of these complications and the risk of death, the relationship between different complications has never been specifically examined, despite the...

Propagation of cell death in dropdead1, a sorghum ortholog of the maize lls1 mutant

We describe dropdead1-1 (ded1), an EMS-induced recessive lesion mimic mutant of sorghum. It is characterized by the formation of spreading necrotic lesions that share many attributes with those associated with the maize lethal leaf spot1 (lls1) and Arabidopsis accelerated cell death1 (acd1) mutation. We show that as in lls1, ded1 lesions are initiated by wounding and require...

Pharmacologic rescue of hyperammonemia-induced toxicity in zebrafish by inhibition of ornithine aminotransferase

Hyperammonemia is the common biochemical hallmark of urea cycle disorders, activating neurotoxic pathways. If untreated, affected individuals have a high risk of irreversible brain damage and mortality. Here we show that acute hyperammonemia strongly enhances transamination-dependent formation of osmolytic glutamine and excitatory glutamate, thereby inducing neurotoxicity and...

The significance of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in children from Ghana with acute lower respiratory tract infection: A molecular epidemiological analysis, 2006 and 2013-2014

Background Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Globally, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most common pathogen of ALRI in infants and children. However, age-stratified HRSV disease burden data are largely absent from Africa, which is a key gap in informing an evidence-based...

When to reveal what you feel: How emotions towards antagonistic out-group and third party audiences are expressed strategically

In intergroup conflicts, expressed emotions influence how others see and react to those who express them. Here, we investigated whether this in turn implies that emotions may be expressed strategically. We tested whether emotion expression can differ from emotion experience, and whether emotion expression (more than emotion experience) is used to pursue specific goals...

Continued occurrence of serotype 1 pneumococcal meningitis in two regions located in the meningitis belt in Ghana five years after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

Background Increases in pneumococcal meningitis were reported from Ghanaian regions that lie in the meningitis belt in 2016–2017, despite introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2012 using a 3-dose schedule (6, 10, and 14 weeks). We describe pneumococcal meningitis epidemiology in the Ghanaian Northern and Upper West regions across two meningitis...

Quantitative lipidomic analysis of mouse lung during postnatal development by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

Lipids play very important roles in lung biology, mainly reducing the alveolar surface tension at the air-liquid interface thereby preventing end-expiratory collapse of the alveoli. In the present study we performed an extensive quantitative lipidomic analysis of mouse lung to provide the i) total lipid quantity, ii) distribution pattern of the major lipid classes, iii...

From Svalbard to Siberia: Passerines breeding in the High Arctic also endure the extreme cold of the Western Steppe

Few species are adapted to high latitudes, and many over-winter in milder climates with migrations involving extensive barrier crossings. By escaping extreme conditions for the majority of the year, physiological and behavioural adaptations presumably need to be less pronounced. The snow bunting Plectrophenax nivalis is the most northerly breeding passerine. We tracked the...