PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 195,640)

Occurrence of tissue cyst forming coccidia in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) rescued on the coast of Brazil

The main motivation for this study was to determine the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii, a cosmopolitan widespread zoonotic parasite distribution that can infect a wide variety of mammals and birds, in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Brazil. In recent decades there has been a significant increase in the number of penguins originating from Argentinian and Chilean...

Barriers and enablers for adopting lifestyle behavior changes in adolescents with obesity: A multi-centre, qualitative study

Background Many adolescents with obesity do not meet recommendations for nutrition, physical and sedentary activities, and sleep habits, all of which can influence weight management. Objective To explore barriers and enablers that influenced the adoption of lifestyle behavior changes among adolescents receiving multidisciplinary clinical care for pediatric weight management...

Stability of end-of-life preferences in relation to health status and life-events: A cohort study with a 6-year follow-up among holders of an advance directive

Background Stating preferences about care beforehand using advance care planning and advance directives has become increasingly common in current medicine. There is still lack of clarity what happens over the course of time in relation to these preferences. We wanted to determine whether the preferences about end-of-life care of a person owning an advance directive stay stable...

Power and sample size calculations for comparison of two regression lines with heterogeneous variances

The existence of interactive effects of a dichotomous treatment variable on the relationship between the continuous predictor and response variables is an essential issue in biological and medical sciences. Also, considerable attention has been devoted to raising awareness of the often-untenable assumption of homogeneous error variance among treatment groups. Although the...

Neuroticism related differences in working memory tasks

Two influential theories relating to personality traits, i.e. arousal-based theory (ABT) and attentional control theory (ACT), made predictions on how neuroticism may affect task performance. ABT suggested that high neurotics perform worse than low neurotics in all difficult tasks, whereas they perform similar in easy tasks. On the other hand, ACT suggested that high neurotics...

Familial episodic limb pain in kindreds with novel Nav1.9 mutations

We previously performed genetic analysis in six unrelated families with infantile limb pain episodes, characterized by cold-induced deterioration and mitigation in adolescence, and reported two new mutations p.R222H/S in SCN11A responsible for these episodes. As no term described this syndrome (familial episodic pain: FEP) in Japanese, we named it as”小児四肢疼痛発作症”. In the current...

Characterization of canola oil extracted by different methods using fluorescence spectroscopy

The potential of fluorescence spectroscopy has been utilized for the characterization of three types of canola oil samples: the first type was obtained by dissolving its seeds in hexane solvent, the second by cold press method, and the third from eight commercial brands. Fluorescence spectra from all samples have been acquired by using excitation wavelengths from 280 to 420 nm...

Multiscale dynamics of interstimulus interval integration in visual cortex

Although the visual cortex receives information at multiple temporal patterns, much of the research in the field has focused only on intervals shorter than 1 second. Consequently, there is almost no information on what happens at longer temporal intervals. We have tried to address this question recording neuronal populations of the primary visual cortex during visual stimulation...

PR3-ANCA and panel diagnostics in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease to distinguish ulcerative colitis from Crohn's disease

Background Accurate classification of patients with inflammatory bowel disease into the subtypes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) is still a challenge, but important for therapy and prognosis. Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic utility of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies specific for proteinase-3 (PR3-ANCA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) and the value of an...

Dissonance reduction as emotion regulation: Attitude change is related to positive emotions in the induced compliance paradigm

The aim of this study was to clarify how positive and negative emotions are related to the common attitude-change effect in cognitive dissonance research. Drawing on appraisal theories of emotion, and emotion-regulation research, we predicted that negative emotions would be inversely related to attitude change, whereas positive emotions would be positively related to attitude...

The sickle cell trait and end stage renal disease in Salvador, Brazil

Background Carriers of the sickle cell trait (HbAS) usually remain asymptomatic. However, under conditions of low tissue oxygenation, red blood cell sickling and vascular obstruction may develop. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can arise from conditions promoting low-oxygen in kidney tissue, which may be aggravated by the presence of the sickle cell trait. In addition, CKD can arise...

Laboratory strains of Bacillus anthracis exhibit pervasive alteration in expression of proteins related to sporulation under laboratory conditions relative to genetically related wild strains

The spore forming pathogen Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax in humans and animals. It cycles through infected hosts as vegetative cells and is eventually introduced into the environment where it generates an endospore resistant to many harsh conditions. The endospores are subsequently taken up by another host to begin the next cycle. Outbreaks of anthrax occur...

Small-molecule induction of Aβ-42 peptide production in human cerebral organoids to model Alzheimer's disease associated phenotypes

Human mini-brains (MB) are cerebral organoids that recapitulate in part the complexity of the human brain in a unique three-dimensional in vitro model, yielding discrete brain regions reminiscent of the cerebral cortex. Specific proteins linked to neurodegenerative disorders are physiologically expressed in MBs, such as APP-derived amyloids (Aβ), whose physiological and...

Retrospective analysis of long-term gastrointestinal symptoms after Clostridium difficile infection in a nonelderly cohort

Elderly patients and those with comorbid conditions are at high risk for poor outcomes after Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) but outcomes in a healthier, nonelderly population are not well described. We sought to investigate gastrointestinal diagnoses and CDI during hospitalizations in the 24 to 36 months after an initial episode of CDI in nonelderly patients in a cohort...

Systematic in vitro comparison of decellularization protocols for blood vessels

Decellularization of native blood vessels is a promising technology to generate 3D biological scaffolds for vascular grafting. Blood vessel decellularization has been performed in previous studies under various experimental conditions, that complicates comparison and optimization of suitable protocols. The goal of this work was to systematically compare the decellularization and...

Reversing wetland death from 35,000 cuts: Opportunities to restore Louisiana’s dredged canals

We determined the number of permits for oil and gas activities in 14 coastal Louisiana parishes from 1900 to 2017, compared them to land loss on this coast, and estimated their restoration potential. A total of 76,247 oil and gas recovery wells were permitted, of which 35,163 (46%) were on land (as of 2010) and 27,483 of which are officially abandoned. There is a direct spatial...

The relation of culture, socio-economics, and friendship to music preferences: A large-scale, cross-country study

Music listening is an inherently cultural behavior, which may be shaped by users’ backgrounds and contextual characteristics. Due to geographical, socio-economic, linguistic, and cultural factors as well as friendship networks, users in different countries may have different music preferences. Investigating cultural-socio-economic factors that might be associated with between...

Structural and functional insight into serine hydroxymethyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori

Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), encoded by the glyA gene, is a ubiquitous pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycine from serine. The thereby generated 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate (MTHF) is a major source of cellular one-carbon units and a key intermediate in thymidylate biosynthesis. While in virtually all eukaryotic and...

Identification of knee gait waveform pattern alterations in individuals with patellofemoral pain using fast Fourier transform

Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is one of the most common overuse injuries of the knee. Previous research has found that individuals with PFP exhibit differences in peak hip kinematics; however, differences in peak knee kinematics, where the pain originates, are difficult to elucidate. To better understand the mechanism behind PFP, we sought to characterize differences in knee gait...

Impact of a patient-flow physician coordinator on waiting times and length of stay in an emergency department: A before-after cohort study

Objective Overcrowding is common in most emergency departments (ED). Despite the use of validated triage systems, some patients are at risk of delayed medical evaluation. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a patient-flow physician coordinator (PFPC) on the proportion of patients offered medical evaluation within time limits imposed by the Swiss Emergency...

A multigene typing system for human adenoviruses reveals a new genotype in a collection of Swedish clinical isolates

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common pathogens that can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and ocular infections. They are divided into seven species containing 85 genotypes. Straightforward typing systems might help epidemiological investigations. As homologous recombination frequently shapes the evolution of HAdVs, information on a single gene is seldom...

Expression of CD25 fluctuates in the leukemia-initiating cell population of CD25-positive AML

CD25 is expressed on leukemic cells in 10–20% cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and its expression is associated with poor prognosis. We reevaluated the relationship between CD25 expression and the leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) properties of AML using a patient-derived xenograft model. We divided lineage marker-negative (Lin–) CD34+CD38– or Lin–CD34+ cells from CD25...

Population based hospitalization burden of laboratory-confirmed hand, foot and mouth disease caused by multiple enterovirus serotypes in Southern China

Background Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is spread widely across Asia, and the hospitalization burden is currently not well understood. Here, we estimated serotype-specific and age-specific hospitalization rates of HFMD in Southern China. Methods We enrolled pediatric HFMD patients admitted to 3/3 county-level hospitals, and 3/23 township-level hospitals in Anhua county...

Periods of high dengue transmission defined by rainfall do not impact efficacy of dengue vaccine in regions of endemic disease

Objective To evaluate the association of rainy season with overall dengue disease incidence and with the efficacy of the Sanofi Pasteur recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent vaccine (CYD-TDV) in two randomized, controlled multicenter phase III clinical trials in Asia and Latin America. Methods Rainy seasons were defined for each study site using climatological information...

Epidemiology of lumbar punctures in hospitalized patients in the United States

Objectives Lumbar puncture (LP) is an important technique for assessing and treating neurological symptoms. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of diagnostic lumbar punctures performed on hospitalized patients in the United States. Methods We analyzed data from the 2010 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the National Emergency Department Survey (NEDS...