PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 169,307)

Biodegradation of diuron by an endophytic fungus Neurospora intermedia DP8-1 isolated from sugarcane and its potential for remediating diuron-contaminated soils

A diuron-degrading endophyte DP8-1 was isolated from sugarcane root grown in diuron-treated soil in the present study. The endophyte was identified as Neurospora intermedia based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis. The fermentation parameters including temperature, pH, inoculation size, carbon source, and initial diuron concentration were also investigated ...

The burden of septic arthritis on the U.S. inpatient care: A national study

Objective To assess the health care burden of septic arthritis in the U.S. and examine the associated factors. Methods We used the U.S. Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) data of patients hospitalized with septic arthritis as the primary diagnosis from 2009–12 to assess time-trends. Multivariable-adjusted models assessed demographics, comorbidity and hospital ...

REM sleep deprivation induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in middle-aged rats: Roles of the eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway and supplementation with L-arginine

Sleep loss can induce or aggravate the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of REM sleep deprivation on blood pressure in rats and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. After Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ...

A prospective comparative assessment of the accuracy of the FibroScan in evaluating liver steatosis

Background/aims Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of the FibroScan® device in diagnosing liver steatosis, but its usefulness has not been thoroughly appraised. We investigated the usefulness of the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in detecting and quantifying liver steatosis. Methods A prospective analysis was applied to 79 chronic liver disease patients who ...

Characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of Arabis stellari and comparisons with related species

Arabis stellari var. japonica is an ornamental plant of the Brassicaceae family, and is widely distributed in South Korea. However, no information is available about its molecular biology and no genomic study has been performed on A. stellari. In this paper, the authors report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of A. stellari. The plastome of A. stellari was 153,683 bp in ...

Peculiar Genes Selection: A new features selection method to improve classification performances in imbalanced data sets

High-Throughput technologies provide genomic and trascriptomic data that are suitable for biomarker detection for classification purposes. However, the high dimension of the output of such technologies and the characteristics of the data sets analysed represent an issue for the classification task. Here we present a new feature selection method based on three steps to detect ...

Do labeled versus unlabeled treatments of alternatives’ names influence stated choice outputs? Results from a mode choice study

Discrete choice experiments have been widely applied to elicit behavioral preferences in the literature. In many of these experiments, the alternatives are named alternatives, meaning that they are naturally associated with specific names. For example, in a mode choice study, the alternatives can be associated with names such as car, taxi, bus, and subway. A fundamental issue that ...

Formation of friable embryogenic callus in cassava is enhanced under conditions of reduced nitrate, potassium and phosphate

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is an important research tool for the genetic improvement of cassava. The induction of friable embryogenic callus (FEC) is considered as a key step in cassava transformation. In the present study, the media composition was optimized for enhancing the FEC induction, and the effect of the optimized medium on gene expression was evaluated. In ...

New synthetic lipid antigens for rapid serological diagnosis of tuberculosis

Background During pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) antibodies are generated to trehalose esters of mycolic acids which are cell wall lipids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Attempts have been made to use these complex natural mixtures in serological tests for PTB diagnosis. Aim The aim of this work was to determine whether a serological test based on a panel of defined individual ...

Transcriptome analysis of PDGFRα+ cells identifies T-type Ca2+ channel CACNA1G as a new pathological marker for PDGFRα+ cell hyperplasia

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα)+ cells are distributed into distinct morphological groups within the serosal, muscular, and submucosal layers as well as the myenteric and deep muscular plexi. PDGFRα+ cells directly interact with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) in gastrointestinal smooth muscle tissue. These three cell types, ...

Community- and government-managed marine protected areas increase fish size, biomass and potential value

Government-managed marine protected areas (MPAs) can restore small fish stocks, but have been heavily criticized for excluding resource users and creating conflicts. A promising but less studied alternative are community-managed MPAs, where resource users are more involved in MPA design, implementation and enforcement. Here we evaluated effects of government- and community-managed ...

Synthetic mRNA is a more reliable tool for the delivery of DNA-targeting proteins into the cell nucleus than fusion with a protein transduction domain

Cell reprogramming requires efficient delivery of reprogramming transcription factors into the cell nucleus. Here, we compared the robustness and workload of two protein delivery methods that avoid the risk of genomic integration. The first method is based on fusion of the protein of interest to a protein transduction domain (PTD) for delivery across the membranes of target cells. ...

Accelerometer-derived physical activity and sedentary time by cancer type in the United States

The 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were among the first population-level studies to incorporate objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior, allowing for greater understanding of these behaviors. However, there has yet to be a comprehensive examination of these data in cancer survivors, including ...

Cross-sectional area of the femoral vein varies with leg position and distance from the inguinal ligament

Purpose The risk of complications associated with femoral venous catheterization could be potentially reduced if the procedure was performed at the location where the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vessel is the largest. The diameter of the femoral vein depends on leg position as well as the distance from the inguinal ligament. We determined the CSA of the right femoral vein in ...

Reply & Supply: Efficient crowdsourcing when workers do more than answer questions

Crowdsourcing works by distributing many small tasks to large numbers of workers, yet the true potential of crowdsourcing lies in workers doing more than performing simple tasks—they can apply their experience and creativity to provide new and unexpected information to the crowdsourcer. One such case is when workers not only answer a crowdsourcer’s questions but also contribute new ...

The advantage of being slow: The quasi-neutral contact process

According to the competitive exclusion principle, in a finite ecosystem, extinction occurs naturally when two or more species compete for the same resources. An important question that arises is: when coexistence is not possible, which mechanisms confer an advantage to a given species against the other(s)? In general, it is expected that the species with the higher ...

ERK2 and JNK1 contribute to TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression in synovial fibroblasts

Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) induces the expression and secretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8), which contributes to synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To elucidate the mechanism of the onset of RA, we used synovial fibroblasts without autoimmune inflammatory diseases and investigated MAPK signaling pathways in TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression. Synovial fibroblasts isolated from ...

The effect of Fe2O3 crystal phases on CO2 hydrogenation

The effect of Fe2O3 crystal phases on their performance in CO2 hydrogenation was studied. α-Fe2O3 crystal was prepared by precipitation method from Fe(NO3)3·9H2O and (NH4)2CO3, and γ-Fe2O3 was prepared by grinding Fe(NO3)3·9H2O and L(+)-Tartaric acid in agate mortar completely. The crystal phases of Fe2O3 influence the distribution of promoter Zn, K and Cu on catalysts. The ...

Th17 cells are associated with protection from ventilator associated pneumonia

Background CD4+ T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and Interleukin (IL)-17A play an important role in clearing pathogens in mouse models of pneumonia. We hypothesized that numbers of Th17 cells and levels of IL-17A are associated with risk for nosocomial pneumonia in humans. Methods We collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from mechanically ventilated (n = 25) patients undergoing ...

Alpha-tocopherol attenuates the anti-tumor activity of crizotinib against cells transformed by NPM-ALK

Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are mainly characterized by harboring the fusion protein nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK). The ALK inhibitor, crizotinib specifically induced apoptosis in Ba/F3 cells expressing NPM-ALK by inhibiting the activation of NPM-ALK and its downstream molecule, signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3). We ...

The use of 18F-Fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) as a non-invasive pharmacodynamic biomarker to determine the minimally pharmacologically active dose of AZD8835, a novel PI3Kα inhibitor

Background The phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K), AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway is frequently de-regulated and activated in human cancer and is an important therapeutic target. AZD8835 is a PI3K inhibitor, with selectivity against PI3K α and δ isoforms, which is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials. 18F-Fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron ...

Antagonism of proteasome inhibitor-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression by PINK1 mutation

PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is an integral protein in the mitochondrial membrane and maintains mitochondrial fidelity. Pathogenic mutations in PINK1 have been identified as a cause of early-onset autosomal recessive familial Parkinson’s disease (PD). The ubiquitin proteasome pathway is associated with neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated whether ...

Microbiota of little penguins and short-tailed shearwaters during development

The establishment and early colonisation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been recognised as a crucial stage in chick development, with pioneering microbial species responsible for influencing the development of the GI tract and influencing host health, fitness and disease status throughout life. Development of the microbiota in long lived seabirds is poorly understood. This ...

Serum resistin as an independent marker of aortic stiffness in patients with coronary artery disease

Background Subjects with higher carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) will be at an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events in future. Resistin is an inflammatory mediator and a biomarker of CV diseases. We evaluated the association between serum resistin and aortic stiffness in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods A total of 104 patients with CAD were ...