PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 183,348)

Effects of the Blob on settlement of spotted sand bass, Paralabrax maculatofasciatus, to Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

The West Coast of the United States experienced variable and sometimes highly unusual oceanographic conditions between 2012 and 2015. In particular, a warm mass of surface water known as the Pacific Warm Anomaly (popularly as “The Blob”) impinged on southern California in 2014, and warm-water conditions remained during the 2015 El Niño. We examine how this oceanographic variability ...

Consensual punishment does not promote cooperation in the six-person prisoner's dilemma game with noisy public monitoring

We study the effects of different punishment institutions on cooperation in a six-person prisoner’s dilemma game in which actors observe others’ cooperation with some noise (i.e. imperfect public monitoring). Previous research has shown that peer punishment can sustain cooperation, if a certain proportion of group members punish defectors at a cost to themselves. However, in the ...

Blood serum metabolome of atopic dermatitis: Altered energy cycle and the markers of systemic inflammation

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which usually starts in the early childhood and ends before adulthood. However up to 3% of adults remain affected by the disease. The onset and course of the disease is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. Although the immune system has a great effect on the outcome of the disease, metabolic markers can also ...

Effect of radiotherapy on activity and concentration of serum paraoxonase-1 in breast cancer patients

Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme found also in the circulation associated with high-density lipoproteins. The activity of this enzyme has been shown to be decreased in breast cancer (BC) patients. The aims of our study were to investigate the changes produced by radiotherapy (RT) on activity and concentration of serum PON1 in BC patients, and to evaluate ...

You prime what you code: The fAIM model of priming of pop-out

Our visual brain makes use of recent experience to interact with the visual world, and efficiently select relevant information. This is exemplified by speeded search when target- and distractor features repeat across trials versus when they switch, a phenomenon referred to as intertrial priming. Here, we present fAIM, a computational model that demonstrates how priming can be ...

Chronic post-traumatic intramedullary lesions in dogs, a translational model

Objectives Post-traumatic intramedullary myelopathies and cavitations are well described lesions following spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans and have been described in histopathological evaluations in dogs. Human intramedullary myelopathies/cavitations are associated with severe initial SCI and deterioration of clinical signs. Canine intervertebral disc extrusions share ...

Feeding-induced changes in allatostatin-A and short neuropeptide F in the antennal lobes affect odor-mediated host seeking in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

Aedes aegypti is a model species in which the endogenous regulation of odor-mediated host seeking behavior has received some attention. Sugar feeding and host seeking in female A. aegypti are transiently inhibited following a blood meal. This inhibition is partially mediated by short neuropeptide F (sNPF). The paired antennal lobes (ALs), as the first processing centers for ...

Stiffness analysis of 3D spheroids using microtweezers

We describe a novel mechanical characterization method that has directly measured the stiffness of cancer spheroids for the first time to our knowledge. Stiffness is known to be a key parameter that characterizes cancerous and normal cells. Atomic force microscopy or optical tweezers have been typically used for characterization of single cells with the measurable forces ranging ...

Knowledge-based prediction of protein backbone conformation using a structural alphabet

Libraries of structural prototypes that abstract protein local structures are known as structural alphabets and have proven to be very useful in various aspects of protein structure analyses and predictions. One such library, Protein Blocks, is composed of 16 standard 5-residues long structural prototypes. This form of analyzing proteins involves drafting its structure as a string ...

Global transcriptome profile reveals abundance of DNA damage response and repair genes in individuals from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast

The high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coast in south west India is unique for its wide variation in the background radiation dose (<1.0mGy to 45mGy/year) and vast population size. Several biological studies conducted in this area did not reveal any adverse effects of chronic low dose and low dose rate radiation on human population. In the present study, global ...

A mathematical function for the description of nutrient-response curve

Several mathematical equations have been proposed to modeling nutrient-response curve for animal and human justified on the goodness of fit and/or on the biological mechanism. In this paper, a functional form of a generalized quantitative model based on Rayleigh distribution principle for description of nutrient-response phenomena is derived. The three parameters governing the ...

Comparative analysis of weighted gene co-expression networks in human and mouse

The application of complex network modeling to analyze large co-expression data sets has gained traction during the last decade. In particular, the use of the weighted gene co-expression network analysis framework has allowed an unbiased and systems-level investigation of genotype-phenotype relationships in a wide range of systems. Since mouse is an important model organism for ...

Epithelial periostin expression is correlated with poor survival in patients with invasive breast carcinoma

Invasion and metastasis are direct causes of mortality in patients with breast cancer and require reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Periostin, a fasciclin-containing adhesive ECM glycoprotein, is frequently overexpressed in various types of human cancer, and its overexpression in cancer-associated stroma and/or cancer cells is usually ...

HIV prevalence and behavioral risk factors in the Sudan People’s Liberation Army: Data from South Sudan

Overview After two decades of civil war, South Sudan has limited published data on HIV prevalence and behavioral determinants of HIV infection risk. A surge in HIV/AIDS prevalence is a real concern for this new country with limited access to medical or HIV preventive services, and low education and literacy levels. We present findings from the first bio-behavioral surveillance ...

In-vivo effects of intraocular and intracranial pressures on the lamina cribrosa microstructure

There is increasing clinical evidence that the eye is not only affected by intraocular pressure (IOP), but also by intracranial pressure (ICP). Both pressures meet at the optic nerve head of the eye, specifically the lamina cribrosa (LC). The LC is a collagenous meshwork through which all retinal ganglion cell axons pass on their way to the brain. Distortion of the LC causes a ...

Comparative metabolomics profiling of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae lead to a strategy that improving β-carotene production by acetate supplementation

A comparative metabolomic analysis was conducted on recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain producing β-carotene and the parent strain cultivated with glucose as carbon source using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ...

Proposal for a common nomenclature for fragment ions in mass spectra of lipids

Advances in mass spectrometry-based lipidomics have in recent years prompted efforts to standardize the annotation of the vast number of lipid molecules that can be detected in biological systems. These efforts have focused on cataloguing, naming and drawing chemical structures of intact lipid molecules, but have provided no guidelines for annotation of lipid fragment ions detected ...

Use of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube culture supernatants for measurement of antibody responses

QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) supernatants may be important samples for use in assessment of anti-tuberculosis (TB) antibodies when only limited volumes of blood can be collected and when a combination of antibody and cytokine measurements are required. These analytes, when used together, may also have the potential to differentiate active pulmonary TB (APTB) from latent ...

Transcriptome analysis of plasmid-induced genes sheds light on the role of type I IFN as adjuvant in DNA vaccine against infectious salmon anemia virus

A previous study showed that a plasmid expressing IFNa (pIFNa) strongly enhanced protection and antibody production of a DNA vaccine against infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) in Atlantic salmon. The vaccine consisted of a plasmid (pHE) expressing the virus hemagglutinin-esterase as an antigen. To increase the understanding of the adjuvant effect of pIFNa, we here compared ...

Conventional and technical diving surveys reveal elevated biomass and differing fish community composition from shallow and upper mesophotic zones of a remote United States coral reef

The world’s coral reefs appear to be in a global decline, yet most previous research on coral reefs has taken place at depths shallower than 30 m. Mesophotic coral ecosystem (depths deeper than ~30 m) studies have revealed extensive, productive habitats and rich communities. Despite recent advances, mesophotic coral ecosystems remain understudied due to challenges with sampling at ...

Implementing universal HIV treatment in a high HIV prevalence and rural South African setting – Field experiences and recommendations of health care providers

Background We aimed to describe the field experiences and recommendations of clinic-based health care providers (HCP) regarding the implementation of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods In Hlabisa sub-district, the local HIV programme of the Department of Health (DoH) is decentralized in 18 clinics, where ART was offered at a CD4 ...

Genetic variation in Dip5, an amino acid permease, and Pdr5, a multiple drug transporter, regulates glyphosate resistance in S. cerevisiae

S. cerevisiae from different environments are subject to a wide range of selective pressures, whether intentional or by happenstance. Chemicals classified by their application, such as herbicides, fungicides and antibiotics, can affect non-target organisms. First marketed as RoundUp™, glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide. In plants, glyphosate inhibits EPSPS, of the ...

The tick biocontrol agent Metarhizium brunneum (= M. anisopliae) (strain F52) does not reduce non-target arthropods

Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing ...

ChIP-Seq analysis identifies p27(Kip1)-target genes involved in cell adhesion and cell signalling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

The protein p27Kip1 (p27), a member of the Cip-Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, is involved in tumorigenesis and a correlation between reduced levels of this protein in human tumours and a worse prognosis has been established. Recent reports revealed that p27 also behaves as a transcriptional regulator. Thus, it has been postulated that the development of tumours ...