PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,217)

Different cardiorespiratory fitness expressions based on the maximal cycle ergometer test show no effect on the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness to the academic achievement of nine-year-olds

The relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and academic achievement has been inconclusive. The results may depend on how cardiorespiratory fitness is expressed. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of different cardiorespiratory fitness expression methods, measured by the maximal cycle ergometer test, on the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and...

Analysis of NFATc1 amplification in T cells for pharmacodynamic monitoring of tacrolimus in kidney transplant recipients

Background Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of tacrolimus, based on blood concentrations, shows an imperfect correlation with the occurrence of rejection. Here, we tested whether measuring NFATc1 amplification, a member of the calcineurin pathway, is suitable for TDM of tacrolimus. Materials and methods NFATc1 amplification was monitored in T cells of kidney transplant...

Whole genome SNP analysis suggests unique virulence factor differences of the Beijing and Manila families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis found in Hawaii

While tuberculosis (TB) remains a global disease, the WHO estimates that 62% of the incident TB cases in 2016 occurred in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions. TB in the Pacific is composed predominantly of two genetic families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb): Beijing and Manila. The Manila family is historically under-studied relative to the families that...

The Baltic Sea Atlantis: An integrated end-to-end modelling framework evaluating ecosystem-wide effects of human-induced pressures

Achieving good environmental status in the Baltic Sea region requires decision support tools which are based on scientific knowledge across multiple disciplines. Such tools should integrate the complexity of the ecosystem and enable exploration of different natural and anthropogenic pressures such as climate change, eutrophication and fishing pressures in order to compare...

The role of energy in health facilities: A conceptual framework and complementary data assessment in Malawi

Background Modern energy enables health service delivery. Access to electricity is, however, unreliable in many health facilities in developing countries. Little research has explored the relationships between energy and service delivery. Methods Based on extensive literature searches and iterative discussions within the research team, we first develop a conceptual framework of...

Impact of intense disturbance on the structure and composition of wet-eucalypt forests: A case study from the Tasmanian 2016 wildfires

Fire is a key process in eucalypt communities, exerting a strong influence on the composition, structure and functioning of forests. Much of the research on the fire response of temperate, wet-sclerophyll trees in Australia comes from Victoria, where the dominant eucalypt is Eucalyptus regnans. In contrast, central and northern Tasmanian forests, dominated by Eucalyptus...

Nrf2 protects stellate cells from Smad-dependent cell activation

Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) orchestrate the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and are the primary effector of liver fibrosis. Several factors, including TGF-β1, PDGF and oxidative stress, have been shown to trigger HSC activation. However, the involvement of cellular defence mechanisms, such as the activation of antioxidant response by Nrf2/Keap1 in the modulation of HSC...

Testing a novel isokinetic dynamometer constructed using a 1080 Quantum

This study sought to assess the reliability and comparability of two custom-built isokinetic dynamometers (Model A and Model B) with the gold-standard (Humac Norm). The two custom-built dynamometers consisted of commercially available leg extension machines attached to a robotically controlled resistance device (1080 Quantum), able to measure power, force and velocity outputs...

Patient and health worker experiences of differentiated models of care for stable HIV patients in Malawi: A qualitative study

Introduction Several models of differentiated care for stable HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Malawi have been introduced to ensure that care is efficient and patient-centered. Three models have been prioritized by the government for a deeper and broader understanding: adjusted appointment spacing through multi-month scripting (MMS); fast-track drug refills (FTRs...

Patterns and predictors of off-label prescription of psychiatric drugs

Off-label prescribing of psychiatric drugs is common, despite lacking strong scientific evidence of efficacy and potentially increasing risk for adverse events. The goal of this study was to characterize prevalence of off-label prescriptions of psychiatric drugs and examine patient and clinician predictors of off-label use. This manuscript presents a retrospective, cross...

Reducing residential mortgage default: Should policy act before or after home purchases?

We examine two possible approaches to reducing residential mortgage default using a dynamic model of heterogeneous infinitely-lived agents acting optimally subject to uninsurable idiosyncratic earnings shocks and systemic house price shocks. We find higher down payments are very effective in minimizing residential mortgage foreclosures, even in periods of house price declines and...

Metabolic equivalent of task (METs) thresholds as an indicator of physical activity intensity

The purpose of the study was to identify and compare validity parameters of different absolute intensity thresholds in METs, using relative intensity classification as criterion measure. Convenience sampling was used to recruit total of 112 adults. The participants carried out an incremental maximal cycle ergometer test and asked to perform nine free-living activities. The oxygen...

Justifications for using complementary and alternative medicine reported by persons with musculoskeletal conditions: A narrative literature synthesis

Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is very popular with patients frequently combining it with orthodox health care. The high prevalence of CAM use and satisfaction with CAM reported by patients directly challenges an orthodox system that can only approve such use if it results from the application of biomedical concepts and science. Studies highlighting this...

Printable nanocomposites of polymers and silver nanoparticles for antibacterial devices produced by DoD technology

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are known for their efficient bactericidal activity and are widely used in industry. This study aims to produce printable antibacterial devices by drop-on-demand (DoD) inkjet technology, using Ag-NPs as the active part in complex printable fluids. The synthesis of this active part is described using two methods to obtain monodisperse NPs: chemical...

Is there more than the sewage plant? University freshmen’s conceptions of the urban water cycle

The concepts of 340 university freshmen concerning urban water cycles include various misconceptions (or intuitive conceptions) which severely contrast with correct scientific ones. Almost no student knew the correct urban water cycle in total, including cycle steps in the appropriate sequence: consumer (given), sewage-plant, nature and waterworks. Concepts mainly omit nature and...

Distribution of vesicle pools in cerebellar parallel fibre terminals after depression of ectopic transmission

At parallel fibre terminals in the cerebellar cortex, glutamate released outside of the active zone can activate AMPA receptors on juxtaposed Bergmann glial cell processes. This process is termed “ectopic” release, and allows for directed transmission to astroglial cells that is functionally independent of synaptic transmission to postsynaptic Purkinje neurons. The location of...

Germination ecology of turnip weed (Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.) in the northern regions of Australia

In Australia, turnip weed has been rapidly emerging as one of the major weeds in conservation agricultural systems. Germination and emergence of turnip weed were examined for two populations collected from Gatton and St George regions of Australia; two locations with high and low rainfall, respectively. The seeds of turnip weed germinated at all the tested temperatures, but...

Salmonella spp. transmission in a vertically integrated poultry operation: Clustering and diversity analysis using phenotyping (serotyping, phage typing) and genotyping (MLVA)

The transmission of Salmonella enterica within a vertically integrated poultry operation was investigated longitudinally over an 18-month period (2013–2014). Thirty six percent of all samples collected (1503 of 4219) were positive for salmonellae with seven Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars, and one Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae serovar detected. Both Salmonella...

Mosquito control practices and perceptions: An analysis of economic stakeholders during the Zika epidemic in Belize, Central America

The tourist-based economy of Belize, a tropical hub for eco-tourism, is at high risk to be disproportionately impacted by established and emerging mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika. An online survey was used to probe economic stakeholders working in the Belize tourism industry about their mosquito control practices and perceptions. Responses demonstrated that the respondents...

If it doesn’t help, it doesn’t hurt? Information elaboration harms the performance of gender-diverse teams when attributions of competence are inaccurate

Information elaboration—the act of exchanging, discussing, and integrating information and perspectives through verbal communication—tends to be considered as the silver bullet that drives the performance of diverse teams. We challenge this notion by proposing that the effect of information elaboration on team performance depends on the accuracy of within-group competence...

Different megafauna vary in their seed dispersal effectiveness of the megafaunal fruit Platymitra macrocarpa (Annonaceae)

The world’s largest terrestrial animals (megafauna) can play profound roles in seed dispersal. Yet, the term ‘megafauna’ is often used to encompass a diverse range of body sizes and physiologies of, primarily, herbivorous animals. To determine the extent to which these animals varied in their seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE), we compared the contribution of different megafauna...

Skin mucosome activity as an indicator of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans susceptibility in salamanders

Recently emerged fungal diseases, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) are an increasing threat to amphibians worldwide. In Europe, the threat of Bsal to salamander populations is demonstrated by the rapid decline of fire salamander populations in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. Although most European urodelans are susceptible to...

The emerging health impact of voluntary medical male circumcision in Zimbabwe: An evaluation using three epidemiological models

Background Zimbabwe adopted voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as a priority HIV prevention strategy in 2007 and began implementation in 2009. We evaluated the costs and impact of this VMMC program to date and in future. Methods Three mathematical models describing Zimbabwe’s HIV epidemic and program evolution were calibrated to household survey data on prevalence and...

Pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women who conceived on antiretroviral therapy

As antiretroviral therapy (ART) expands in resource-limited settings, understanding the impact of ART on pregnancy outcomes is critical. We analyzed women who became pregnant on ART while enrolled in a clinical trial (HPTN 052, ACTG A5208, and ACTG A5175); the majority of women were from Africa, with a median age of 29 years. Eligible women were on ART at conception and had a...