PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,866)

Effects of infection by Turnip mosaic virus on the population growth of generalist and specialist aphid vectors on turnip plants

Recent studies have revealed that relationships between plant pathogens and their vectors differ depending on species, strains and associated host plants. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most important plant viruses worldwide and is transmitted by at least 89 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. TuMV is fundamentally divided into six phylogenetic groups; among which...

Species-specific variations in reproductive traits of three yellow catfish species (Pelteobagrus spp.) in relation to habitats in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

The reproductive biology of three yellow catfish congeners was studied in the Three Gorges Reservoir of the Yangtze River, China. We compared reproductive traits among the lentic, transitional, and lotic zones. A total of 4502 individuals of the three species was collected, and the sex ratio, size at 50% maturity, spawning season, fecundity, and egg size were determined. Results...

Questionable research practices in ecology and evolution

We surveyed 807 researchers (494 ecologists and 313 evolutionary biologists) about their use of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs), including cherry picking statistically significant results, p hacking, and hypothesising after the results are known (HARKing). We also asked them to estimate the proportion of their colleagues that use each of these QRPs. Several of the QRPs...

A standardized protocol for quantification of saccadic eye movements: DEMoNS

Objective Quantitative saccadic testing is a non-invasive method of evaluating the neural networks involved in the control of eye movements. The aim of this study is to provide a standardized and reproducible protocol for infrared oculography measurements of eye movements and analysis, which can be applied for various diseases in a multicenter setting. Methods Development of a...

Pregestational overweight and obesity are associated with differences in gut microbiota composition and systemic inflammation in the third trimester

The obesity epidemic is a global challenge, and the velocity of propagation is high in the population at reproductive age. Overweight and obesity during pregnancy have been associated with high birth weight and an increased risk of childhood obesity, reinforcing the risk of other non-communicable diseases. Obesity involves chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. New biomarkers...

Use of an anionic collagen matrix made from bovine intestinal serosa for in vivo repair of cranial defects

Polymeric biomaterials composed of extracellular matrix components possess osteoconductive capacity that is essential for bone healing. The presence of collagen and the ability to undergo physicochemical modifications render these materials a suitable alternative in bone regenerative therapies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic capacity of collagen-based...

Investigating global phase diagrams (GPDs) with reentrant transition behavior

In this paper we calculate the global phase diagrams with the closed-loop behavior for the phase transition of physical systems by means of the transverse field Ising model with nearest neighbor interaction. The 3D graph plotted by the various physical parameters gives a clear appreciation and qualitative understanding of the reentrant phase behavior of the system. Meanwhile the...

Clinical correlation between erectile function and ejaculatory function in the Czech male population

Introduction This study explores the relationship between erectile function and ejaculatory function, to inform the clinical psychosexological and sexual medicine practice treatment protocols. Materials and methods A total of 1,004 Czech males aged between 15 and 84 years (m = 42.8 yrs; sd = 17.6 years) completed a sexual behavior questionnaire. A cross-sectional design was...

Association of inflammatory genes in obstructive sleep apnea and non alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Indians residing in north India

Background Previous studies have indicated that variants of the high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes are associated with the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but not in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Asian Indians. The study was conducted to investigate the association of CRP rs1130864 (1444C/T), IL-6...

Surfactant replacement therapy in combination with different non-invasive ventilation techniques in spontaneously-breathing, surfactant-depleted adult rabbits

Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) holds great potential as a primary ventilation support method for Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS). The use of NIPPV may also be of great value combined with minimally invasive surfactant delivery. Our aim was to implement an in vivo model of RDS, which can be managed with different non-invasive ventilation (NIV...

Efficacy of two PBO long lasting insecticidal nets against natural populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in experimental huts, Kolokopé, Togo

LLINs containing an insecticide plus the synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) have been designed for increased efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors. In this study, two LLINs with PBO, PermaNet® 3.0 and Olyset® Plus, and a pyrethroid-only LLIN, Yorkool®, were evaluated in experimental huts against a free-flying, wild population of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Kolokop...

Social reference managers and their users: A survey of demographics and ideologies

Altmetric indicators are increasingly present in the research landscape. Among this ecosystem of heterogeneous indicators, social reference managers have been proposed as indicators of broader use of scholarly work. However, little work has been done to understand the data underlying this indicator. The present work uses a large-scale survey to study the users of two prominent...

Prevention of laparoscopic surgery induced hypothermia with warmed humidified insufflation: Is the experimental combination of a warming blanket synergistic?

Introduction Maintaining normothermia during anesthesia is imperative to provide quality patient care and to prevent adverse outcomes. Prolonged laparoscopic procedures have been identified as a potential risk factor for hypothermia, due to continuous insufflation of cold and dry carbon dioxide. Perioperative hypothermia is associated with increased hospital cost and many...

Forest elephant movement and habitat use in a tropical forest-grassland mosaic in Gabon

Poaching of forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) for ivory has decimated their populations in Central Africa. Studying elephant movement can provide insight into habitat and resource use to reveal where, when, and why they move and guide conservation efforts. We fitted 17 forest elephants with global positioning system (GPS) collars in 2015 and 2016 in the tropical forest...

Bright lights, big city: Causal effects of population and GDP on urban brightness

Cities are arguably both the cause, and answer, to societies’ current sustainability issues. Urbanization is the interplay between a city’s physical growth and its socio-economic development, both of which consume a substantial amount of energy and resources. Knowledge of the underlying driver(s) of urban expansion facilitates not only academic research but, more importantly...

When conflict influences liking: The case of the Stroop task

Research suggests that cognitive conflict is accompanied by a negative signal. Building on the demonstrated role of negative affect in attitude formation and change, the present research investigated whether the experience of cognitive conflict negatively influences subsequent evaluations of neutral stimuli. Relying on the emergence of conflict in the Stroop task, participants...

P-wave duration is a predictor for long-term mortality in post-CABG patients

Risk stratification in secondary prevention has emerged as an unmet clinical need in order to mitigate the Number-Needed-to-Treat and make expensive therapies both clinically relevant and cost-effective. P wave indices reflect atrial conduction, which is a sensitive marker for inflammatory, metabolic, and pressure overload myocardial cell remodeling; the three stimuli are...

Genome-wide identification and characterization of the CKII gene family in the cultivated banana cultivar (Musa spp. cv Tianbaojiao) and the wild banana (Musa itinerans)

Plant casein kinase II (CKII) plays an essential role in regulating plant growth and development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the CKII family genes in Musa spp. cv. ‘Tianbaojiao’ (AAA group) and the wild banana (Musa itinerans). The 13 cDNA sequences of the CKII family members were identified both in...

Prospective study of canine leptospirosis in shelter and stray dog populations: Identification of chronic carriers and different Leptospira species infecting dogs

Dogs are highly susceptible to the leptospiral infection, notably stray and sheltered dogs. Unsanitary conditions often observed in dog shelters may predispose the introduction and spread of leptospires among sheltered populations, potentially increasing the chances for the inadvertent adoption of asymptomatically infected animals. The present work describes a longitudinal study...

Canine filariasis in the Amazon: Species diversity and epidemiology of these emergent and neglected zoonoses

Dirofilaria immitis and Acanthocheilonema reconditum are common parasites in dogs but have also been reported parasitizing humans. The differential diagnosis and epidemiological evaluation of these zoonoses are important to the development of efficient public health policies and control strategies. The purpose of this study was to carry out an epidemiological survey by using...

Schiff bases containing a furoxan moiety as potential nitric oxide donors in plant tissues

Stable Schiff bases containing a furoxan moiety are synthesized as single regioisomers by the reaction of 3-methyl-2-oxy-furazan-4-carbaldehydewith various amino compounds at room temperature. The structures of synthesized compounds were fully characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The effect of synthesized Schiff bases containing a furoxan...

Creative decision making and visual search behavior in skilled soccer players

The ability to produce creative solutions is a key part of expert performance. The aim of this study was to identify the visual search behaviors that underpin superior creative performance of skilled soccer players during simulated 11-a-side match play. Players (N = 44) were required to interact with a representative life-size video-based simulation of attacking situations whilst...

The golden hour of sepsis: An in-depth analysis of sepsis-related maternal mortality in middle-income country Suriname

Background Sepsis was the main cause of maternal mortality in Suriname, a middle-income country. Objective of this study was to perform a qualitative analysis of the clinical and management aspects of sepsis-related maternal deaths with a focus on the ‘golden hour’ principle of antibiotic therapy. Methods A nationwide reproductive age mortality survey was performed from 2010 to...