PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,765)

Prospective study of canine leptospirosis in shelter and stray dog populations: Identification of chronic carriers and different Leptospira species infecting dogs

Dogs are highly susceptible to the leptospiral infection, notably stray and sheltered dogs. Unsanitary conditions often observed in dog shelters may predispose the introduction and spread of leptospires among sheltered populations, potentially increasing the chances for the inadvertent adoption of asymptomatically infected animals. The present work describes a longitudinal study...

Canine filariasis in the Amazon: Species diversity and epidemiology of these emergent and neglected zoonoses

Dirofilaria immitis and Acanthocheilonema reconditum are common parasites in dogs but have also been reported parasitizing humans. The differential diagnosis and epidemiological evaluation of these zoonoses are important to the development of efficient public health policies and control strategies. The purpose of this study was to carry out an epidemiological survey by using...

Schiff bases containing a furoxan moiety as potential nitric oxide donors in plant tissues

Stable Schiff bases containing a furoxan moiety are synthesized as single regioisomers by the reaction of 3-methyl-2-oxy-furazan-4-carbaldehydewith various amino compounds at room temperature. The structures of synthesized compounds were fully characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The effect of synthesized Schiff bases containing a furoxan...

Creative decision making and visual search behavior in skilled soccer players

The ability to produce creative solutions is a key part of expert performance. The aim of this study was to identify the visual search behaviors that underpin superior creative performance of skilled soccer players during simulated 11-a-side match play. Players (N = 44) were required to interact with a representative life-size video-based simulation of attacking situations whilst...

The golden hour of sepsis: An in-depth analysis of sepsis-related maternal mortality in middle-income country Suriname

Background Sepsis was the main cause of maternal mortality in Suriname, a middle-income country. Objective of this study was to perform a qualitative analysis of the clinical and management aspects of sepsis-related maternal deaths with a focus on the ‘golden hour’ principle of antibiotic therapy. Methods A nationwide reproductive age mortality survey was performed from 2010 to...

Effect of cowpea flour processing on the chemical properties and acceptability of a novel cowpea blended maize porridge

Childhood growth stunting is a pervasive problem in Malawi and is in large part due to low quality complementary foods and chronic gut inflammation. Introducing legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) into the complementary diet has the potential to improve childhood growth by improving diet quality through improvements in macro- and micronutrients and also by reducing gut...

Detection of 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine in culture filtrates of Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6 and Pantoea ananatis BRT175 by laser ablation electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

The oxyvinylglycine 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine (FVG) arrests the germination of weedy grasses and inhibits the growth of the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Both biological and analytical methods have previously been used to detect the presence of FVG in crude and extracted culture filtrates of several Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. Although a combination of these...

Improving the impact of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis implementation in small urban centers among men who have sex with men: An agent-based modelling study

Objectives Identifying prescribing strategies that improve the efficiency of PrEP should increase its impact at the population level. This study identifies PrEP allocation criteria that most effectively reduce 10-year HIV incidence by 25%, in accordance with the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy’s goal for the proportionate reduction in new diagnoses. Methods We used a discrete-time...

Germination ecology of Chloris truncata and its implication for weed management

Chloris truncata is a significant weed in summer crops in the subtropical region of Australia. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of two populations of C. truncata. Overall, germination was not affected by the populations. Seeds germinated at a wide range of alternating day/night temperatures, suggesting that seeds...

Biodegradability of polyethylene by bacteria and fungi from Dandora dumpsite Nairobi-Kenya

This study aimed at isolating and identifying bacteria and fungi with the capacity to degrade low density polyethylene (LDPE). The level of biodegradation of LDPE sheets with bacterial and fungal inoculums from different sampling points of Dandora dumpsite was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Incubation of the LDPE sheets was done for sixteen weeks at 37°C and 28°C for...

Ablation dynamics during laser interstitial thermal therapy for mesiotemporal epilepsy

Introduction The recent emergence of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) as a frontline surgical tool in the management of brain tumors and epilepsy is a result of advances in MRI thermal imaging. A limitation to further improving LITT is the diversity of brain tissue thermoablative properties, which hinders our ability to predict LITT treatment-related effects. Utilizing...

Predictive performance of six mortality risk scores and the development of a novel model in a prospective cohort of patients undergoing valve surgery secondary to rheumatic fever

Background Mortality prediction after cardiac procedures is an essential tool in clinical decision making. Although rheumatic cardiac disease remains a major cause of heart surgery in the world no previous study validated risk scores in a sample exclusively with this condition. Objectives Develop a novel predictive model focused on mortality prediction among patients undergoing...

Do weather changes influence physical activity level among older adults? – The Generation 100 study

Introduction Understanding how individual and environmental factors impact physical activity (PA) level is important when building strategies to improve PA of older adults. No studies have examined how hour-to-hour weather changes influence PA in older adults or how the association between weather and PA eventually is related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) measured as peak...

New insights into island vegetation composition and species diversity—Consistent and conditional responses across contrasting insular habitats at the plot-scale

Most island-ecology studies focus on the properties of entire island communities, thus neglecting species-environment relationships operating at the habitat-level. Habitat-specific variation in the strength and sign of these relationships will conceal patterns observed on the island scale and may preclude a mechanistic interpretation of patterns and processes. Habitat-specific...

Transcription factor induced conversion of human fibroblasts towards the hair cell lineage

Hearing loss is the most common sensorineural disorder, affecting over 5% of the population worldwide. Its most frequent cause is the loss of hair cells (HCs), the mechanosensory receptors of the cochlea. HCs transduce incoming sounds into electrical signals that activate auditory neurons, which in turn send this information to the brain. Although some spontaneous HC regeneration...

Linagliptin unmasks specific antioxidant pathways protective against albuminuria and kidney hypertrophy in a mouse model of diabetes

Background Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors may have protective effects on diabetic kidney disease (DKD) via specific antioxidant pathways. The DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin, was evaluated with the hypothesis that DPP-4 inhibition would ameliorate the development of DKD in a glucose-independent manner by altering specific antioxidant function. Methods DBA/2J mice (a well...

HappyTools: A software for high-throughput HPLC data processing and quantitation

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is widely used for absolute quantitation. The advent of new columns and HPLC technology has enabled higher sample throughput, and hence, larger scale studies that perform quantitation on different sample types (e.g. healthy controls vs. patients with rheumatoid arthritis) using HPLC are becoming feasible. However, there remains a lack...

Temporal dynamics of the lung and plasma viromes in lung transplant recipients

The human virome plays an important role for the clinical outcome of lung transplant recipients (LTRs). While pathogenic viruses may cause severe infections, non-pathogenic viruses may serve as potential markers for the level of immunosuppression. However, neither the complexity of the virome in different compartments nor the dynamics of the virus populations posttransplantation...

B lymphocytes can be activated to act as antigen presenting cells to promote anti-tumor responses

Immune evasion by tumors includes several different mechanisms, including the inefficiency of antigen presenting cells (APCs) to trigger anti-tumor T cell responses. B lymphocytes may display a pro-tumoral role but can also be modulated to function as antigen presenting cells to T lymphocytes, capable of triggering anti-cancer immune responses. While dendritic cells, DCs, are the...

An open-source tool for analysis and automatic identification of dendritic spines using machine learning

Synaptic plasticity, the cellular basis for learning and memory, is mediated by a complex biochemical network of signaling proteins. These proteins are compartmentalized in dendritic spines, the tiny, bulbous, post-synaptic structures found on neuronal dendrites. The ability to screen a high number of molecular targets for their effect on dendritic spine structural plasticity...

PASI: A novel pathway method to identify delicate group effects

Pathway analysis is a common approach in diverse biomedical studies, yet the currently-available pathway tools do not typically support the increasingly popular personalized analyses. Another weakness of the currently-available pathway methods is their inability to handle challenging data with only modest group-based effects compared to natural individual variation. In an effort...

Alternative splicing of helicase-like transcription factor (Hltf): Intron retention-dependent activation of immune tolerance at the feto-maternal interface

Hltf is regulated by intron retention, and global Hltf-deletion causes perinatal lethality from hypoglycemia. In heart, full-length Hltf is a transcriptional regulator of Hif-1α that controls transport systems. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that Hltf deletion from placenta caused or exacerbated neonatal hypoglycemia via Hif-1α regulation of nutrient transporters. RNA-seq data...

Molecular phylogeography of East Asian Boea clarkeana (Gesneriaceae) in relation to habitat restriction

Subfamily Cyrtandroideae (Gesneriaceae) comprises a broadly distributed group of rocky-slope herbs, with China being the center of its distributional range. The normal growth of many species within the family is particularly dependent on special habitats. Due to the paucity of molecular studies, very little is known regarding East Asian herb phylogeographic pattern. Here, we...