PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 182,323)

A quantitative systems pharmacology approach, incorporating a novel liver model, for predicting pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions

All pharmaceutical companies are required to assess pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of new chemical entities (NCEs) and mathematical prediction helps to select the best NCE candidate with regard to adverse effects resulting from a DDI before any costly clinical studies. Most current models assume that the liver is a homogeneous organ where the majority of the ...

Identification of transforming growth factor-beta-regulated microRNAs and the microRNA-targetomes in primary lung fibroblasts

Background Lung fibroblasts are involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis, which is mainly regulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and are therefore crucial in lung tissue repair and remodeling. Abnormal repair and remodeling has been observed in lung diseases like COPD. As miRNA levels can be influenced by TGF-β, we hypothesized that TGF-β influences miRNA ...

Reduced proliferation of endothelial colony-forming cells in unprovoked venous thromboembolic disease as a consequence of endothelial dysfunction

Background Venous thromboembolic disease (VTD) is a public health problem. We recently reported that endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) derived from endothelial cells (EC) (ECFC-ECs) from patients with VTD have a dysfunctional state. For this study, we proposed that a dysfunctional status of these cells generates a reduction of its proliferative ability, which is also ...

For how many days and what types of group activities should older Japanese adults be involved in to maintain health? A 4-year longitudinal study

Objective Studies have suggested that frequent participation in social groups contributes to the well-being of older people. The primary aim of this study was to identify the number of days older adults should participate in the activities of social groups to maintain their health for 4 years. This study also aimed to examine whether the effective frequency differs by the type of ...

Social interactions promote adaptive resource defense in ants

Social insects vigorously defend their nests against con- and heterospecific competitors. Collective defense is also seen at highly profitable food sources. Aggressive responses are elicited or promoted by several means of communication, e.g. alarm pheromones and other chemical markings. In this study, we demonstrate that the social environment and interactions among colony members ...

Quality of life measures predict cardiovascular health and physical performance in chronic renal failure patients

Background Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience complex functional and structural changes of the cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal system. This results in reduced exercise tolerance, quality of life and ultimately premature death. We investigated the relationship between subjective measures of health related quality of life and objective, standardised ...

Comparative proteomic investigation of metastatic and non-metastatic osteosarcoma cells of human and canine origin

Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in dogs and people. In order to improve clinical outcomes, it is necessary to identify proteins that are differentially expressed by metastatic cells. Membrane bound proteins are responsible for multiple pro-metastatic functions. Therefore characterizing the differential expression of membranous proteins between metastatic and ...

Prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China

Objectives The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 15,364 participants aged 15 years and older was conducted from November 2013 to August 2014 in Jiangxi Province, China, using questionnaire forms and physical measurements. The physical ...

Pattern and severity of multimorbidity among patients attending primary care settings in Odisha, India

Multimorbidity is increasingly the primary concern of healthcare systems globally with substantial implications for patient outcomes and resource cost. A critical knowledge gap exists as to the magnitude of multimorbidity in primary care practice in low and middle income countries with available information limited to prevalence. In India, primary care forms the bulk of the health ...

IκK-16 decreases miRNA-155 expression and attenuates the human monocyte inflammatory response

Excessive inflammatory responses in the surgical patient may result in cellular hypo-responsiveness, which is associated with an increased risk of secondary infection and death. microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-155, are powerful regulators of inflammatory signalling pathways including nuclear factor κB (NFκB). Our objective was to determine the effect of IκK-16, a selective blocker ...

Aspirin increases metabolism through germline signalling to extend the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans

Aspirin is a prototypic cyclooxygenase inhibitor with a variety of beneficial effects on human health. It prevents age-related diseases and delays the aging process. Previous research has shown that aspirin might act through a dietary restriction-like mechanism to extend lifespan. To explore the mechanism of action of aspirin on aging, we determined the whole-genome expression ...

Sex differences in the herding styles of working sheepdogs and their handlers

Working sheepdog trials test the attributes of dogs as well as the dogmanship and stockmanship skills of handlers. They generally include standard elements such as outrun, lift, fetch, drive, shed, pen and single to test all facets of the work that dogs perform on a farm. While both male and female handlers participate, these trials are traditionally dominated by male handlers. ...

Differential gene expression following TLR stimulation in rag1-/- mutant zebrafish tissues and morphological descriptions of lymphocyte-like cell populations

In the absence of lymphocytes, rag1-/- mutant zebrafish develop protective immunity to bacteria. In mammals, induction of protection by innate immunity can be mediated by macrophages or natural killer (NK) cells. To elucidate potential responsive cell populations, we morphologically characterized lymphocyte-like cells (LLCs) from liver, spleen and kidney hematopoietic tissues. In ...

Circulating mRNAs and miRNAs as candidate markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer

Circulating nucleic acids are found in free form in body fluids and may serve as minimally invasive tools for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Only a few studies have investigated the potential application of circulating mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) in prostate cancer (PCa). The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used for an in silico analysis to identify circulating mRNA and ...

Characterization of a novel panel of plasma microRNAs that discriminates between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and healthy individuals

Cavities are important in clinical diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in the regulation of inflammation, the relation between plasma miRNA and pulmonary tuberculosis with cavity remains unknown. In this study, plasma samples were derived from 89 cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis (CP-TB) ...

Linking extreme interannual changes in prey availability to foraging behaviour and breeding investment in a marine predator, the macaroni penguin

Understanding the mechanisms that link prey availability to predator behaviour and population change is central to projecting how a species may respond to future environmental pressures. We documented the behavioural responses and breeding investment of macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus across five breeding seasons where local prey density changed by five-fold; from very low ...

Chronic social defeat induces long-term behavioral depression of aggressive motivation in an invertebrate model system

Losing a fight against a conspecific male (social defeat) induces a period of suppressed aggressiveness and general behaviour, often with symptoms common to human psychiatric disorders. Agonistic experience is also discussed as a potential cause of consistent, behavioral differences between individuals (animal “personality”). In non-mammals, however, the impact of single agonistic ...

The variability of the steps preceding obstacle avoidance (approach phase) is dependent on the height of the obstacle in people with Parkinson's disease

Gait variability may serve as a sensitive and clinically relevant parameter to quantify adjustments in walking and the changes with aging and neurological disease. Variability of steps preceding obstacle avoidance (approach phase) are important for efficiency in the task, especially in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, variability of gait during the approach phase to ...

Dealing with AFLP genotyping errors to reveal genetic structure in Plukenetia volubilis (Euphorbiaceae) in the Peruvian Amazon

An analysis of the population structure and genetic diversity for any organism often depends on one or more molecular marker techniques. Nonetheless, these techniques are not absolutely reliable because of various sources of errors arising during the genotyping process. Thus, a complex analysis of genotyping error was carried out with the AFLP method in 169 samples of the oil seed ...

Gugulipid causes hypercholesterolemia leading to endothelial dysfunction, increased atherosclerosis, and premature death by ischemic heart disease in male mice

For proper cholesterol metabolism, normal expression and function of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, is required. Among the factors that regulate overall cholesterol homeostasis and HDL metabolism, the nuclear farnesoid X receptor plays an important role. Guggulsterone, a bioactive compound present in the natural product ...

Pulmonary hypertension among 5 to 18 year old children with sickle cell anaemia in Nigeria

Background Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is a significant cause of mortality in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Few studies on PHT in SCD have been carried out in children. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of PHT in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and determine its clinical and laboratory correlates. Methods In this cross sectional study, evaluation ...

Comparative proteomic analyses reveal the proteome response to short-term drought in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)

Drought is a major abiotic stress that impairs growth and productivity of Italian ryegrass. Comparative analysis of drought responsive proteins will provide insight into molecular mechanism in Lolium multiflorum drought tolerance. Using the iTRAQ-based approach, proteomic changes in tolerant and susceptible lines were examined in response to drought condition. A total of 950 ...

The influence of analgesic-based sedation protocols on delirium and outcomes in critically ill patients: A randomized controlled trial

Objective To investigate the influence of analgesic-based midazolam sedation on delirium and outcomes in critically ill patients and to analyze the risk factors of delirium. Design Single center, prospective randomized controlled trial. Setting A surgical intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary care hospital in China. Patients Mechanically ventilated patients requiring sedation. ...

A detailed comparison of analysis processes for MCC-IMS data in disease classification—Automated methods can replace manual peak annotations

Motivation Disease classification from molecular measurements typically requires an analysis pipeline from raw noisy measurements to final classification results. Multi capillary column—ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) is a promising technology for the detection of volatile organic compounds in the air of exhaled breath. From raw measurements, the peak regions representing the ...

Fever as an initial manifestation of spondyloarthritis: A retrospective study

Objectives We aimed to evaluate a wide spectrum of clinical features of adult patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) whose initial manifestation was fever, using the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria. Methods We retrospectively collected the electronic medical records of hospitalized SpA patients who initially presented to the ...