PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 183,348)

Masticatory jaw movement of Exaeretodon argentinus (Therapsida: Cynodontia) inferred from its dental microwear

Dental microwear of four postcanine teeth of Exaeretodon argentinus was analyzed using both two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) methods to infer their masticatory jaw movements. Results of both methods were congruent, showing that linear microwear features (scratches) were well aligned and mostly directed to the antero-posterior direction in all four teeth examined. ...

Nonword repetition in adults who stutter: The effects of stimuli stress and auditory-orthographic cues

Purpose Adults who stutter (AWS) are less accurate in their immediate repetition of novel phonological sequences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS). The present study examined whether manipulation of the following two aspects of traditional nonword repetition tasks unmask distinct weaknesses in phonological working memory in AWS: (1) presentation of stimuli with ...

Oral vocabulary training program for Spanish third-graders with low socio-economic status: A randomized controlled trial

Although the importance of vocabulary training in English speaking countries is well recognized and has been extensively studied, the same is not true for Spanish–few evidence based vocabulary studies for Spanish-speaking children have been reported. Here, two rich oral vocabulary training programs (definition and context), based on literature about vocabulary instruction for ...

Disentangling the influence of living place and socioeconomic position on health services use among diabetes patients: A population-based study

This research investigates the influence of place of residence and diabetic patient’s socioeconomic position on their use of health services in a universal health care system. This retrospective cross-sectional population-based study is based on the joint use of the Health Insurance information systems, an ecological indicator of social deprivation and an indicator of potential ...

Pore-forming activity of new conjugate antibiotics based on amphotericin B

A series of amides of the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) and its conjugates with benzoxaboroles was tested to determine whether they form pores in lipid bilayers and to compare their channel characteristics. The tested derivatives produced pores of larger amplitude and shorter lifetime than those of the parent antibiotic. The pore conductance was related to changes in ...

A retrospective matched cohort study evaluating the effects of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tubes on nutritional status and survival in patients with advanced gastroesophageal malignancies undergoing systemic anti-cancer therapy

Background Many patients with cancer or other systemic illnesses can experience malnutrition. One way to mitigate malnutrition is by insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube (PEG tube). The goal of this retrospective matched cohort study is to evaluate if PEG tube placement improved nutritional status and overall survival (OS) in advanced gastroesophageal ...

Fingolimod suppresses neuronal autophagy through the mTOR/p70S6K pathway and alleviates ischemic brain damage in mice

The bioactive, signaling lipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and its analog, fingolimod (FTY720), have previously shown neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully clarified. The roles of autophagy in ischemic stroke are being increasingly recognized. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the S1P ...

Genetic signatures for Helicobacter pylori strains of West African origin

Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse bacterial species that colonizes the stomach in about half of the human population. Most persons colonized by H. pylori remain asymptomatic, but the presence of this organism is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Multiple populations and subpopulations of H. pylori with distinct geographic distributions are recognized. Genetic differences ...

Clonogenic, myogenic progenitors expressing MCAM/CD146 are incorporated as adventitial reticular cells in the microvascular compartment of human post-natal skeletal muscle

Recent observation identifies subendothelial (mural) cells expressing MCAM, a specific system of clonogenic, self-renewing, osteoprogenitors (a.k.a, “mesenchymal stem cells”) in the microvascular compartment of post-natal human bone marrow (BM). In this study, we used MCAM/CD146, as a marker to localize, isolate and assay subendothelial clonogenic cells from the microvasculature of ...

Effect of age on chronic inflammation and responsiveness to bacterial and viral challenges

To identify reliable biomarkers of age-related changes in chronic inflammation and responsiveness to bacterial and viral challenges, we evaluated endogenous and ex vivo stimulated levels of 18 inflammatory markers, using whole blood collected in EDTA and sodium heparin tubes from 41 healthy volunteers, i.e., 11 men + 10 women aged 20–35 and 10 men + 10 women aged 50–77. These ...

Identification of a novel linear B-cell epitope in nonstructural protein 11 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus that are conserved in both genotypes

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important pathogens, that hinder the development of global pork industry. Its nonstructural protein 11 (nsp11), with the nidoviral uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (NendoU) domain, is essential for PRRSV genome replication and it also contributes to host innate immunity suppression. ...

Understanding the formation mechanism of lipid nanoparticles in microfluidic devices with chaotic micromixers

Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) or liposomes are the most widely used drug carriers for nanomedicines. The size of LNPs is one of the essential factors affecting drug delivery efficiency and therapeutic efficiency. Here, we demonstrated the effect of lipid concentration and mixing performance on the LNP size using microfluidic devices with the aim of understanding the LNP formation ...

Diversity and potential activity of methanotrophs in high methane-emitting permafrost thaw ponds

Lakes and ponds derived from thawing permafrost are strong emitters of carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere, but little is known about the methane oxidation processes in these waters. Here we investigated the distribution and potential activity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in thaw ponds in two types of eroding permafrost landscapes in subarctic Québec: peatlands and ...

Heat shock proteins HSPB8 and DNAJC5B have HCV antiviral activity

Hepatitis C is a disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and an estimated 3% of the world population is infected with the virus. During replication, HCV interacts with several cellular proteins. Studies have shown that several heat shock proteins (HSPs) have an altered expression profile in the presence of the virus, and some HSPs interact directly with HCV proteins. In the ...

The neural response properties and cortical organization of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with the frequencies that elicit the kinesthetic illusion

Kinesthesia is the sense of limb movement. It is fundamental to efficient motor control, yet its neurophysiological components remain poorly understood. The contributions of primary muscle spindles and cutaneous afferents to the kinesthetic sense have been well studied; however, potential contributions from muscle sensory group responses that are different than the muscle spindles ...

Inferior immunogenicity and efficacy of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein-based subunit vaccine candidates in aged versus young mice

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is recognized as an important cause of lower and upper respiratory tract infections in older adults, and a successful vaccine would substantially lower morbidity and mortality in this age group. Recently, two vaccine candidates based on soluble purified glycoprotein F (RSV F), either alone or adjuvanted with glucopyranosyl lipid A formulated in a ...

The extracellular matrix protein Edil3 stimulates osteoblast differentiation through the integrin α5β1/ERK/Runx2 pathway

Epidermal growth factor-like repeats and discoidin I-like domain 3 (Edil3) is an extracellular matrix protein containing an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif that binds integrin. Recently, Edil3 has been implicated in various biological processes, including angiogenesis and cellular differentiation. It can inhibit inflammatory bone destruction. The objective of this study was to explore the ...

Understanding heart rate alarm adjustment in the intensive care units through an analytical approach

Background Heart rate (HR) alarms are prevalent in ICU, and these parameters are configurable. Not much is known about nursing behavior associated with tailoring HR alarm parameters to individual patients to reduce clinical alarm fatigue. Objectives To understand the relationship between heart rate (HR) alarms and adjustments to reduce unnecessary heart rate alarms. Methods ...

A novel registration-based methodology for prediction of trabecular bone fabric from clinical QCT: A comprehensive analysis

Osteoporosis leads to hip fractures in aging populations and is diagnosed by modern medical imaging techniques such as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Hip fracture sites involve trabecular bone, whose strength is determined by volume fraction and orientation, known as fabric. However, bone fabric cannot be reliably assessed in clinical QCT images of proximal femur. ...

Mechanisms of action of Coxiella burnetii effectors inferred from host-pathogen protein interactions

Coxiella burnetii is an obligate Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and the etiological agent of Q fever. Successful infection requires a functional Type IV secretion system, which translocates more than 100 effector proteins into the host cytosol to establish the infection, restructure the intracellular host environment, and create a parasitophorous vacuole where the replicating ...

Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Trends and determinants

Background While studies on fertility and contraceptives issues are available, until recently adolescent motherhood has not received enough attention among policy makers in understanding adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of adolescent motherhood among women aged 15–49 years. Methods For trend analysis we used all the 7 waves of ...

Alcohol consumption and risk of uterine myoma: A systematic review and meta analysis

Background The published data about alcohol consumption and uterine myoma are scanty and controversial: some studies found positive association whereas other studies showed no association. Objectives To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether alcohol is a risk factor for myoma. Search strategy A MEDLINE/EMBASE search was carried out, supplemented by ...

Competence in metered dose inhaler technique among community pharmacy professionals in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: Knowledge and skill gap analysis

Background When compared to systemic administration, if used correctly inhalers deliver a smaller enough percent of the drug right to the site of action in the lungs, with a faster onset of effect and with reduced systemic availability that minimizes adverse effects. However, the health professionals' and patients' use of metered dose inhaler is poor. Objective This study was aimed ...

HIV-1 and cocaine disrupt dopamine reuptake and medium spiny neurons in female rat striatum

HIV-1 and addictive drugs, such as cocaine (COC), may act in combination to produce serious neurological complications. In the present experiments, striatal brain slices from HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) and F344 control female rats were studied. First, we examined dopamine (DA) reuptake in control, HIV-1, COC-treated (5µM) and HIV-1+COC-treated, striatal slices using fast scan cyclic ...

SAGA mediates transcription from the TATA-like element independently of Taf1p/TFIID but dependent on core promoter structures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, core promoters of class II genes contain a TATA element, either a TATA box (TATA[A/T]A[A/T][A/G]) or TATA-like element (1 or 2 bp mismatched version of the TATA box). The TATA element directs the assembly of the preinitiation complex (PIC) to ensure accurate transcriptional initiation. It has been proposed the PIC is assembled by two distinct pathways ...