PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 182,323)

The operation of a Research and Development (R&D) program and its significance for practice change in community pharmacy

Background Community pharmacy practice in Australia is changing and Research and Development (R&D) in community pharmacy plays an important role in contributing to the changes. A range of Cognitive Pharmacy Services (CPS) were developed from R&D programs, yet their implementation has been minimal indicating slow practice change within community pharmacy. Given the vital role of ...

Role of the P2 residue of human alpha 1-antitrypsin in determining target protease specificity

Alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is a serine protease inhibitor that mainly inhibits neutrophil elastase in the lungs. A variant of A1AT at the P1 position with methionine 358 to arginine (A1AT-Pittsburgh) is a rapid inhibitor of thrombin with greatly diminished anti-elastase activity. The P2 residue (position 357) of A1AT-Pittsburgh has been shown to play an important role in ...

The Warburg effect as an adaptation of cancer cells to rapid fluctuations in energy demand

To maintain optimal fitness, a cell must balance the risk of inadequate energy reserve for response to a potentially fatal perturbation against the long-term cost of maintaining high concentrations of ATP to meet occasional spikes in demand. Here we apply a game theoretic approach to address the dynamics of energy production and expenditure in eukaryotic cells. Conventionally, ...

Inhibition of infection spread by co-transmitted defective interfering particles

Although virus release from host cells and tissues propels the spread of many infectious diseases, most virus particles are not infectious; many are defective, lacking essential genetic information needed for replication. When defective and viable particles enter the same cell, the defective particles can multiply while interfering with viable particle production. Defective ...

Computational analysis of network activity and spatial reach of sharp wave-ripples

Network oscillations of different frequencies, durations and amplitudes are hypothesized to coordinate information processing and transfer across brain areas. Among these oscillations, hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs) are one of the most prominent. SPW-Rs occurring in the hippocampus are suggested to play essential roles in memory consolidation as well as ...

Prevalence of mind and body exercises (MBE) in relation to demographics, self-rated health, and purchases of prescribed psychotropic drugs and analgesics

This study aims to identify any differences regarding gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES), self-rated health, perceived stress and the purchase of prescribed drugs among people who practice mind and body exercises (MBE) extensively compared to people who do not. Methods: The study includes 3,913 men and 4,803 women aged 20–72 who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal ...

Rapid Emergency Medicine Score: A novel prognostic tool for predicting the outcomes of adult patients with hepatic portal venous gas in the emergency department

Objective This study aims to evaluate the performance of Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS), Rapid Acute Physiology Score (RAPS), and Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) in ascertaining the severity of illness and predicting the mortality of adult hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). This will assist emergency physicians (EPs) in ...

Persistence of marine fish environmental DNA and the influence of sunlight

Harnessing information encoded in environmental DNA (eDNA) in marine waters has the potential to revolutionize marine biomonitoring. Whether using organism-specific quantitative PCR assays or metabarcoding in conjunction with amplicon sequencing, scientists have illustrated that realistic organism censuses can be inferred from eDNA. The next step is establishing ways to link ...

Outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis caused by human adenovirus type 8 in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China in 2016

From April to November 2016, two outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) occurred successively at primary and middle schools in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, and a total of 197 clinically diagnosed cases were reported. Real-time PCR analyses confirmed that human adenovirus (HAdV) infection was related to these outbreaks. Further studies involving sequence ...

The impact of the protein interactome on the syntenic structure of mammalian genomes

Conserved synteny denotes evolutionary preserved gene order across species. It is not well understood to which degree functional relationships between genes are preserved in syntenic blocks. Here we investigate whether protein-coding genes conserved in mammalian syntenic blocks encode gene products that serve the common functional purpose of interacting at protein level, i.e. ...

How TAVI registries report clinical outcomes—A systematic review of endpoints based on VARC-2 definitions

Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been demonstrated to be an alternative treatment for severe aortic stenosis in patients considered as high surgical risk. Since its first human implantation by Cribier et al., TAVI has been shown to increase survival rate and quality of life for high surgical risks patients. The objective of this study is to provide an ...

Caretakers' perspectives of paediatric TB and implications for care-seeking behaviours in Southern Mozambique

Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important public health concern, especially in poorly resourced settings. TB diagnosis is challenging, particularly for children, who are the most vulnerable to its′ impacts. Lack of knowledge and awareness of the disease compromises prompt diagnosis and treatment compliance. Objective To gain insights regarding caretakers′ knowledge of the ...

Potential DNA barcodes for Melilotus species based on five single loci and their combinations

Melilotus, an annual or biennial herb, belongs to the tribe Trifolieae (Leguminosae) and consists of 19 species. As an important green manure crop, diverse Melilotus species have different values as feed and medicine. To identify different Melilotus species, we examined the efficiency of five candidate regions as barcodes, including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and two ...

Minimizing nocebo effects by conditioning with verbal suggestion: A randomized clinical trial in healthy humans

Nocebo effects, i.e., adverse treatment effects which are induced by patients’ expectations, are known to contribute to the experience of physical symptoms such as pain and itch. A better understanding of how to minimize nocebo responses might eventually contribute to enhanced treatment effects. However, little is known about how to reduce nocebo effects. In the current randomized ...

Auto-correlation in the motor/imaginary human EEG signals: A vision about the FDFA fluctuations

In this paper we analyzed, by the FDFA root mean square fluctuation (rms) function, the motor/imaginary human activity produced by a 64-channel electroencephalography (EEG). We utilized the Physionet on-line databank, a publicly available database of human EEG signals, as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of detrended fluctuation analysis ...

Characterization of intravascular cellular activation in relationship to subclinical atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women

Objective Mechanisms and interactions among intravascular cells contributing to development of subclinical atherosclerosis are poorly understood. In women, both menopausal status and pregnancy history influence progression of atherosclerosis. This study examined activation and interactions among blood elements with subclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with known ...

Generation of a serum free CHO DG44 cell line stably producing a broadly protective anti-influenza virus monoclonal antibody

Because of the broad neutralization and in vivo protection across influenza A and influenza B virus strains, monoclonal antibody CR9114 is widely used in influenza virus research as a positive control in many experiments. To produce amounts sufficient for the demand requires regular transient transfections, resulting in varying yield as well as differing batch to batch quality. ...

Non-governmental organization facilitation of a community-based nutrition and health program: Effect on program exposure and associated infant feeding practices in rural India

Background Integrated nutrition and health programs seek to reduce undernutrition by educating child caregivers about infant feeding and care. Data on the quality of program implementation and consequent effects on infant feeding practices are limited. This study evaluated the effectiveness of enhancing a nutrition and health program on breastfeeding and complementary-feeding ...

Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production

As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. ...

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis poststroke: More new granule cells but aberrant morphology and impaired spatial memory

Stroke significantly stimulates neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus, though the functional role of this postlesional response is mostly unclear. Recent findings suggest that newborn neurons generated in the context of stroke may fail to correctly integrate into pre-existing networks. We hypothesized that increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus following stroke is associated ...

Identification of a mouse Lactobacillus johnsonii strain with deconjugase activity against the FXR antagonist T-β-MCA

Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity against the bile acid tauro-beta-muricholic acid (T-β-MCA) was recently reported to mediate host bile acid, glucose, and lipid homeostasis via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling pathway. An earlier study correlated decreased Lactobacillus abundance in the cecum with increased concentrations of intestinal T-β-MCA, an FXR antagonist. While ...

Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation

Background Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the ...

Evaluation of auditory perception development in neonates by quantitative electroencephalography and auditory event-related potentials

Objective The present study was performed to investigate neonatal auditory perception function by quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and auditory event-related potentials (aERPs) and identify the characteristics of auditory perception development in newborns. Methods Fifty-three normal full-term neonates were divided into three groups according their age in days. An ...

Longitudinal multiparameter single-cell analysis of macaques immunized with pneumococcal protein-conjugated or unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines reveals distinct antigen specific memory B cell repertoires

Background The efficacy of protein-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines has been well characterized for children. The level of protection conferred by unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines remains less clear, particularly for elderly individuals who have had prior antigenic experience through immunization with unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines or natural exposure to ...

Acute and chronic effects of treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development

Background COPD is a pulmonary disorder often accompanied by cardiovascular disease (CVD), and current treatment of this comorbidity is suboptimal. Systemic inflammation in COPD triggered by smoke and microbial exposure is suggested to link COPD and CVD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess anti-inflammatory capacities and MSC treatment is considered an attractive treatment ...