PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,217)

A comprehensive assessment of patient reported symptom burden, medical comorbidities, and functional well being in patients initiating direct acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C: Results from a large US multi-center observational study

Background Symptom burden, medical comorbidities, and functional well-being of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) initiating direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in real-world clinical settings are not known. We characterized these patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among HCV-infected patients and explored associations with sociodemographic, liver disease, and...

Production of methane and ethylene from plastic in the environment

Mass production of plastics started nearly 70 years ago and the production rate is expected to double over the next two decades. While serving many applications because of their durability, stability and low cost, plastics have deleterious effects on the environment. Plastic is known to release a variety of chemicals during degradation, which has a negative impact on biota. Here...

Use of behavioural and physiological responses for scoring sound sensitivity in dogs

Sound sensitive dogs have exaggerated responses to sound stimuli that can negatively impact the welfare of the dog. Behavioural reactions combined with the response to sound involve a marked autonomic imbalance towards sympathetic predominance and release of cortisol. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, in the laboratory, the cardiac autonomic modulation using heart...

How accurate are runners’ prospective predictions of their race times?

Metacognition is a domain which has illuminated our understanding of the regulation of cognition, but has yet to be applied in detail to more physical activities. We used half marathon finish time predictions from 7211 runners to investigate the factors that influence running performance metacognitive accuracy. In particular, we were concerned with the effects of experience...

Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in physic nut

Auxin response factors (ARF) are important transcription factors which mediate the transcription of auxin responsive genes by binding directly to auxin response elements (AuxREs) found in the promoter regions of these genes. To date, no information has been available about the genome-wide organization of the ARF transcription factor family in physic nut. In this study, 17 ARF...

Galectin-3 level predicts response to ablation and outcomes in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and systolic heart failure

Introduction Mechanisms of maintenance of both atrial fibrillation and structural left ventricular disease are known to include fibrosis. Galectin-3, a biomarker of fibrosis, is elevated both in patients with heart failure and persistent atrial fibrillation. We sought to find whether galectin-3 has a prognostic value in patients with heart failure and a reduced left ventricular...

Biotelemetry marches on: A cost-effective GPS device for monitoring terrestrial wildlife

The availability of low-cost wildlife trackers increases the capacity to collect valuable ecological data when research budgets are limited. We converted a commercially available global positioning system (GPS) product into a low-cost tracking device that sends data via the mobile phone network, and assessed its performance under varying conditions. We established a stationary...

First chloroplast genomics study of Phoenix dactylifera (var. Naghal and Khanezi): A comparative analysis

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest fruit crops in the arid regions of the Middle East. However, little information is available regarding its plastid genomes. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast (cp) genomes of two economically important but genomically unexplored date palm cultivars of Phoenix dactylifera (var. Naghal and Khanezi). The data assembly...

7-Ketocholesterol enhances leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via p38MAPK pathway

7-Ketocholesterol is a major dietary cholesterol oxidation product found in high concentrations in atherosclerotic plaques, which contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 7-ketocholesterol on endothelial inflammation, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Pretreatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with 7...

Comparison of cardiac function index derived from femoral and jugular indicator injection for transpulmonary thermodilution with the PiCCO-device: A prospective observational study

Introduction Cardiac function index (CFI) is a trans-pulmonary thermodilution (TPTD)-derived estimate of systolic function. CFI is defined as the ratio of cardiac output divided by global end-diastolic volume GEDV (CFI = CO/GEDV). Several studies demonstrated that the use of femoral venous access results in a marked overestimation of GEDV, while CFI is underestimated. One study...

Targeting the Mincle and TLR3 receptor using the dual agonist cationic adjuvant formulation 9 (CAF09) induces humoral and polyfunctional memory T cell responses in calves

There is a need for the rational design of safe and effective vaccines to protect against chronic bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a number of species. One of the main challenges for vaccine development is the lack of safe adjuvants that induce protective immune responses. Cationic Adjuvant Formulation 01...

Evaluation of the SpO2/FiO2 ratio as a predictor of intensive care unit transfers in respiratory ward patients for whom the rapid response system has been activated

Efforts to detect patient deterioration early have led to the development of early warning score (EWS) models. However, these models are disease-nonspecific and have shown variable accuracy in predicting unexpected critical events. Here, we propose a simpler and more accurate method for predicting risk in respiratory ward patients. This retrospective study analyzed adult patients...

Long-term moderately elevated LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure and risk of coronary heart disease

Background Harmful effects of long-term exposure to moderately elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and blood pressure on coronary heart disease (CHD) have not been rigorously examined. We estimated the risk of CHD under long-term exposure to moderately elevated LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure compared with the risk under shorter exposures to higher levels of the...

Molecular characterization of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Switzerland and France with a new multilocus sequence typing scheme

Syphilis is an important public health problem and an increasing incidence has been noted in recent years. Characterization of strain diversity through molecular data plays a critical role in the epidemiological understanding of this re-emergence. We here propose a new high-resolution multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA). We...

Comparison of the sympathetic stimulatory abilities of B-type procyanidins based on induction of uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and increased plasma catecholamine (CA) in mice

Objectives We previously found that elevated energy expenditure following a single oral dose of flavan 3-ols (FL), a mixture of catechins and B type procyanidins, is caused by sympathetic nerve activation. In the present study, we compared the activity of the FL components (-)-epicatechin (EC; monomer), procyanidin B2 (B2; dimer), procyanidin C1 (C1; trimer), cinnamtannin A2 (A2...

Development and characterization of penta-flowering and triple-flowering genotypes in garden pea (Pisum sativum L. var. hortense)

This study reports the development of a garden pea genotype ‘VRPM–901–5’ producing five flowers per peduncle at multiple flowering nodes, by using single plant selection approach from a cross ‘VL-8 × PC-531’. In addition, five other stable genetic stocks, namely VRPM-501, VRPM–502, VRPM–503, VRPM–901–3 and VRPSeL–1 producing three flowers per peduncle at multiple flowering nodes...

Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) sentinel surveillance in the country of Georgia, 2015-2017

Background Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) causes substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The country of Georgia conducts sentinel surveillance to monitor SARI activity and changes in its infectious etiology. This study characterizes the epidemiology of SARI in Georgia over the 2015/16 and 2016/17 influenza seasons, compares clinical presentations by etiology...

Health services costs for cancer care in Australia: Estimates from the 45 and Up Study

Background Cancer care represents a substantial and rapidly rising healthcare cost in Australia. Our aim was to provide accurate population-based estimates of the health services cost of cancer care using large-scale linked patient-level data. Methods We analysed data for incident cancers diagnosed 2006–2010 and followed to 2014 among 266,793 eligible participants in the 45 and...

Characterization of hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma using microRNA profiling and targeted gene sequencing

Background Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are benign liver tumors that may transform into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the molecular drivers of this transformation remain ill-defined. This study evaluates the molecular changes in HCA and HCC and in comparison to their adjacent non-neoplastic liver. Methods 11 patients with HCA and 10 patients with HCC without underlying...

Using event-related potentials to track morphosyntactic development in second language learners: The processing of number and gender agreement in Spanish

We used event-related potentials to investigate morphosyntactic development in 78 adult English-speaking learners of Spanish as a second language (L2) across the proficiency spectrum. We examined how development is modulated by the similarity between the native language (L1) and the L2, by comparing number (a feature present in English) and gender agreement (novel feature). We...

Development of monoclonal anti-PDGF-CC antibodies as tools for investigating human tissue expression and for blocking PDGF-CC induced PDGFRα signalling in vivo

PDGF-CC is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family that stimulates PDGFRα phosphorylation and thereby activates intracellular signalling events essential for development but also in cancer, fibrosis and neuropathologies involving blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. In order to elucidate the biological and pathological role(s) of PDGF-CC signalling, we have...

A multi-level test of the seed number/size trade-off in two Scandinavian communities

Seed size is a fundamental life-history trait for plants. A seed number/size trade-off is assumed because the resources invested in reproduction are limited; however, such a trade-off is not always observed. This could be a consequence of the method used for testing it, where the null hypothesis is dictated by common statistical practice, rather than being based on any underlying...