PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,866)

Expansion of Capsicum annum fruit is linked to dynamic tissue-specific differential expression of miRNA and siRNA profiles

Small regulatory RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have emerged as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators controlling a wide variety of physiological processes including fruit development. Data are, however, limited for their potential roles in developmental processes determining economically important traits of crops. The...

Choosing between nurse-led and medical doctor-led from private for-profit versus non-for-profit health facilities: A household survey in urban Burkina Faso

Background Providers’ qualification (Medical doctor [MD] or nurse); type of care facility ownership (for-profit [FP] or not-for-profit [NFP]) may all influence individuals’ healthcare-seeking behavior and therefore merits empirical assessment to provide valuable evidence-informed policy orientation in the present context of private health system development. Previous studies have...

Constructing a DNA barcode reference library for southern herbs in China: A resource for authentication of southern Chinese medicine

Southern Chinese Medicine (SCM) is an important sect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its own special cultural style. Species identification is essential for TCM quality control because authentic herbs are possibly substituted with adulterants that would threaten the health of the public or even cause death. Here, we provided the first local reference DNA barcode...

Chronic irradiation with 222-nm UVC light induces neither DNA damage nor epidermal lesions in mouse skin, even at high doses

Surgical site infections (SSIs) represent an important clinical problem associated with increased levels of surgical morbidity and mortality. UVC irradiation during surgery has been considered to represent a possible strategy to prevent the development of SSI. 254-nm UVC induces marked levels of DNA damage by generating cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in microorganisms...

Performance comparison of the cobas Liat and Cepheid GeneXpert systems for Clostridium difficile detection

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a high burden and significant cause of healthcare-acquired infectious diarrhea in the United States (US). Timely and accurate diagnosis of CDI enables the rapid initiation of antibiotic therapy and infection control policies to minimize disease transmission. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have become a preferred modality for...

Willingness to participate in HIV research at the end of life (EOL)

Introduction Animal models have been vital for scientific discovery but have limitations, especially in infectious disease research. It is essential to develop a means to study these diseases in human models. We hypothesized that altruistic people would willingly participate in research near the end-of-life (EOL), for the benefit of science and to provide one last gift to society...

RDE: A novel approach to improve the classification performance and expressivity of KDB

Bayesian network classifiers (BNCs) have demonstrated competitive classification performance in a variety of real-world applications. A highly scalable BNC with high expressivity is extremely desirable. This paper proposes Redundant Dependence Elimination (RDE) for improving the classification performance and expressivity of k-dependence Bayesian classifier (KDB). To demonstrate...

Whole genome SNP analysis suggests unique virulence factor differences of the Beijing and Manila families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis found in Hawaii

While tuberculosis (TB) remains a global disease, the WHO estimates that 62% of the incident TB cases in 2016 occurred in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions. TB in the Pacific is composed predominantly of two genetic families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb): Beijing and Manila. The Manila family is historically under-studied relative to the families that...

The role of energy in health facilities: A conceptual framework and complementary data assessment in Malawi

Background Modern energy enables health service delivery. Access to electricity is, however, unreliable in many health facilities in developing countries. Little research has explored the relationships between energy and service delivery. Methods Based on extensive literature searches and iterative discussions within the research team, we first develop a conceptual framework of...

Impact of intense disturbance on the structure and composition of wet-eucalypt forests: A case study from the Tasmanian 2016 wildfires

Fire is a key process in eucalypt communities, exerting a strong influence on the composition, structure and functioning of forests. Much of the research on the fire response of temperate, wet-sclerophyll trees in Australia comes from Victoria, where the dominant eucalypt is Eucalyptus regnans. In contrast, central and northern Tasmanian forests, dominated by Eucalyptus...

Nrf2 protects stellate cells from Smad-dependent cell activation

Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) orchestrate the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and are the primary effector of liver fibrosis. Several factors, including TGF-β1, PDGF and oxidative stress, have been shown to trigger HSC activation. However, the involvement of cellular defence mechanisms, such as the activation of antioxidant response by Nrf2/Keap1 in the modulation of HSC...

Distribution of vesicle pools in cerebellar parallel fibre terminals after depression of ectopic transmission

At parallel fibre terminals in the cerebellar cortex, glutamate released outside of the active zone can activate AMPA receptors on juxtaposed Bergmann glial cell processes. This process is termed “ectopic” release, and allows for directed transmission to astroglial cells that is functionally independent of synaptic transmission to postsynaptic Purkinje neurons. The location of...

Germination ecology of turnip weed (Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.) in the northern regions of Australia

In Australia, turnip weed has been rapidly emerging as one of the major weeds in conservation agricultural systems. Germination and emergence of turnip weed were examined for two populations collected from Gatton and St George regions of Australia; two locations with high and low rainfall, respectively. The seeds of turnip weed germinated at all the tested temperatures, but...

Salmonella spp. transmission in a vertically integrated poultry operation: Clustering and diversity analysis using phenotyping (serotyping, phage typing) and genotyping (MLVA)

The transmission of Salmonella enterica within a vertically integrated poultry operation was investigated longitudinally over an 18-month period (2013–2014). Thirty six percent of all samples collected (1503 of 4219) were positive for salmonellae with seven Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars, and one Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae serovar detected. Both Salmonella...

Mosquito control practices and perceptions: An analysis of economic stakeholders during the Zika epidemic in Belize, Central America

The tourist-based economy of Belize, a tropical hub for eco-tourism, is at high risk to be disproportionately impacted by established and emerging mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika. An online survey was used to probe economic stakeholders working in the Belize tourism industry about their mosquito control practices and perceptions. Responses demonstrated that the respondents...

If it doesn’t help, it doesn’t hurt? Information elaboration harms the performance of gender-diverse teams when attributions of competence are inaccurate

Information elaboration—the act of exchanging, discussing, and integrating information and perspectives through verbal communication—tends to be considered as the silver bullet that drives the performance of diverse teams. We challenge this notion by proposing that the effect of information elaboration on team performance depends on the accuracy of within-group competence...

Different megafauna vary in their seed dispersal effectiveness of the megafaunal fruit Platymitra macrocarpa (Annonaceae)

The world’s largest terrestrial animals (megafauna) can play profound roles in seed dispersal. Yet, the term ‘megafauna’ is often used to encompass a diverse range of body sizes and physiologies of, primarily, herbivorous animals. To determine the extent to which these animals varied in their seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE), we compared the contribution of different megafauna...

Skin mucosome activity as an indicator of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans susceptibility in salamanders

Recently emerged fungal diseases, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) are an increasing threat to amphibians worldwide. In Europe, the threat of Bsal to salamander populations is demonstrated by the rapid decline of fire salamander populations in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. Although most European urodelans are susceptible to...

Pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women who conceived on antiretroviral therapy

As antiretroviral therapy (ART) expands in resource-limited settings, understanding the impact of ART on pregnancy outcomes is critical. We analyzed women who became pregnant on ART while enrolled in a clinical trial (HPTN 052, ACTG A5208, and ACTG A5175); the majority of women were from Africa, with a median age of 29 years. Eligible women were on ART at conception and had a...

The osteology of Periptychus carinidens: A robust, ungulate-like placental mammal (Mammalia: Periptychidae) from the Paleocene of North America

Periptychus is the archetypal genus of Periptychidae, a clade of prolific Paleocene ‘condylarth’ mammals from North America that were among the first placental mammals to radiate after the end-Cretaceous extinction, remarkable for their distinctive dental anatomy. A comprehensive understanding of the anatomy of Periptychus has been hindered by a lack of cranial and postcranial...

No evidence that facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is associated with women's sexual desire

Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been linked to many different behavioral tendencies. However, not all of these correlations have replicated well across samples. Arnocky et al. (in press, Archives of Sexual Behavior) recently reported that sexual desire was correlated with fWHR. The current study aimed to test this relationship in a large sample of women. fWHR was measured...

The mathematics of market timing

Market timing is an investment technique that tries to continuously switch investment into assets forecast to have better returns. What is the likelihood of having a successful market timing strategy? With an emphasis on modeling simplicity, I calculate the feasible set of market timing portfolios using index mutual fund data for perfectly timed (by hindsight) all or nothing...

Usefulness of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing Whipple’s disease in rheumatology

Objectives To determine when Tropheryma whipplei polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is appropriate in patients evaluated for rheumatological symptoms. Methods In a retrospective observational study done in rheumatology units of five hospitals, we assessed the clinical and radiological signs that prompted T. whipplei PCR testing between 2010 and 2014, the proportion of patients...

A novel multiplex assay of SNP-STR markers for forensic purpose

Like DIP-STR markers (deletion/insertion polymorphism-short tandem repeat combinations), SNP-STR markers (single nucleotide polymorphism-STR combinations) are also valuable in forensic DNA mixture analysis. In this study, eight SNP-STRs were selected, and a stable and sensitive multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for amplifying these SNP-STRs and the...

Reinforcement learning for solution updating in Artificial Bee Colony

In the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, the employed bee and the onlooker bee phase involve updating the candidate solutions by changing a value in one dimension, dubbed one-dimension update process. For some problems which the number of dimensions is very high, the one-dimension update process can cause the solution quality and convergence speed drop. This paper proposes a...