PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,217)

Overview of three influenza seasons in Georgia, 2014–2017

Background Influenza epidemiological and virologic data from Georgia are limited. We aimed to present Influenza Like Illness (ILI) and Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) surveillance data and characterize influenza viruses circulating in the country over three influenza seasons. Methods We analyzed sentinel site ILI and SARI data for the 2014–2017 seasons in Georgia...

Exposure to domestic violence influences pregnant women’s preparedness for childbirth in Nepal: A cross-sectional study

Objective This study aimed to evaluate if domestic violence affected women’s ability to prepare for childbirth. Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) includes saving money, arranging transportation, identifying a skilled birth attendant, a health facility, and a blood donor before childbirth. During data collection, Nepal experienced two earthquakes and therefore...

Restricting the nonlinearity parameter in soil greenhouse gas flux calculation for more reliable flux estimates

The static chamber approach is often used for greenhouse gas (GHG) flux measurements, whereby the flux is deduced from the increase of species concentration after closing the chamber. Since this increase changes diffusion gradients between chamber air and soil air, a nonlinear increase is expected. Lateral gas flow and leakages also contribute to non linearity. Several models...

Cytokine secretion responsiveness of lymphomonocytes following cortisol cell exposure: Sex differences

The stress hormone cortisol has been recognized as a coordinator of immune response. However, its different ability to modulate the release of inflammatory mediators in males and females has not been clarified yet. Indeed, the dissection of cortisol specific actions may be difficult due to the complex hormonal and physio-pathological individual status. Herein, the release of...

The effect of beliefs about alcohol’s acute effects on alcohol priming and alcohol-induced impairments of inhibitory control

Acute alcohol administration can lead to a loss of control over drinking. Several models argue that this ‘alcohol priming effect’ is mediated by the effect of alcohol on inhibitory control. Alternatively, beliefs about how alcohol affects behavioural regulation may also underlie alcohol priming and alcohol-induced inhibitory impairments. Here two studies examine the extent to...

T cell LFA-1-induced proinflammatory mRNA stabilization is mediated by the p38 pathway kinase MK2 in a process regulated by hnRNPs C, H1 and K

Activation of the β2 integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) in T cells induces stabilization of proinflammatory AU-rich element (ARE)-bearing mRNAs, by triggering the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of the mRNA-binding and -stabilizing protein HuR. However, the mechanism by which LFA-1 engagement controls HuR localization is not known. Here, we identify...

Concrete surface crack detection with the improved pre-extraction and the second percolation processing methods

Monitoring the instantaneous and changing concrete surface condition is paramount to cost-effectively managing tunnel assets. In practice, detecting cracks efficiently and accurately is a very challenging task due to concrete blebs, stains, and illumination over the concrete surface. Unclear and tiny cracks cannot be detected effectively. In this paper, we proposed an ultra...

Quantification of unbound concentration of ticagrelor in plasma as a proof of mechanism biomarker of the reversal agent, MEDI2452

Ticagrelor, a P2Y12 antagonist, is approved for prevention of thromboembolic events. MEDI2452 is a potential reversal agent for ticagrelor and ticagrelor active metabolite (TAM). The total plasma exposure of ticagrelor and TAM in patients are roughly 0.5–1 and 0.2–0.5 μmol/L, respectively. Both have similar high potency vs. P2Y12 (Ki 2 nmol/L) but are plasma protein-bound to 99.8...

Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback training in athletes exposed to stress of university examinations

Introduction Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BFB) training, a method whereby one controls an unusually low breathing rate to reach cardiac coherence, has been shown to reduce anxiety and improve cardiac autonomic markers in diseased people, but much less is known about HRV-BFB benefits in healthy people. Here we investigated potential benefits in young competitors...

Crowdsourcing architectural beauty: Online photo frequency predicts building aesthetic ratings

The aesthetic quality of the built environment is of paramount importance to the quality of life of an increasingly urbanizing population. However, a lack of data has hindered the development of comprehensive measures of perceived architectural beauty. In this paper, we demonstrate that the local frequency of geotagged photos posted by internet users in two photo-sharing websites...

Automated size selection for short cell-free DNA fragments enriches for circulating tumor DNA and improves error correction during next generation sequencing

Circulating tumor-derived cell-free DNA (ctDNA) enables non-invasive diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment susceptibility testing in human cancers. However, accurate detection of variant alleles, particularly during untargeted searches, remains a principal obstacle to widespread application of cell-free DNA in clinical oncology. In this study, isolation of short cell-free DNA...

The role of older women in contesting norms associated with female genital mutilation/cutting in Senegambia: A factorial focus group analysis

Social norms theory has become prominent framework for understanding the perpetuation of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), and has influenced the design of interventions aimed at stopping the practice. Theoretical advances draw attention to the fact that FGM/C is often upheld by multiple interconnected norms that may vary and shift over time, offering a potential...

Expansion of Capsicum annum fruit is linked to dynamic tissue-specific differential expression of miRNA and siRNA profiles

Small regulatory RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have emerged as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators controlling a wide variety of physiological processes including fruit development. Data are, however, limited for their potential roles in developmental processes determining economically important traits of crops. The...

Choosing between nurse-led and medical doctor-led from private for-profit versus non-for-profit health facilities: A household survey in urban Burkina Faso

Background Providers’ qualification (Medical doctor [MD] or nurse); type of care facility ownership (for-profit [FP] or not-for-profit [NFP]) may all influence individuals’ healthcare-seeking behavior and therefore merits empirical assessment to provide valuable evidence-informed policy orientation in the present context of private health system development. Previous studies have...

PrEP implementation by local health departments in US cities and counties: Findings from a 2015 assessment of local health departments

Objective The United States Public Health Service released clinical practice guidelines for daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in May 2014. Local health departments (LHDs) are expected to play a critical role in PrEP implementation. We surveyed LHDs to assess awareness of and interest in supporting PrEP implementation, what roles they were taking, or believed they should...

Association between socioeconomic status and obesity among 12-year-old Malaysian adolescents

The epidemic of obesity in developed countries is commonly associated with poor dietary habit and sedentary lifestyle. However, other determinants, including education background and family income, may contribute towards the problem especially in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on obesity among 12-year-old school...

A bimodal theranostic nanodelivery system based on [graphene oxide-chlorogenic acid-gadolinium/gold] nanoparticles

We have synthesized a bimodal theranostic nanodelivery system (BIT) that is based on graphene oxide (GO) and composed of a natural chemotherapeutic agent, chlorogenic acid (CA) used as the anticancer agent, while gadolinium (Gd) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality. The CA and Gd guest agents were simultaneously...

Transcriptome analysis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) shoots reveals a crosstalk between auxin and strigolactone

Auxin and strigolactone (SL) are two important phytohormones involved in shoot branching and morphology. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a member of the Solanaceae family, is one of the most popular food crops with high economic value in the world. To seek a better understanding of the responses to exogenous hormones, transcriptome analyses of the tomato shoots treated with...

Psychological inflexibility explains distress in parents whose children have chronic conditions

Experiential avoidance, cognitive defusion, and mindfulness have all been associated with psychological disorders and well-being. This study investigates whether they predict psychological distress, i.e., symptoms of burnout, depression, stress and anxiety, in parents of children with chronic conditions. We hypothesized that these factors would exhibit a large degree of common...

Constructing a DNA barcode reference library for southern herbs in China: A resource for authentication of southern Chinese medicine

Southern Chinese Medicine (SCM) is an important sect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its own special cultural style. Species identification is essential for TCM quality control because authentic herbs are possibly substituted with adulterants that would threaten the health of the public or even cause death. Here, we provided the first local reference DNA barcode...

Chronic irradiation with 222-nm UVC light induces neither DNA damage nor epidermal lesions in mouse skin, even at high doses

Surgical site infections (SSIs) represent an important clinical problem associated with increased levels of surgical morbidity and mortality. UVC irradiation during surgery has been considered to represent a possible strategy to prevent the development of SSI. 254-nm UVC induces marked levels of DNA damage by generating cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in microorganisms...

Speed synchronization, physical workload and match-to-match performance variation of elite football players

This study aimed to: (i) examine whether the speed synchronization and physical performance of an elite football team changed between the first and the second half, using match time blocks of 15-min, and (ii) explore the match-to-match variation of players’ speed synchronization performance. Twenty-eight outfield elite footballers participated in 51 official matches. Positional...

Performance comparison of the cobas Liat and Cepheid GeneXpert systems for Clostridium difficile detection

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a high burden and significant cause of healthcare-acquired infectious diarrhea in the United States (US). Timely and accurate diagnosis of CDI enables the rapid initiation of antibiotic therapy and infection control policies to minimize disease transmission. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have become a preferred modality for...

Willingness to participate in HIV research at the end of life (EOL)

Introduction Animal models have been vital for scientific discovery but have limitations, especially in infectious disease research. It is essential to develop a means to study these diseases in human models. We hypothesized that altruistic people would willingly participate in research near the end-of-life (EOL), for the benefit of science and to provide one last gift to society...

RDE: A novel approach to improve the classification performance and expressivity of KDB

Bayesian network classifiers (BNCs) have demonstrated competitive classification performance in a variety of real-world applications. A highly scalable BNC with high expressivity is extremely desirable. This paper proposes Redundant Dependence Elimination (RDE) for improving the classification performance and expressivity of k-dependence Bayesian classifier (KDB). To demonstrate...