PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 182,323)

Assessment of renal function in routine care of people living with HIV on ART in a resource-limited setting in urban Zambia

Introduction Data on renal impairment in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains scarce, determination of renal function is not part of routine assessments. We evaluated renal function and blood pressure in a cohort of people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the Renal Care Zambia project (ReCaZa). Methods Using routine data from an HIV outpatient clinic from ...

Quantifiable effects of regular exercise on zinc status in a healthy population—A systematic review

Zinc is an essential mineral of which its functions have potential implications on exercise performance and beneficial adaptations of physical activity. While the effects of aerobic exercise on zinc metabolism acutely have been well described, the effect of long-term exercise training on zinc status remains unclear. The present review aims to determine the effects of exercise ...

Identification and molecular characterization of a metagenome-derived L-lysine decarboxylase gene from subtropical soil microorganisms

L-lysine decarboxylase (LDC, EC 4.1.1.18) is a key enzyme in the decarboxylation of L-lysine to 1,5-pentanediamine and efficiently contributes significance to biosynthetic capability. Metagenomic technology is a shortcut approach used to obtain new genes from uncultured microorganisms. In this study, a subtropical soil metagenomic library was constructed, and a putative LDC gene ...

Excitability is increased in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells of Fmr1 knockout mice

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a failure of neuronal cells to express the gene encoding the fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP). Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, learning impairment, hyperactivity, seizures and anxiety. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice do not express FMRP and, as a result, reproduce some FXS behavioral abnormalities. While ...

Barcoding Atlantic Canada’s mesopelagic and upper bathypelagic marine fishes

DNA barcode sequences were developed from 557 mesopelagic and upper bathypelagic teleost specimens collected in waters off Atlantic Canada. Confident morphological identifications were available for 366 specimens, of 118 species and 93 genera, which yielded 328 haplotypes. Five of the species were novel to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). Most of the 118 species conformed to ...

The performance of a new local false discovery rate method on tests of association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and genome-wide genetic variants

The maximum entropy (ME) method is a recently-developed approach for estimating local false discovery rates (LFDR) that incorporates external information allowing assignment of a subset of tests to a category with a different prior probability of following the null hypothesis. Using this ME method, we have reanalyzed the findings from a recent large genome-wide association study of ...

Ethnicity and skin autofluorescence-based risk-engines for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus

Skin auto fluorescence (SAF) is used as a proxy for the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and has been proposed to stratify patients into cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) risk groups. This study evaluates the effects of seven different ethnicities (Arab, Central-East African, Eastern Mediterranean, European, North African, South Asian and ...

Critical developmental windows for morphology and hematology revealed by intermittent and continuous hypoxic incubation in embryos of quail (Coturnix coturnix)

Hypoxia during embryonic growth in embryos is frequently a powerful determinant of development, but at least in avian embryos the effects appear to show considerable intra- and inter-specific variation. We hypothesized that some of this variation may arise from different protocols that may or may not result in exposure during the embryo’s critical window for hypoxic effects. To ...

Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by astaxanthin inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition in high glucose-stimulated mesothelial cells

Background High glucose concentrations influence the functional and structural development of the peritoneal membrane. We previously reported that the oral administration of astaxanthin (AST) suppressed peritoneal fibrosis (PF) as well as inhibited oxidative stress, inflammation, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) in a ...

A high mitochondrial transport rate characterizes CNS neurons with high axonal regeneration capacity

Improving axonal transport in the injured and diseased central nervous system has been proposed as a promising strategy to improve neuronal repair. However, the contribution of each cargo to the repair mechanism is unknown. DRG neurons globally increase axonal transport during regeneration. Because the transport of specific cargos after axonal insult has not been examined ...

Simple yet effective: Historical proximity variables improve the species distribution models for invasive giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum s.l.) in Poland

Species distribution models are scarcely applicable to invasive species because of their breaking of the models’ assumptions. So far, few mechanistic, semi-mechanistic or statistical solutions like dispersal constraints or propagule limitation have been applied. We evaluated a novel quasi-semi-mechanistic approach for regional scale models, using historical proximity variables ...

Developmental expression of membrane type 4-matrix metalloproteinase (Mt4-mmp/Mmp17) in the mouse embryo

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a large group of endoproteases that play important functions during embryonic development, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis by degrading components of the extracellular matrix. Within this family, we focused our study on Mt4-mmp (also called Mmp17) that belongs to a distinct subset that is anchored to the cell surface via a ...

Functional characterization of zebrafish orthologs of the human Beta 3-Glucosyltransferase B3GLCT gene mutated in Peters Plus Syndrome

Peters Plus Syndrome (PPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by ocular defects, short stature, brachydactyly, characteristic facial features, developmental delay and other highly variable systemic defects. Classic PPS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the B3GLCT gene encoding for a β3-glucosyltransferase that catalyzes the attachment of glucose via a β1–3 ...

Degree sums and dense spanning trees

Finding dense spanning trees (DST) in unweighted graphs is a variation of the well studied minimum spanning tree problem (MST). We utilize established mathematical properties of extremal structures with the minimum sum of distances between vertices to formulate some general conditions on the sum of vertex degrees. We analyze the performance of various combinations of these degree ...

A late Holocene pollen record from proglacial Oblong Tarn, Mount Kenya

High-elevation ecosystems, such as those on Mount Kenya are undergoing significant changes, with accelerated glacial ice losses over the twentieth century creating new space for alpine plants to establish. These ecosystems respond rapidly to climatic variability and within decades of glacial retreat, Afroalpine pioneering taxa stabilize barren land and facilitate soil development, ...

Effects of salinity on the cellular physiological responses of Natrinema sp. J7-2

The halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) live in hyersaline environments such as salt lakes, salt ponds and marine salterns. To cope with the salt stress conditions, haloarchaea have developed two fundamentally different strategies: the "salt-in" strategy and the "compatible-solute" strategy. Although investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance to high salt ...

Links between plant and fungal diversity in habitat fragments of coastal shrubland

Habitat fragmentation is widespread across ecosystems, detrimentally affecting biodiversity. Although most habitat fragmentation studies have been conducted on macroscopic organisms, microbial communities and fungal processes may also be threatened by fragmentation. This study investigated whether fragmentation, and the effects of fragmentation on plants, altered fungal diversity ...

Mathematical values in the processing of Chinese numeral classifiers and measure words

A numeral classifier is required between a numeral and a noun in Chinese, which comes in two varieties, sortal classifer (C) and measural classifier (M), also known as ‘classifier’ and ‘measure word’, respectively. Cs categorize objects based on semantic attributes and Cs and Ms both denote quantity in terms of mathematical values. The aim of this study was to conduct a ...

Image similarity evaluation of the bulk-density-assigned synthetic CT derived from MRI of intracranial regions for radiation treatment

Objective Various methods for radiation-dose calculation have been investigated over previous decades, focusing on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only. The bulk-density-assignment method based on manual segmentation has exhibited promising results compared to dose-calculation with computed tomography (CT). However, this method cannot be easily implemented in clinical ...

Activation of the unfolded protein response in sarcoma cells treated with rapamycin or temsirolimus

Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in eukaryotic cells represents an evolutionarily conserved response to physiological stress. Here, we report that the mTOR inhibitors rapamycin (sirolimus) and structurally related temsirolimus are capable of inducing UPR in sarcoma cells. However, this effect appears to be distinct from the classical role for these drugs as mTOR ...

Assessment of housing density, space allocation and social hierarchy of laboratory rats on behavioural measures of welfare

Minimum space allowances for laboratory rats are legislated based on weight and stocking rates, with the understanding that increased housing density encourages crowding stress. However, there is little evidence for these recommendations, especially when considering positive welfare outcomes. This study consisted of two experiments which investigated the effects of housing density ...

Image identification from brain activity using the population receptive field model

A goal of computational models is not only to explain experimental data but also to make new predictions. A current focus of computational neuroimaging is to predict features of the presented stimulus from measured brain signals. These computational neuroimaging approaches may be agnostic about the underlying neural processes or may be biologically inspired. Here, we use the ...

Early relapses after adjuvant chemotherapy suggests primary chemoresistance in diffuse gastric cancer

Background Survival from gastric cancer remains poor, particularly in Western populations. Previous pre-clinical and subgroup analyses of clinical trials have suggested differing benefits from fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapeutics for diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer. This analysis examines patterns of relapse with and without adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection ...

An analysis of equine round pen training videos posted online: Differences between amateur and professional trainers

Natural Horsemanship is popular among many amateur and professional trainers and as such, has been the subject of recent scientific enquiry. One method commonly adopted by Natural Horsemanship (NH) trainers is that of round pen training (RPT). RPT sessions are usually split into a series of bouts; each including two phases: chasing/flight and chasing offset/flight offset. However, ...

Rab11 family expression in the human placenta: Localization at the maternal-fetal interface

Rab proteins are a family of small GTPases involved in a variety of cellular processes. The Rab11 subfamily in particular directs key steps of intracellular functions involving vesicle trafficking of the endosomal recycling pathway. This Rab subfamily works through a series of effector proteins including the Rab11-FIPs (Rab11 Family-Interacting Proteins). While the Rab11 subfamily ...