PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 192,493)

Is prevention better than cure? A systematic review of the effectiveness of well-being interventions for military personnel adjusting to civilian life

Exposure to stressful and potentially traumatic experiences is a risk for military personnel and for some this may increase susceptibility to reduced well-being. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of interventions to promote the well-being of military personnel adjusting to civilian life. Electronic databases were searched including MEDLINE, Embase...

Both cetaceans in the Brazilian Amazon show sustained, profound population declines over two decades

Obligate river dolphins occur only in the rivers of Asia and South America, where they are increasingly subject to damaging pressures such as habitat degradation, food competition and entanglement in fishing gear as human populations expand. The Amazon basin hosts two, very different, dolphins—the boto or Amazon river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) and the smaller tucuxi (Sotalia...

Emission characteristics of harmful air pollutants from cremators in Beijing, China

The process of corpse cremation generates numerous harmful air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and heavy metals. These pollutants could have severe effects on the surrounding environment and human health. Currently, the awareness of the emission levels of harmful air pollutants from...

Explaining the heterogeneity in average costs per HIV/AIDS patient in Nigeria: The role of supply-side and service delivery characteristics

Objective We estimated the average annual cost per patient of ART per facility (unit cost) in Nigeria, described the variation in costs across facilities, and identified factors associated with this variation. Methods We used facility-level data of 80 facilities in Nigeria, collected between December 2014 and May 2015. We estimated unit costs at each facility as the ratio of...

Mental distress and perceived wealth, justice and freedom across eight countries: The invisible power of the macrosystem

Health and well-being have been related to macro-level factors such as income, income inequality or socioeconomic status. With regard to the increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders worldwide, the association between the macrosystem and mental distress should be further explored, too. In this context, the subjective evaluation of the macrosystem might play an...

Impact of smoking on stroke outcome after endovascular treatment

Background Recent studies suggest a paradoxical association between smoking status and clinical outcome after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Little is known about relationship between smoking and stroke outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT). Methods We analyzed data of all stroke patients treated with EVT at the tertiary stroke centre of Berne between January 2005 and...

Bioengineered intestinal muscularis complexes with long-term spontaneous and periodic contractions

Although critical for studies of gut motility and intestinal regeneration, the in vitro culture of intestinal muscularis with peristaltic function remains a significant challenge. Periodic contractions of intestinal muscularis result from the coordinated activity of smooth muscle cells (SMC), the enteric nervous system (ENS), and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Reproducing...

Socioenvironmental factors associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection and intermediate hosts in an urban area of northeastern Brazil

Schistosomiasis, which is caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma and by the species Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, is transmitted primarily by Biomphalaria glabrata mollusks. Infections occur in humans and mollusks in freshwater environments contaminated with feces from infected humans. This study aimed to evaluate potential foci of schistosomiasis based on the...

Automatic identification of optimal marker genes for phenotypic and taxonomic groups of microorganisms

Finding optimal markers for microorganisms important in the medical, agricultural, environmental or ecological fields is of great importance. Thousands of complete microbial genomes now available allow us, for the first time, to exhaustively identify marker proteins for groups of microbial organisms. In this work, we model the biological task as the well-known mathematical...

A tale of swinger insects: Signatures of past sexuality between divergent lineages of a parthenogenetic weevil revealed by ribosomal intraindividual variation

Naupactus cervinus (Boheman) (Curculionidae, Naupactini) is a parthenogenetic weevil native to the Paranaense Forest which displays high levels of genetic variation. Two divergent clades were identified, one ranging in forest areas (Forest clade), and the other in open vegetation areas (Grassland clade). Both of them have individuals with high levels of heterozygosity in...

Cancer growth and metastasis as a metaphor of Go gaming: An Ising model approach

This work aims for modeling and simulating the metastasis of cancer, via the analogy between the cancer process and the board game Go. In the game of Go, black stones that play first could correspond to a metaphor of the birth, growth, and metastasis of cancer. Moreover, playing white stones on the second turn could correspond the inhibition of cancer invasion. Mathematical...

When approximate number acuity predicts math performance: The moderating role of math anxiety

Separate lines of research suggest that people who are better at estimating numerical quantities using the approximate number system (ANS) have better math performance, and that people with high levels of math anxiety have worse math performance. Only a handful of studies have examined both ANS acuity and math anxiety in the same participants and those studies report...

Widespread mosquito net fishing in the Barotse floodplain: Evidence from qualitative interviews

Background The insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) is a crucial component of malaria control programs, and has prevented many malaria cases and deaths due to scale up. ITNs also serve effectively as fishing nets and various sources have reported use of ITNs for fishing. This article examines how widespread the practice of mosquito net fishing with ITNs is. Methods We conducted...

Premna vietnamensis (Lamiaceae, Premnoideae), a distinct new species from the Central Highlands of Vietnam

Premna vietnamensis, a distinct new species which is endemic to Gia Lai Province in Central Highlands of Vietnam, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by its calyx tube bearing a semi-globose fleshy appendage, which has not been reported before from all known congeneric taxa, as well as from the Lamiaceae. A phylogenetic analysis of the whole Lamiaceae based on a...

The effect of handedness on spatial and motor representation of pitch patterns in pianists

This study investigated the effect of handedness on pianists’ abilities to adjust their keyboard performance skills to new spatial and motor mappings. Left- and right-handed pianists practiced simple melodies on a regular MIDI piano keyboard (practice) and were then asked to perform these with modified melodic contours (the same or reversed melodic contour causing a change of...

Perilimbal sclera mechanical properties: Impact on intraocular pressure in porcine eyes

There is extensive knowledge on the relationship of posterior scleral biomechanics and intraocular pressure (IOP) load on glaucomatous optic neuropathy; however, the role for biomechanical influence of the perilimbal scleral tissue on the aqueous humor drainage pathway, including the distal venous outflow system, and IOP regulation is not fully understood. The purpose of this...

How ownership rights over microorganisms affect infectious disease control and innovation: A root-cause analysis of barriers to data sharing as experienced by key stakeholders

Background Genetic information of pathogens is an essential input for infectious disease control, public health and for research. Efficiency in preventing and responding to global outbreaks relies on timely access to such information. Still, ownership barriers stand in the way of timely sharing of genetic data from pathogens, frustrating efficient public health responses and...

A20 regulates canonical wnt-signaling through an interaction with RIPK4

A20 is a ubiquitin-editing enzyme that is known to regulate inflammatory signaling and cell death. However, A20 mutations are also frequently found in multiple malignancies suggesting a potential role as a tumor suppressor as well. We recently described a novel role for A20 in regulating the wnt-beta-catenin signaling pathway and suppressing colonic tumor development in mice. The...

Assessing the applicability of stable isotope analysis to determine the contribution of landfills to vultures’ diet

Human activities cause changes to occur in the environment that affect resource availability for wildlife. The increase in the human population of cities has led to a rise in the amount of waste deposited in landfills, installations that have become a new food resource for both pest and threatened species such as vultures. In this study we used stable isotope analysis (SIA) and...

Analysis of risk factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in black South Africans: 2000–2012

Objective The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of risk factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in black adult South Africans and to estimate the size of the associated risks. Methods A case-control analysis of 150 black South African patients (aged 18–75 years) with HCC—who were a subset of patients recruited for the Johannesburg Cancer Case...

Diversity and population structure of red rice germplasm in Bangladesh

While the functionality and healthy food value of red rice have increased its popularity, such that market demand for it is expected to rise, most strains suffer from low grain yield. To perform diversity and population structure analyses of red rice germplasm, therefore, becomes essential for improving yields for commercial production. In this study, fifty red rice germplasm...

Factors associated with body mass index in children and adolescents: An international cross-sectional study

Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood has implications for their future health. There are many potential contributors to overweight and obesity in childhood. The aim was to investigate the association between postulated risk factors and body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a multi-centre...