PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 192,493)

Sulfamethoxazole – Trimethoprim represses csgD but maintains virulence genes at 30°C in a clinical Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolate

The high frequency of prophage insertions in the mlrA gene of clinical serotype O157:H7 isolates renders such strains deficient in csgD-dependent biofilm formation but prophage induction may restore certain mlrA properties. In this study we used transcriptomics to study the effect of high and low sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim (SMX-TM) concentrations on prophage induction, biofilm...

A reliable and validated LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of 4 cannabinoids in 40 consumer products

In the past 50 years, Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) has gone from a substance essentially prohibited worldwide to one that is gaining acceptance both culturally and legally in many countries for medicinal and recreational use. As additional jurisdictions legalize Cannabis products and the variety and complexity of these products surpass the classical dried plant material...

GIMAP6 is required for T cell maintenance and efficient autophagy in mice

The GTPases of the immunity-associated proteins (GIMAP) GTPases are a family of proteins expressed strongly in the adaptive immune system. We have previously reported that in human cells one member of this family, GIMAP6, interacts with the ATG8 family member GABARAPL2, and is recruited to autophagosomes upon starvation, suggesting a role for GIMAP6 in the autophagic process. To...

Estimating city-level travel patterns using street imagery: A case study of using Google Street View in Britain

Background Street imagery is a promising and growing big data source providing current and historical images in more than 100 countries. Studies have reported using this data to audit road infrastructure and other built environment features. Here we explore a novel application, using Google Street View (GSV) to predict travel patterns at the city level. Methods We sampled 34...

Active learning of cortical connectivity from two-photon imaging data

Understanding how groups of neurons interact within a network is a fundamental question in system neuroscience. Instead of passively observing the ongoing activity of a network, we can typically perturb its activity, either by external sensory stimulation or directly via techniques such as two-photon optogenetics. A natural question is how to use such perturbations to identify...

The implications of community responses to intimate partner violence in Rwanda

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has significant impacts on mental health. Community-focused interventions have shown promising results for addressing IPV in low-income countries, however, little is known about the implications of these interventions for women’s mental wellbeing. This paper analyses data from a community-focused policy intervention in Rwanda collected in 2013–14...

Effect of e-liquid flavor on electronic cigarette topography and consumption behavior in a 2-week natural environment switching study

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) offer an alternate means to consume nicotine in a variety of flavored aerosols. Data are needed to better understand the impact of flavors on use behavior. A natural environment observational study was conducted on experienced ENDS users to measure the effect of e-liquid flavor on topography and consumption behavior. The RIT wPUMTM...

Structure of frequency-interacting RNA helicase from Neurospora crassa reveals high flexibility in a domain critical for circadian rhythm and RNA surveillance

The FRH (frequency-interacting RNA helicase) protein is the Neurospora crassa homolog of yeast Mtr4, an essential RNA helicase that plays a central role in RNA metabolism as an activator of the nuclear RNA exosome. FRH is also a required component of the circadian clock, mediating protein interactions that result in the rhythmic repression of gene expression. Here we show that...

Acute attenuation of fatigue after sodium bicarbonate supplementation does not manifest into greater training adaptations after 10-weeks of resistance training exercise

Purpose In two concurrent studies, we aimed to a) confirm the acute effect of 0.3 g·kg-1 body weight (BW) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on central and peripheral mechanisms associated with explosive power (Study 1) and b) determine whether chronic NaHCO3 supplementation would improve the adaptive response of the neuromuscular system during a 10-week resistance...

The use of the hypervariable P8 region of trnL(UAA) intron for identification of orchid species: Evidence from restriction site polymorphism analysis

The P8 stem-loop region of the trnL intron, which is known to be hypervariable in size with multiple repeat motifs and created difficulties in alignment, is always excluded in phylogenetic as well as barcode analyses. This region was investigated for species discrimination in 98 taxa of orchids belonging to the tribe Vandeae using in silico mapping of restriction site...

An ultrasonic nanobubble-mediated PNP/fludarabine suicide gene system: A new approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

Objective The purpose of this study is to generate an ultrasonic nanobubble (NB)-mediated purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)/fludarabine suicide gene system for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods NBs were prepared from a mixture the phospholipids 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DPPA...

General trust impedes perception of self-reported primary psychopathy in thin slices of social interaction

Little is known about people’s ability to detect subclinical psychopathy from others’ quotidian social behavior, or about the correlates of variation in this ability. This study sought to address these questions using a thin slice personality judgment paradigm. We presented 108 undergraduate judges (70.4% female) with 1.5 minute video thin slices of zero-acquaintance triadic...

The current status of clinical trials focusing on nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A comprehensive analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov database

Purpose Clinical Trials have emerged as the main force in driving the development of medicine. However, little is known about the current status of clinical trials regarding nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed at providing a comprehensive landscape of NPC-related trials on the basis of ClinicalTrials.gov database. Patients and methods We used the keyword...

Assessment of accuracy and recognition of three-dimensional computerized forensic craniofacial reconstruction

Facial reconstruction is a technique that aims to reproduce the individual facial characteristics based on interpretation of the skull, with the objective of recognition leading to identification. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the accuracy and recognition level of three-dimensional (3D) computerized forensic craniofacial reconstruction (CCFR) performed in a blind test on...

Large-scale functional networks connect differently for processing words and symbol strings

Reconfigurations of synchronized large-scale networks are thought to be central neural mechanisms that support cognition and behavior in the human brain. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings together with recent advances in network analysis now allow for sub-second snapshots of such networks. In the present study, we compared frequency-resolved functional connectivity patterns...

Diet induced obesity alters muscle spindle afferent function in adult mice

Populations with obesity are more likely to fall and exhibit balance instability. The reason for this is likely multifactorial, but there is some evidence that sensory function is impaired during obesity. We tested the hypothesis that muscle proprioceptor function is compromised in a mouse model of diet induced obesity. An in vitro muscle-nerve preparation was used to record...

First evidence of SGPL1 expression in the cell membrane silencing the extracellular S1P siren in mammary epithelial cells

The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a main regulator of cell survival, proliferation, motility, and platelet aggregation, and it is essential for angiogenesis and lymphocyte trafficking. In that S1P acts as a second messenger intra- and extracellularly, it might promote cancer progression. The main cause is found in the high S1P concentration in the blood, which...

Fast and simple tool for the quantification of biofilm-embedded cells sub-populations from fluorescent microscopic images

Fluorescent staining is a common tool for both quantitative and qualitative assessment of pro- and eukaryotic cells sub-population fractions by using microscopy and flow cytometry. However, direct cell counting by flow cytometry is often limited, for example when working with cells rigidly adhered either to each other or to external surfaces like bacterial biofilms or adherent...

Population need for primary eye care in Rwanda: A national survey

Background Universal access to Primary Eye Care (PEC) is a key global initiative to reduce and prevent avoidable causes of visual impairment (VI). PEC can address minor eye conditions, simple forms of uncorrected refractive error (URE) and create a referral pathway for specialist eye care, thus offering a potential solution to a lack of eye health specialists in low-income...

Effect of the natural arsenic gradient on the diversity and arsenic resistance of bacterial communities of the sediments of Camarones River (Atacama Desert, Chile)

Arsenic (As), a highly toxic metalloid, naturally present in Camarones River (Atacama Desert, Chile) is a great health concern for the local population and authorities. In this study, the taxonomic and functional characterization of bacterial communities associated to metal-rich sediments from three sites of the river (sites M1, M2 and M3), showing different arsenic...

Modeling an enhanced ridesharing system with meet points and time windows

With the rising of e-hailing services in urban areas, ride sharing is becoming a common mode of transportation. This paper presents a mathematical model to design an enhanced ridesharing system with meet points and users’ preferable time windows. The introduction of meet points allows ridesharing operators to trade off the benefits of saving en-route delays and the cost of...

Quantifying in situ phenotypic variability in the hydraulic properties of four tree species across their distribution range in Europe

Many studies have reported that hydraulic properties vary considerably between tree species, but little is known about their intraspecific variation and, therefore, their capacity to adapt to a warmer and drier climate. Here, we quantify phenotypic divergence and clinal variation for embolism resistance, hydraulic conductivity and branch growth, in four tree species, two...

Comparative metabolomics of aging in a long-lived bat: Insights into the physiology of extreme longevity

Vespertilionid bats (Mammalia: Order Chiroptera) live 3–10 times longer than other mammals of an equivalent body size. At present, nothing is known of how bat fecal metabolic profiles shift with age in any taxa. This study established the feasibility of using a non-invasive, fecal metabolomics approach to examine age-related differences in the fecal metabolome of young and...

Mice lacking the transcriptional regulator Bhlhe40 have enhanced neuronal excitability and impaired synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

Bhlhe40 is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the hippocampus; however, its role in neuronal function is not well understood. Here, we used Bhlhe40 null mice on a congenic C57Bl6/J background (Bhlhe40 KO) to investigate the impact of Bhlhe40 on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Bhlhe40 KO CA1 neurons had increased miniature...