PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,217)

The relationship between depression and cognitive function in adults with cardiovascular risk: Evidence from a randomised attention-controlled trial

Background and aim This study assessed the association between depressive symptom severity and cognition in middle-to-older aged adults with mild-to-moderate depression and cardiovascular risk factors using an online test battery (CogState) and whether changes in depressive symptoms over 3 months were associated with changes in cognition. Methods Participants (mean age = 57.8...

Cross-laboratory evaluation of multiplex bead assays including independent common reference standards for immunological monitoring of observational and interventional human studies

Background Multiplex assays are increasingly applied to analyze multicomponent signatures of human immune responses, including the dynamics of cytokine and chemokine production, in observational as well as interventional studies following treatment or vaccination. However, relatively limited information is available on the performance of the different available multiplex kits...

A genome-wide association study identifies three novel genetic markers for response to tamoxifen: A prospective multicenter study

Purpose Although association studies of genetic variations with the clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen have been reported, genetic factors which could determine individual response to tamoxifen are not fully clarified. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic markers for response to tamoxifen. Experimental...

Effects of single-point acupuncture (HT7) in the prevention of test anxiety: Results of a RCT

Background The number of students using neuro enhancement to improve their performance and to prevent test anxiety is increasing. The acupuncture point Heart 7 (HT7) has been described as being prominent in reducing states of anxiety. Methods We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled, two-armed pilot trial to investigate the efficacy of a single-point acupuncture treatment at...

Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 alleviates intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury

Mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion is a clinical emergency with high morbidity and mortality due to the transient reduction of blood supply to the bowel. In recent years, the critical contribution of gut microbiome to human health and proper gastrointestinal functions has gradually emerged. In the current study, we investigated the protective effects of five days supplementation...

A new procedure to analyze polymorphonuclear myeloid derived suppressor cells in cryopreserved samples cells by flow cytometry

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) is a heterogeneous subset of immature and mature cells of the myeloid lineage, undergoing expansion during pathologic conditions, and able to perform strong immune suppressive functions. It has been shown that cryopreservation selectively impacts the polimorphonuclear (PMN) MDSC viability and recovery, and alters the correct analysis of...

Complementary regional heterogeneity information from COPD patients obtained using oxygen-enhanced MRI and chest CT

Background The heterogeneous distribution of emphysema is a key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients that typically is evaluated using high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT). Oxygen-enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (OEMRI) is a new method to obtain information regarding regional ventilation, diffusion, and perfusion in the lung...

Handling by avian frugivores affects diaspore secondary removal

The balance between the costs and benefits of fleshy fruit production depends on the feeding behavior of their seed dispersers, which might effectively disperse seeds to farther areas or drop beneath parent plants some diaspores they handle during frugivory bouts. Nevertheless, the consequences of variation in fruit handling by primary seed dispersers on the secondary removal of...

A novel panel of short mononucleotide repeats linked to informative polymorphisms enabling effective high volume low cost discrimination between mismatch repair deficient and proficient tumours

Somatic mutations in mononucleotide repeats are commonly used to assess the mismatch repair status of tumours. Current tests focus on repeats with a length above 15bp, which tend to be somatically more unstable than shorter ones. These longer repeats also have a substantially higher PCR error rate, and tests that use capillary electrophoresis for fragment size analysis often...

Molecular assessment of visitor personal protective equipment contamination with the Aleutian mink disease virus and porcine circovirus-2 in mink and porcine farms

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is an element of biosecurity intended to prevent the access or spread of diseases in farms. Nevertheless, to date no extensive reports exist about the effectiveness of different available PPE on farms. Thus, our aim was to estimate the degree of protection of PPE from viral contamination during farm visits. Two farms, infected with Aleutian...

The estimation of probability distribution for factor variables with many categorical values

With recent developments of data technology in biomedicine, factor data such as diagnosis codes and genomic features, which can have tens to hundreds of discrete and unorderable categorical values, have emerged. While considered as a fundamental problem in statistical analyses, the estimation of probability distribution for such factor variables has not studied much because the...

A mechanism of T cell dependent selection of antigen engaged Germinal Center B cells

A model of B cell affinity selection is proposed, and an explanation of peripheral tolerance mechanisms through antibody repertoire editing is presented. We show that affinity discrimination between B cells is driven by a competition between obtaining T cell help and removal of B cells from the light zone, either through apoptosis or by a return to the dark zone of germinal...

Assessing the resilience of stochastic dynamic systems under partial observability

Resilience is a property of major interest for the design and analysis of generic complex systems. A system is resilient if it can adjust in response to disruptive shocks, and still provide the services it was designed for, without interruptions. In this work, we adapt a formal definition of resilience for constraint-based systems to a probabilistic framework derived from hidden...

Clinical reassessment of human embryo ploidy status between cleavage and blastocyst stage by Next Generation Sequencing

One of the most important limitations of genetic testing in preimplantation embryos is embryonic mosaicism, especially when performed on D3 with only a single blastomere evaluated. Previous publications, using Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-CGH) to compare day 3 (D3) biopsies versus trophectoderm biopsies for the analysis of aneuploid embryos, showed similar high...

Setting global research priorities for child protection in humanitarian action: Results from an adapted CHNRI exercise

Background Armed conflict, natural disaster, and forced displacement affect millions of children each year. Such humanitarian crises increase the risk of family separation, erode existing support networks, and often result in economic loss, increasing children’s vulnerability to violence, exploitation, neglect, and abuse. Research is needed to understand these risks and...

D-Track—A semi-automatic 3D video-tracking technique to analyse movements and routines of aquatic animals with application to captive dolphins

Scoring and tracking animal movements manually is a time consuming and subjective process, susceptible to errors due to fatigue. Automated and semi-automated video-based tracking methods have been developed to overcome the errors and biases of manual analyses. In this manuscript we present D-Track, an open-source semi-automatic tracking system able to quantify the 3D trajectories...

Effect of the screw type (S2-alar-iliac and iliac), screw length, and screw head angle on the risk of screw and adjacent bone failures after a spinopelvic fixation technique: A finite element analysis

Purpose Spinopelvic fixations involving the S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) and iliac screws are commonly used in various spinal fusion surgeries. This study aimed to compare the biomechanical characteristics, specifically the risk of screw and adjacent bone failures of S2AI screw fixation with those of iliac screw fixation using a finite element analysis (FEA). Methods A three-dimensional...

Mobile apps for treatment of speech disorders in children: An evidence-based analysis of quality and efficacy

Background Recently there has been exponential growth in mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) for children with speech disorders. A challenge for health professionals and families is knowing how to find high quality apps that are therapeutically beneficial. We systematically search and critique the quality of mobile apps for childhood speech disorders. An evidence-based...

Time-varying and asymmetric effects of the oil-specific demand shock on investor sentiment

The relationship between oil price and investor sentiment is crucial to economic activity. Disentangling the shocks in crude oil price by structural VAR model, this paper analyzes the interaction between oil price shocks and investor sentiment by linear and nonlinear causality approach, TVP-VAR mode and NARDL model. The results reveal that changes of oil-specific demand shock not...

Predicting the distribution of poorly-documented species, Northern black widow (Latrodectus variolus) and Black purse-web spider (Sphodros niger), using museum specimens and citizen science data

Predicting species distributions requires substantial numbers of georeferenced occurrences and access to remotely sensed climate and land cover data. Reliable estimates of the distribution of most species are unavailable, either because digitized georeferenced distributional data are rare or not digitized. The emergence of online biodiversity information databases and citizen...

Relationship between digestive tract colonization and subsequent ventilator-associated pneumonia related to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae

Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common ICU-acquired infection. Recently, the incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) has substantially increased in critically ill patients. Identifying patients at risk for VAP related to ESBLE could be helpful to improve the rate of appropriate initial antibiotic treatment...

Economic complexity unfolded: Interpretable model for the productive structure of economies

Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. It resides on the premise of hidden capabilities—fundamental endowments underlying the productive structure. In general, measuring the capabilities behind economic complexity directly is difficult, and indirect measures have been suggested which exploit the fact that...

Associations between increased intervention coverage for mothers and newborns and the number and quality of contacts between families and health workers: An analysis of cluster level repeat cross sectional survey data in Ethiopia

Background Survival of mothers and newborns depends on life-saving interventions reaching those in need. Recent evidence suggests that indicators of contact with health services are poor proxies for measures of coverage of life saving care and attention has shifted towards the quality of care provided during contacts. Methods and findings Regression analysis using data from...