PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 192,493)

Virological and immunological failure of HAART and associated risk factors among adults and adolescents in the Tigray region of Northern Ethiopia

Background Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated morbidity and mortality has reduced significantly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. As a result of increasing access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, the survival and quality of life of the patients has significantly improved globally. Despite this promising...

Population structure in Argentina

We analyzed 391 samples from 12 Argentinian populations from the Center-West, East and North-West regions with the Illumina Human Exome Beadchip v1.0 (HumanExome-12v1-A). We did Principal Components analysis to infer patterns of populational divergence and migrations. We identified proportions and patterns of European, African and Native American ancestry and found a correlation...

Computational identification, characterization and validation of potential antigenic peptide vaccines from hrHPVs E6 proteins using immunoinformatics and computational systems biology approaches

High-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) are the most prevalent viruses in human diseases including cervical cancers. Expression of E6 protein has already been reported in cervical cancer cases, excluding normal tissues. Continuous expression of E6 protein is making it ideal to develop therapeutic vaccines against hrHPVs infection and cervical cancer. Therefore, we carried out a...

Symbols in motion: Flexible cultural boundaries and the fast spread of the Neolithic in the western Mediterranean

The rapid diffusion of farming technologies in the western Mediterranean raises questions about the mechanisms that drove the development of intensive contact networks and circulation routes between incoming Neolithic communities. Using a statistical method to analyze a brand-new set of cultural and chronological data, we document the large-scale processes that led to variations...

Population-based study of chlamydial and gonococcal infections among women in Shenzhen, China: Implications for programme planning

This study was aimed to estimate the prevalences of chlamydia (CT) and gonococcal (NG) infections and explore risk factors associated with the CT infection among women in Shenzhen, China. We collected socio-demographic and clinical data from women (aged 20–60) and determined positivity of CT or NG by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) with self-collected urine specimens. We...

Circulating pentraxin 3 is positively associated with chronic hyperglycemia but negatively associated with plasma aldosterone concentration

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is reported to be a vascular inflammation marker providing prognostic information of vasculopathy. Until today, however, the effect of aldosterone or oxidative stress on the regulation of PTX3 is unknown. In present study, we investigated to find regulative factors, especially aldosterone and oxidative stress, on PTX3. Serum PTX3 levels were measured in 75...

Recognition and management of acute kidney injury in children: The ISN 0by25 Global Snapshot study

Background In low and middle-income countries, reliable data on the epidemiology of childhood acute kidney injury (AKI) is lacking. The Global Snapshot, conducted by the ISN “0by25” AKI initiative, was a world-wide cross-sectional, observational study to evaluate AKI in hospitalized patients. Here we report the pediatric results of this study. Patients and methods We...

FusionHub: A unified web platform for annotation and visualization of gene fusion events in human cancer

Gene fusion is a chromosomal rearrangement event which plays a significant role in cancer due to the oncogenic potential of the chimeric protein generated through fusions. At present many databases are available in public domain which provides detailed information about known gene fusion events and their functional role. Existing gene fusion detection tools, based on analysis of...

The burden of acute respiratory infections in Ecuador 2011-2015

Background Burden of disease studies intend to improve public health decision-making and to measure social and economic impact in population. The objective of this study was to describe the burden of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Ecuador between 2011 and 2015. Methods Five-year period morbidity and mortality data available from national agencies of statistics was analyzed...

Identification of cancer-related miRNA-lncRNA biomarkers using a basic miRNA-lncRNA network

LncRNAs are regulatory noncoding RNAs that play crucial roles in many biological processes. The dysregulation of lncRNA is thought to be involved in many complex diseases; lncRNAs are often the targets of miRNAs in the indirect regulation of gene expression. Numerous studies have indicated that miRNA-lncRNA interactions are closely related to the occurrence and development of...

One-year survival rate and healthcare costs after cardiac arrest in Taiwan, 2006–2012

Objectives The annual increase in costs and the quality of life of survivors of cardiac arrest are major concerns. This study used National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan to evaluate the 1-year survival rate and the annual healthcare costs of survivors after cardiac arrest. Methods This retrospective, fixed-cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2012, involved...

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields promoting the proliferation of porcine iliac endothelial cells: An in vitro study

Currently, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) with short pulse duration and non-thermal effects have various potential applications in medicine and biology, especially in tumor ablation. Additionally, there are a few investigations on its proliferative effects in the normal cell. Clinically, proliferation of endothelial cells can perhaps accelerate the stent...

Clinical analysis of fungal keratitis in patients with and without diabetes

We compared the clinical characteristics, treatments, and prognoses of fungal keratitis in patients with and without diabetes. Patients diagnosed with fungal keratitis at Shandong Eye Institute between January 2010 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed and classified as diabetic and nondiabetic groups. One-hundred-and-eleven patients (111 eyes) with diabetes and 740...

TMSOTf assisted synthesis of 2’-deoxy-2’-[18F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine ([18F]FAC)

[18F]FAC (2’-deoxy-2’-[18F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 1) is a versatile probe for imaging deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) expression levels in vivo. dCK is responsible for phosphorylation of deoxycytidine (dC, 2) and other nucleoside analogs, plays a key role in immune activation and has demonstrated to be one of the key enzymes in activating nucleoside based drugs including...

Effects of isomaltodextrin in postprandial lipid kinetics: Rat study and human randomized crossover study

Isomaltodextrin (IMD) is a novel dietary fiber-like polysaccharide: a type of α-glucan produced from starch using enzymes derived from microorganisms. The results of cohort studies show that dietary fiber can prevent cardiovascular disorders caused by lifestyle-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Inhibition of excess fat absorption by dietary fiber is known to be one of...

Interference with DNA repair after ionizing radiation by a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide

Pyrrole-imidazole (Py–Im) polyamides are synthetic non-genotoxic minor groove-binding small molecules. We hypothesized that Py–Im polyamides can modulate the cellular response to ionizing radiation. Pre-treatment of cells with a Py-Im polyamide prior to exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in a delay in resolution of phosphorylated γ-H2AX foci, increase in XRCC1 foci, and...

Histone acetyltransferase TGF-1 regulates Trichoderma atroviride secondary metabolism and mycoparasitism

Some filamentous fungi of the Trichoderma genus are used as biocontrol agents against airborne and soilborne phytopathogens. The proposed mechanism by which Trichoderma spp. antagonizes phytopathogens is through the release of lytic enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, mycoparasitism, and the induction of systemic disease-resistance in plants. Here we analyzed the role of TGF-1...

Indirect ELISA based on Hendra and Nipah virus proteins for the detection of henipavirus specific antibodies in pigs

Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) belong to the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Henipavirus infections were first reported in the 1990’s causing severe and often fatal outbreaks in domestic animals and humans in Southeast Asia and Australia. NiV infections were observed in humans in Bangladesh, India and in the first outbreak in Malaysia, where pigs were...

Discontinuation risk comparison among ‘real-world’ newly anticoagulated atrial fibrillation patients: Apixaban, warfarin, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban

Discontinuation of oral anticoagulants may expose non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients to an increased risk of stroke. This study describes the real-world discontinuation rates and compared the risk of drug discontinuation among NVAF patients initiating apixaban, warfarin, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban. This retrospective cohort study evaluated newly-anticoagulated NVAF...

Mild cognitive dysfunction of caregivers and its association with care recipients’ end-of-life plans and preferences

Little is known about the association between cognitive dysfunction among informal caregivers and patients’ plans and preferences for patients’ end of life care. We report on the frequency of cognitive dysfunction among both patients and caregivers and examine associations between caregivers’ cognitive screening scores and end of life plans and preferences of patients with...

Phagocytic response of astrocytes to damaged neighboring cells

This study aims to understand the phagocytic response of astrocytes to the injury of neurons or other astrocytes at the single cell level. Laser nanosurgery was used to damage individual cells in both primary mouse cortical astrocytes and an established astrocyte cell line. In both cases, the release of material/substances from laser-irradiated astrocytes or neurons induced a...

Prevalence of and risk factors for low bone mineral density in Spanish treated HIV-infected patients

Objectives Several studies have involved antiretroviral therapy in the pathogenesis of low bone mineral density (BMD), while others have not confirmed this association. In this study we analyze the impact of HIV status, traditional risk factors and antiretroviral therapy in BMD in an HIV-infected population living in Madrid. Material and methods We performed a cross-sectional...