PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 195,644)

Employment predictors of exit from work among workers with disabilities: A survival analysis from the household income labour dynamics in Australia survey

Objectives Across high-income countries, unemployment rates among workers with disabilities are disproportionately high. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of employment associated with dropping out of work and assess whether these were different for workers with versus without disabilities. Methods Using a longitudinal panel study of working Australians (2001...

Asymmetric relationship of urbanization and CO2 emissions in less developed countries

Understanding the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the urbanization of national populations has been a key concern for environmental scholars for several decades. Although sophisticated modeling techniques have been developed to explore the connection between increases in urban populations and CO2 emissions, none has attempted to assess whether declines in...

Transcriptome-wide responses of adult melon thrips (Thrips palmi) associated with capsicum chlorosis virus infection

Thrips palmi is a widely distributed major agricultural pest in the tropics and subtropics, causing significant losses in cucurbit and solanaceous crops through feeding damage and transmission of tospoviruses. Thrips palmi is a vector of capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) in Australia. The present understanding of transmission biology and potential effects of CaCV on T. palmi is...

The association between cross-cultural competence and well-being among registered native and foreign-born nurses in Finland

Background A growing body of research indicates that cross-cultural competence in nurses can improve migrant patients’ health-related outcomes, but little is known about the potential benefits of cross-cultural competence on the nurses’ own well-being. Objective To examine whether cross-cultural competence (empathy, skills, positive attitudes, and motivation) is associated with...

Child protection outcomes of the Australian Nurse Family Partnership Program for Aboriginal infants and their mothers in Central Australia

Background The Nurse Family Partnership Program developed in the USA, designed to improve mother and infant/child outcomes, has reported lower rates of child protection system involvement. The study tested the hypothesis that an adapted Nurse Family Partnership Program implemented in an Aboriginal community in Central Australia (the FPP) would improve Child Protection outcomes...

Comparative transcriptome analysis provides insights into dwarfism in cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme)

Tomato, which can be eaten as a vegetable or fruit, is one of the most popular and nutritionally important crops around the world. Although most plants of the cherry tomato cultivar ‘Minichal’ have a normal phenotype, some plants have a stunted phenotype with reduced plant height, leaf size, and fruit size, as well as altered leaf and fruit shape. To investigate the molecular...

Hepatitis E prevalence in French Polynesian blood donors

The HEV seroprevalence in mainland France is elevated (22.4%). In contrast, anti-HEV seroprevalence appears to be lower in Oceania. However, none is available for French Polynesia. We assessed the anti-HEV IgG and IgM prevalence on samples from 300 consecutive blood donors living on Tahiti and Moorea islands. Epidemiological information was collected using a specific...

WRF-Chem modeling of particulate matter in the Yangtze River Delta region: Source apportionment and its sensitivity to emission changes

China has been troubled by high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for many years. Up to now, the pollutant sources are not yet fully understood and the control approach still remains highly uncertain. In this study, four month-long (January, April, July and October in 2015) WRF-Chem simulations with different sensitivity experiments were conducted in the Yangtze...

A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of a tailored intervention to improve the initial management of suspected encephalitis

Objective To determine whether a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy improves the initial management of patients with suspected encephalitis. Design Pragmatic two arm cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Hospitals within the United Kingdom. Participants Twenty-four hospitals nested within 12 postgraduate deaneries. Patients were identified retrospectively by...

Performance of GPS units for deployment on semiaquatic animals

Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is widely used in wildlife research to study animal movement and habitat use. In order to evaluate the quality and reliability of GPS data, the factors influencing the performance of these devices must be known, especially for semiaquatic species, because terrestrial and aquatic habitat might affect GPS performance differently. We...

Validity and measurement invariance across sex, age, and education level of the French short versions of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire

Background Short versions of the European Health Literacy Survey (HLS-EU) questionnaire are increasingly used to measure and compare health literacy (HL) in populations worldwide. As no validated versions of these questionnaires have thus far appeared in French, this study aimed to study the psychometric properties of the French translation of the 16- and 6-item short versions...

Association of pre-eclampsia risk with maternal levels of folate, homocysteine and vitamin B12 in Colombia: A case-control study

Background Maternal serum concentrations of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 have been associated with pre-eclampsia. Nevertheless, reported studies involve limited number of cases to reliably assess the nature of these associations. Our aim was to examine the relation of these three biomarkers with pre-eclampsia risk in a large Colombian population. Materials and methods...

Location of water in fresh sugarcane bagasse observed by synchrotron X-ray microtomography

Sugarcane bagasse is a vast lignocellulosic byproduct generated in the industry with ~50% humidity (1 kg dry matter associated with 1 kg water). Although the presence of water brings deleterious consequences for combustion, storage and sugar extraction, the location of water in fresh bagasse remains unknown. In this work, we use synchrotron X-ray microtomography for non-invasive...

Pseudomonas coronafaciens sp. nov., a new phytobacterial species diverse from Pseudomonas syringae

We propose Pseudomonas coronafaciens sp. nov. as a new species in genus Pseudomonas, which is diverse from P. syringae. We also classified strains from onions which are responsible for yellow bud (YB) disease as P. coronafaciens. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, gltA and gap1 genes) for the P. syringae pv...

Effect of crop residues on interception and activity of prosulfocarb, pyroxasulfone, and trifluralin

Crop residue retention on the soil surface in no-tillage system can intercept pre-emergent herbicides and reduce their efficacy. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of crop residue amount (0, 1, 2 and 4 t ha–1), moisture (wet versus dry), type (wheat, barley, canola, chickpea and lupin) and age (fresh or aged for one year) on the interception and subsequent...

Health literacy in men and women with cardiovascular diseases and its association with the use of health care services - Results from the population-based GEDA2014/2015-EHIS survey in Germany

Background Health literacy (HL), defined as the ability to access, understand, appraise and apply health information, offers a promising approach to reduce the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and to improve the management of CVD in populations. Design We used data from nationwide cross-sectional German Health Update (GEDA2014/2015-EHIS) survey. 13,577 adults ≥ 40...

An evaluation roadmap for critical quality attributes from tier 1 in analytical similarity assessment

Analytical similarity assessment of critical quality attributes (CQAs) serves as a foundation for the development of biosimilar products and facilitates an abbreviated subsequent clinical evaluation. In this study, we establish a statistical evaluation roadmap with statistical approaches for some selected CQAs from Tier 1, because they are most relevant to clinical outcomes and...

The relationship between iron deficiency anemia and sexual function and satisfaction among reproductive-aged Iranian women

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common micronutrient deficiency worldwide, and an important health problem especially in women of reproductive age. This study aimed to determine the relationship between IDA and sexual satisfaction and function among reproductive-aged Iranian women. In this study, 129 women (52 with IDA and 77 non-IDA) with age 18–45 in Mahshahr, Iran were...

Diagnosing the double burden of malnutrition using estimated deviation values in low- and lower-middle-income countries

Objective To examine the possibility of diagnosing the double burden of malnutrition using estimated deviation values in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Methods A modified version of the Japanese Diagnostic Tool was used. Data on 194 countries were analyzed, including data from the United Nations International Children’s Fund, World Health Organization and World Bank...

Association of colorectal polyps and cancer with low-dose persistent organic pollutants: A case-control study

Background Low-dose persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have recently been linked to immunosenescence, a key mechanism in carcinogenesis, as well as many aging-related chronic diseases. Since feces are the main excretion route of POPs, the large intestine is a potential target organ for these pollutants. We performed a case-control study to evaluate whether exposure to low-dose...

Anthocyanins from Cornus kousa ethanolic extract attenuate obesity in association with anti-angiogenic activities in 3T3-L1 cells by down-regulating adipogeneses and lipogenesis

Cornus kousa the Korean dogwood has been traditionally used in East Asia as therapeutic traditional medicine however biological activities of Cornus kousa have not been investigated previously. The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-obesity activities coupled with anti-angiogenic activities of anthocyanins rich fraction of ethanolic leaf extract of Cornus kousa (ELECk...

Comparison of GnRH agonist and hCG for priming in vitro maturation cycles in cancer patients undergoing urgent fertility preservation

In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes retrieved at germinal vesicle or Metaphase I stage, followed by vitrification of Metaphase II (MII) oocytes, has recently emerged as an option for urgent fertility preservation (FP). Priming is usually achieved with an injection of hCG, 10,000 IU, 36 hours before retrieval. This study aimed to assess a new method of priming, using GnRH...

Bioinformatics: A rational combine approach used for the identification and in-vitro activity evaluation of potent β-Glucuronidase inhibitors

Identification of hotspot drug-receptor interactions through in-silico prediction methods (Pharmacophore mapping, virtual screening, 3DQSAR, etc), is considered as a key approach in drug designing and development process. In the current design study, advanced in-silico based computational techniques were used for the identification of lead-like molecules against the targeted...

The association between cigarette affordability and consumption: An update

Objectives This study calculates cigarette affordability for 78 countries worldwide from 2001 to 2014 using the Relative Income Price (RIP) ratio defined as the percentage of per capita GDP required to purchase 100 packs of cigarettes using the lowest price from Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) database, examine the association between cigarette affordability and cigarette...

Traveling pulse emerges from coupled intermittent walks: A case study in sheep

Monitoring small groups of sheep in spontaneous evolution in the field, we decipher behavioural rules that sheep follow at the individual scale in order to sustain collective motion. Individuals alternate grazing mode at null speed and moving mode at walking speed, so cohesive motion stems from synchronising when they decide to switch between the two modes. We propose a model for...