PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,765)

Comparison of 3D printed prostate models with standard radiological information to aid understanding of the precise location of prostate cancer: A construct validation study

Background To investigate the reliability with which healthcare professionals with different levels of expertise are able to impart the exact location of prostate cancer (PCA) after (A) reading written magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, (B) attending MRI presentations in multidisciplinary team meetings (MDT), and (C) examining 3D printed prostate models, which represents a...

Self-reports from behind the scenes: Questionable research practices and rates of replication in ego depletion research

The strength model of self-control is one of the most influential and well-established models of self-regulation in social psychology. However, recent attempts to replicate the ego depletion effect have sometimes failed. The goal of this study is to investigate self-reported replication rates and the frequency of a set of questionable research practices (QRP) in ego depletion...

Cranio-morphometric and aDNA corroboration of the Austronesian dispersal model in ancient Island Southeast Asia: Support from Gua Harimau, Indonesia

The Austronesian language is spread from Madagascar in the west, Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) in the east (e.g. the Philippines and Indonesian archipelagoes) and throughout the Pacific, as far east as Easter Island. While it seems clear that the remote ancestors of Austronesian speakers originated in Southern China, and migrated to Taiwan with the development of rice farming by c...

The influence of poverty and rabies knowledge on healthcare seeking behaviors and dog ownership, Cameroon

Background Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses, with most human cases worldwide resulting from rabid dog bites. Although effective animal and human vaccines have been available for over 100 years, control efforts have not been adequately implemented on the global scale and rabies remains one of the greatest global zoonotic threats to human health. We conducted a...

The mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in immigrants

The aim of the study is to analyze the mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in South American immigrants in Chile. An analytical, cross sectional, non-experimental design was used. We evaluated 853 Peruvians and Colombians living in the northern cities of Arica, Antofagasta, and Santiago de Chile, the...

Occupational exposure factors for mental and behavioral disorders at work: The FOREC thesaurus

Background Mental disorders in the workplace are a major public health problem. Knowledge of the impact of the psychosocial work environment on mental and behavioral disorders can assist occupational physicians in the identification and description of occupational risk situations, and help to define priority actions. However, no classification for occupational exposure factors is...

Road screening and distribution route multi-objective robust optimization for hazardous materials based on neural network and genetic algorithm

Route optimization of hazardous materials transportation is one of the basic steps in ensuring the safety of hazardous materials transportation. The optimization scheme may be a security risk if road screening is not completed before the distribution route is optimized. For road screening issues of hazardous materials transportation, a road screening algorithm of hazardous...

Mapping Portuguese Natura 2000 sites in risk of biodiversity change caused by atmospheric nitrogen pollution

In this paper, we assess and map the risk that atmospheric nitrogen (atN) pollution poses to biodiversity in Natura 2000 sites in mainland Portugal. We first review the ecological impacts of atN pollution on terrestrial ecosystems, focusing on the biodiversity of Natura 2000 sites. These nature protection sites, especially those located within the Mediterranean Basin, are under...

PTSD correlates with somatization in sexually abused children: Type of abuse moderates the effect of PTSD on somatization

Purpose Somatization is a major post-traumatic symptom in sexually abused children. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and somatization, and between intelligence and somatization in child sexual abuse victims and to elucidate whether type of abuse had an effect on the relationship between PTSD...

Ring-opening copolymerization thermodynamics and kinetics of γ-valerolactone/ϵ-caprolactone

The general misconception that γ-lactones are not thermodynamically polymerizable has limited the development of all γ-lactone-based copolymers. A few studies have reported copolymerization of these five-membered cyclic esters with more reactive monomers, yet a systematic investigation of kinetics and thermodynamics is still lacking. To explore the feasibility of the reaction, we...

Effect of climate dataset selection on simulations of terrestrial GPP: Highest uncertainty for tropical regions

Biogeochemical models use meteorological forcing data derived with different approaches (e.g. based on interpolation or reanalysis of observation data or a hybrid hereof) to simulate ecosystem processes such as gross primary productivity (GPP). This study assesses the impact of different widely used climate datasets on simulated gross primary productivity and evaluates the...

Using Approximate Bayesian Computation to infer sex ratios from acoustic data

Population sex ratios are of high ecological relevance, but are challenging to determine in species lacking conspicuous external cues indicating their sex. Acoustic sexing is an option if vocalizations differ between sexes, but is precluded by overlapping distributions of the values of male and female vocalizations in many species. A method allowing the inference of sex ratios...

Stakeholder-driven, consensus development methods to design an ethical framework and guidelines for engaged research

Increasingly, researchers seek to engage communities, patients, and stakeholders as partners in the process and products of health research. However, there is no existing stakeholder-driven ethical framework for such engaged scholarship. We employed an iterative, stakeholder-engaged method to develop a data-driven framework for the ethical review and conduct of engaged...

Assessment of wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) chlorotypes and accompanying woody species in the Eastern Adriatic region

The Eastern Adriatic region, encompassing Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, is considered an important area of natural populations of wild grapevines (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris). The wild grapevine arises in the Eastern Adriatic region in a contact zone of the EU-Mediterranean and the sub-Mediterranean characterized by typical karst relief. This study focuses on the...

HIV incidence among sexual health clinic attendees in England: First estimates for black African heterosexuals using a biomarker, 2009-2013

Introduction The HIV epidemic in England is largely concentrated among heterosexuals who are predominately black African and men who have sex with men (MSM). We present for the first time trends in annual HIV incidence for adults attending sexual health clinics, where 80% of all HIV diagnoses are made. Methods We identified newly diagnosed incident HIV using a recent infection...

Nephrin is necessary for podocyte recovery following injury in an adult mature glomerulus

Nephrin (Nphs1) is an adhesion protein that is expressed at the podocyte intercellular junction in the glomerulus. Nphs1 mutations in humans or deletion in animal genetic models results in a developmental failure of foot process formation. A number of studies have shown decrease in expression of nephrin in various proteinuric kidney diseases as well as in animal models of...

Diversity of root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne Göeldi, 1892 (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) associated with olive plants and environmental cues regarding their distribution in southern Spain

Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are recognised worldwide as a major production constraint in crops of primary economic importance. Knowledge of their diversity and prevalence, as well as the major environmental and agronomical cues for understanding their distribution in specific areas is of vital importance for designing control measures to reduce significant damage...

Learning to live with ticks? The role of exposure and risk perceptions in protective behaviour against tick-borne diseases

The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of risk perceptions and exposure for protective behaviour against tick bites and the related diseases Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), both of which are growing health concerns. We use data from a national survey in Sweden with respondents in geographical areas with substantial differences in both abundance...

Limb bone histology records birth in mammals

Abstract The annual cyclicality of cortical bone growth marks (BGMs) allows reconstruction of some important life history traits, such as longevity, growth rate or age at maturity. Little attention has been paid, however, to non-cyclical BGMs, though some record key life history events such as hatching (egg-laying vertebrates), metamorphosis (amphibians), or weaning (suggested...

Association of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 gene functional variant C1858T, HLA-DQ/DR genotypes and autoantibodies with susceptibility to type-1 diabetes mellitus in Kuwaiti Arabs

The incidence of type-1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) has increased steadily in Kuwait during recent years and it is now considered amongst the high-incidence countries. An interaction between susceptibility genes, immune system mediators and environmental factors predispose susceptible individuals to T1DM. We have determined the prevalence of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor...