PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 183,348)

Nucleolar sub-compartments in motion during rRNA synthesis inhibition: Contraction of nucleolar condensed chromatin and gathering of fibrillar centers are concomitant

The nucleolus produces the large polycistronic transcript (47S precursor) containing the 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNA sequences and hosts most of the nuclear steps of pre-rRNA processing. Among numerous components it contains condensed chromatin and active rRNA genes which adopt a more accessible conformation. For this reason, it is a paradigm of chromosome territory organization. Active ...

Structural analysis of human glycoprotein butyrylcholinesterase using atomistic molecular dynamics: The importance of glycosylation site ASN241

Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a glycoprotein capable of bioscavenging toxic compounds such as organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. For commercial production of BChE, it is practical to synthesize BChE in non–human expression systems, such as plants or animals. However, the glycosylation profile in these systems is significantly different from the human glycosylation profile, ...

Intracardiac anatomical relationships and potential for streaming in double inlet left ventricles

The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the variable anatomical features of double inlet left ventricle hearts without cavopulmonary connection that would potentially facilitate favorable streaming. Thirty-nine post-mortem specimens of double inlet left ventricle without cavopulmonary connection were investigated. The focus was on anatomical characteristics that ...

Influence of the type of training task on intermanual transfer effects in upper-limb prosthesis training: A randomized pre-posttest study

Intermanual transfer, the transfer of motor skills from the trained hand to the untrained hand, can be used to train upper limb prosthesis skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effect and the type of training task. The used tasks were based on different aspects of prosthetic handling: reaching, grasping, ...

Anterior chamber associated immune deviation used as a neuroprotective strategy in rats with spinal cord injury

The inflammatory response is probably one of the main destructive events occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Its progression depends mostly on the autoimmune response developed against neural constituents. Therefore, modulation or inhibition of this self-reactive reaction could help to reduce tissue destruction. Anterior chamber associated immune deviation (ACAID) is a ...

Large-scale identification of human cerebrovascular proteins: Inter-tissue and intracerebral vascular protein diversity

The human cerebrovascular system is responsible for regulating demand-dependent perfusion and maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In addition, defects in the human cerebrovasculature lead to stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, vascular malformations, and vascular cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to discover new proteins of the human cerebrovascular system ...

Asymmetry of price returns—Analysis and perspectives from a non-extensive statistical physics point of view

We study how the approach grounded on non-extensive statistical physics can be applied to describe and distinguish different stages of the stock and money market development. A particular attention is given to asymmetric behavior of fat tailed distributions of positive and negative returns. A new method to measure this asymmetry is proposed. It is based on the value of the ...

High DNA stability in white blood cells and buffy coat lysates stored at ambient temperature under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere

Conventional storage of blood-derived fractions relies on cold. However, lately, ambient temperature preservation has been evaluated by several independent institutions that see economic and logistic advantages in getting rid of the cold chain. Here we validated a novel procedure for ambient temperature preservation of DNA in white blood cell and buffy coat lysates based on the ...

Cervical HSV-2 infection causes cervical remodeling and increases risk for ascending infection and preterm birth

Preterm birth (PTB), or birth before 37 weeks gestation, is the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. Cervical viral infections have been established as risk factors for PTB in women, although the mechanism leading to increased risk is unknown. Using a mouse model of pregnancy, we determined that intra-vaginal HSV2 infection caused increased rates of preterm birth ...

Arthritic role of Porphyromonas gingivalis in collagen-induced arthritis mice

Epidemiological studies show an association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) is a well-known pathogen in periodontitis. This study investigated the pathogenic effects of P.gingivalis on autoimmune arthritis in vivo. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice were intraperitoneally injected with W83 and 2561 strains of ...

Addressing the cost of infractions in the online literature and databases

Myocardial infarction sometimes appears misspelt as myocardial infraction in the cardiovascular research literature. With accurate citation of literature contributions important to advancing the field and its contributors, in this study we aimed to document the frequency and explore the causes and impact of this error specific to the cardiology literature. Literature databases ...

Comparison between manual and mechanical chest compressions during resuscitation in a pediatric animal model of asphyxial cardiac arrest

Aims Chest compressions (CC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are not sufficiently effective in many circumstances. Mechanical CC could be more effective than manual CC, but there are no studies comparing both techniques in children. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of manual and mechanical chest compressions with Thumper device in a pediatric ...

Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system and nanoemulsion for enhancing aqueous miscibility of Alpinia galanga oil

Alpinia galanga oil (AGO) possesses various activities but low aqueous solubility limits its application particularly in aquatic animals. AGO has powerful activity on fish anesthesia. Ethanol used for enhancing water miscible of AGO always shows severe side effects on fish. The present study explores the development of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) and ...

Lupus nephritis progression in FcγRIIB-/-yaa mice is associated with early development of glomerular electron dense deposits and loss of renal DNase I in severe disease

FcγRIIB-/-yaa mice develop severe lupus glomerulonephritis due to lack of an inhibitory immune cell receptor combined with a Y-chromosome linked autoimmune accelerator mutation. In the present study, we have investigated nephritis development and progression in FcγRIIB-/-yaa mice to find shared features with NZB/NZW F1 lupus prone mice and human disease. We sacrificed 25 male ...

Cell transmission model of dynamic assignment for urban rail transit networks

For urban rail transit network, the space-time flow distribution can play an important role in evaluating and optimizing the space-time resource allocation. For obtaining the space-time flow distribution without the restriction of schedules, a dynamic assignment problem is proposed based on the concept of continuous transmission. To solve the dynamic assignment problem, the cell ...

Can self-testing increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Globally, four out of ten individuals living with HIV have not been tested for HIV. Testing is especially important for men who have sex with men (MSM), among whom an increasing HIV epidemic has been identified in many regions of the world. As a supplement to site-based HIV testing services, HIV self-testing (HIVST) provides a promising approach to promote HIV testing. ...

Flow cytometric discrimination of seven lineage markers by using two fluorochromes

Flow cytometry is the primary immunological technique used to analyze multiple parameters on complex cell populations. We present a staining method that identifies major human mononuclear lymphoid and myeloid populations (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, γδ T cells, B cells, NK cells and monocytes), using only two fluorochromes and a minimal number of cells. Our approach increases the number ...

Size-conditional smolting and the response of Carmel River steelhead to two decades of conservation efforts

Threshold effects are common in ecosystems and can generate counterintuitive outcomes in management interventions. A threshold effect proposed for steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is size-conditional smolting and marine survival. Steelhead are anadromous, maturing in the ocean but migrating to freshwater to spawn, where their offspring reside for one or more years before ...

Erectile dysfunction and quality of life in men receiving methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment. A cross-sectional multicentre study

Background Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common among men on opioid replacement therapy (ORT), but most previous studies exploring its prevalence and determinants yielded contrasting findings. Moreover, the impact of ED on patients’ quality of life (QoL) has been seldom explored. Objective To explore the prevalence and determinants of ED in men on ORT, and the impact on QoL. Methods ...

Visualizing the spatiotemporal map of Rac activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells under laminar and disturbed flows

Disturbed flow can eliminate the alignment of endothelial cells in the direction of laminar flow, and significantly impacts on atherosclerosis in collateral arteries near the bifurcation and high curvature regions. While shear stress induced Rac polarity has been shown to play crucial roles in cell polarity and migration, little is known about the spatiotemporal map of Rac under ...

Comparison of laser and circumlimbal suture induced elevation of intraocular pressure in albino CD-1 mice

Animal models of ocular hypertension are important tools for glaucoma studies. Both acute transient models and chronic models of ocular hypertension may be useful to investigate specific aspects of neurodegeneration. In this study, we compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) and inner retinal changes induced by 1) laser photocoagulation of both episcleral veins and limbal vessels and ...

Biodiversity conservation values of fragmented communally reserved forests, managed by indigenous people, in a human-modified landscape in Borneo

This study explored the conservation values of communally reserved forests (CRFs), which local indigenous communities deliberately preserve within their area of shifting cultivation. In the current landscape of rural Borneo, CRFs are the only option for conservation because other forested areas have already been logged or transformed into plantations. By analyzing their alpha and ...

The alkalophilic fungus Sodiomyces alkalinus hosts beta- and gammapartitiviruses together with a new fusarivirus

Mixed infection by three dsRNA viruses, a novel betapartitivirus, a gammapartitivirus, and a novel fusarivirus, has been identified in four isolates of the obligate alkalophilic fungus Sodiomyces alkalinus. The first, Sodiomyces alkalinus partitivirus 1 (SaPV1), is placed within the genus Betapartitivirus and is related to Ustilaginoidea virens partitivirus 2. The taxonomic ...

In vitro enteroid-derived three-dimensional tissue model of human small intestinal epithelium with innate immune responses

There is a need for functional in vitro 3D human intestine systems that can bridge the gap between conventional cell culture studies and human trials. The successful engineering in vitro of human intestinal tissues relies on the use of the appropriate cell sources, biomimetic scaffolds, and 3D culture conditions to support vital organ functions. We previously established a ...