PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,866)

SeRUN® study: Development of running profiles using a mixed methods analysis

Objective To determine profiles of urban runners based on socio-demographic, health, motivational, training characteristics and running-related beliefs and behaviours. Methods Mixed, exploratory, sequential study with two stages: 1) quantitative, using an online survey; and 2) qualitative, using semi-structured interviews with runners from the previous stage. Participants were...

Relationship between weight and linear dimensions of Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) following fattening on western Mediterranean farms

This study presents various models based on formulae relating weight and dimensions (length, height and width) of Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (L.), fattened in captivity. The main aim of establishing these expressions is to design tools for indirectly predicting the weight of a Bluefin tuna from measurements of one or more dimensions obtained using non-invasive methods such as...

Effect of cowpea flour processing on the chemical properties and acceptability of a novel cowpea blended maize porridge

Childhood growth stunting is a pervasive problem in Malawi and is in large part due to low quality complementary foods and chronic gut inflammation. Introducing legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) into the complementary diet has the potential to improve childhood growth by improving diet quality through improvements in macro- and micronutrients and also by reducing gut...

Detection of 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine in culture filtrates of Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6 and Pantoea ananatis BRT175 by laser ablation electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

The oxyvinylglycine 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine (FVG) arrests the germination of weedy grasses and inhibits the growth of the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Both biological and analytical methods have previously been used to detect the presence of FVG in crude and extracted culture filtrates of several Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. Although a combination of these...

Dynamical selection of Nash equilibria using reinforcement learning: Emergence of heterogeneous mixed equilibria

We study the distribution of strategies in a large game that models how agents choose among different double auction markets. We classify the possible mean field Nash equilibria, which include potentially segregated states where an agent population can split into subpopulations adopting different strategies. As the game is aggregative, the actual equilibrium strategy...

Improving the impact of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis implementation in small urban centers among men who have sex with men: An agent-based modelling study

Objectives Identifying prescribing strategies that improve the efficiency of PrEP should increase its impact at the population level. This study identifies PrEP allocation criteria that most effectively reduce 10-year HIV incidence by 25%, in accordance with the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy’s goal for the proportionate reduction in new diagnoses. Methods We used a discrete-time...

Germination ecology of Chloris truncata and its implication for weed management

Chloris truncata is a significant weed in summer crops in the subtropical region of Australia. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of two populations of C. truncata. Overall, germination was not affected by the populations. Seeds germinated at a wide range of alternating day/night temperatures, suggesting that seeds...

Biodegradability of polyethylene by bacteria and fungi from Dandora dumpsite Nairobi-Kenya

This study aimed at isolating and identifying bacteria and fungi with the capacity to degrade low density polyethylene (LDPE). The level of biodegradation of LDPE sheets with bacterial and fungal inoculums from different sampling points of Dandora dumpsite was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Incubation of the LDPE sheets was done for sixteen weeks at 37°C and 28°C for...

Ablation dynamics during laser interstitial thermal therapy for mesiotemporal epilepsy

Introduction The recent emergence of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) as a frontline surgical tool in the management of brain tumors and epilepsy is a result of advances in MRI thermal imaging. A limitation to further improving LITT is the diversity of brain tissue thermoablative properties, which hinders our ability to predict LITT treatment-related effects. Utilizing...

Predictive performance of six mortality risk scores and the development of a novel model in a prospective cohort of patients undergoing valve surgery secondary to rheumatic fever

Background Mortality prediction after cardiac procedures is an essential tool in clinical decision making. Although rheumatic cardiac disease remains a major cause of heart surgery in the world no previous study validated risk scores in a sample exclusively with this condition. Objectives Develop a novel predictive model focused on mortality prediction among patients undergoing...

Do weather changes influence physical activity level among older adults? – The Generation 100 study

Introduction Understanding how individual and environmental factors impact physical activity (PA) level is important when building strategies to improve PA of older adults. No studies have examined how hour-to-hour weather changes influence PA in older adults or how the association between weather and PA eventually is related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) measured as peak...

Vibrotactile information improves proprioceptive reaching target localization

When pointing to parts of our own body (e.g., the opposite index finger), the position of the target is derived from proprioceptive signals. Consistent with the principles of multisensory integration, it has been found that participants better matched the position of their index finger when they also had visual cues about its location. Unlike vision, touch may not provide an...

Efficacy and safety data in elderly patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma included in the nivolumab Expanded Access Program (EAP) in Italy

Background Results from phase III clinical trial CheckMate 025 have established nivolumab as the standard of care for treatment of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) after VEGF inhibitor failure; however, elderly patients are under-represented in the registration trial and little is known about the activity of nivolumab in this subgroup. The purpose of the Expanded Access...

Adequacy of care management of patients with polyhandicap in the French health system: A study of 782 patients

Background The aims of this study were 1) to describe the health profiles and care management of polyhandicapped patients according to 2 modalities, specialized rehabilitation centers (SRC) and residential facilities (RF), and 2) to estimate the adequacy of care management of these patients. Methods This was an 18-month cross-sectional study including patients with a combination...

Testing the link between visual suppression and intelligence

The impairment to discriminate the motion direction of a large high contrast stimulus or to detect a stimulus surrounded by another one is called visual suppression and is the result of the normal function of our visual inhibitory mechanisms. Recently, Melnick et al. (2013), using a motion discrimination task, showed that intelligence strongly correlates with visual suppression...

New insights into island vegetation composition and species diversity—Consistent and conditional responses across contrasting insular habitats at the plot-scale

Most island-ecology studies focus on the properties of entire island communities, thus neglecting species-environment relationships operating at the habitat-level. Habitat-specific variation in the strength and sign of these relationships will conceal patterns observed on the island scale and may preclude a mechanistic interpretation of patterns and processes. Habitat-specific...

Transcription factor induced conversion of human fibroblasts towards the hair cell lineage

Hearing loss is the most common sensorineural disorder, affecting over 5% of the population worldwide. Its most frequent cause is the loss of hair cells (HCs), the mechanosensory receptors of the cochlea. HCs transduce incoming sounds into electrical signals that activate auditory neurons, which in turn send this information to the brain. Although some spontaneous HC regeneration...

Linagliptin unmasks specific antioxidant pathways protective against albuminuria and kidney hypertrophy in a mouse model of diabetes

Background Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors may have protective effects on diabetic kidney disease (DKD) via specific antioxidant pathways. The DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin, was evaluated with the hypothesis that DPP-4 inhibition would ameliorate the development of DKD in a glucose-independent manner by altering specific antioxidant function. Methods DBA/2J mice (a well...

HappyTools: A software for high-throughput HPLC data processing and quantitation

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is widely used for absolute quantitation. The advent of new columns and HPLC technology has enabled higher sample throughput, and hence, larger scale studies that perform quantitation on different sample types (e.g. healthy controls vs. patients with rheumatoid arthritis) using HPLC are becoming feasible. However, there remains a lack...

Tracing anthropogenic inputs in stream foods webs with stable carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics along an agricultural gradient

Stable carbon (13C) and nitrogen isotopes (15N) are useful tools in determining the presence of agricultural influences in freshwater ecosystems. Here we examined δ15N and δ13C signatures in nitrate, fish, and mussel tissues, from rivers in Southern Ontario, Canada, that vary in their catchment proportion of agriculture land use, nutrients and organic matter quality. We found...

Temporal dynamics of the lung and plasma viromes in lung transplant recipients

The human virome plays an important role for the clinical outcome of lung transplant recipients (LTRs). While pathogenic viruses may cause severe infections, non-pathogenic viruses may serve as potential markers for the level of immunosuppression. However, neither the complexity of the virome in different compartments nor the dynamics of the virus populations posttransplantation...

Identification of a gene-expression predictor for diagnosis and personalized stratification of lupus patients

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and degrees of severity. Few genomic biomarkers for SLE have been validated and employed to inform clinical classifications and decisions. To discover and assess the gene-expression based SLE predictors in published studies, we performed a meta-analysis using...

B lymphocytes can be activated to act as antigen presenting cells to promote anti-tumor responses

Immune evasion by tumors includes several different mechanisms, including the inefficiency of antigen presenting cells (APCs) to trigger anti-tumor T cell responses. B lymphocytes may display a pro-tumoral role but can also be modulated to function as antigen presenting cells to T lymphocytes, capable of triggering anti-cancer immune responses. While dendritic cells, DCs, are the...

Environmental factors effecting the germination and seedling emergence of two populations of an aggressive agricultural weed; Nassella trichotoma

Nassella trichotoma (Nees) Hack. ex Arechav. (Serrated tussock) is an aggressive globally significant weed to agricultural and natural ecosystems. Herbicide resistant populations of this C3 perennial weed have emerged, increasing the need for effective wide-scale cultural control strategies. A thorough seed ecology study on two spatially distinct populations of N. trichotoma was...

An open-source tool for analysis and automatic identification of dendritic spines using machine learning

Synaptic plasticity, the cellular basis for learning and memory, is mediated by a complex biochemical network of signaling proteins. These proteins are compartmentalized in dendritic spines, the tiny, bulbous, post-synaptic structures found on neuronal dendrites. The ability to screen a high number of molecular targets for their effect on dendritic spine structural plasticity...