PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 183,348)

Protective effect of Malva sylvestris L. extract in ischemia-reperfusion induced acute kidney and remote liver injury

Mallow (Malva sylvestris L.) has had medicinal and therapeutic uses in addition to its oral consumption. The present study was conducted to examine the protective effect of Malva sylvestris L. extract on ischemia-reperfusion-induced kidney injury and remote organ injuries in the liver. Before ischemia-reperfusion, rats in the different groups received intraperitoneal normal saline ...

Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators

Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has ...

Sulfur dioxide alleviates programmed cell death in barley aleurone by acting as an antioxidant

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a gaseous signaling molecule in animal cells, has recently been found to play a physiological role in plants. Here we studied the role of SO2 in gibberellic acid (GA3)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers. The application of the SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3, 1:3 M/M) effectively alleviated PCD in barley aleurone layers ...

Molecular characterization of novel mosquito-borne Rickettsia spp. from mosquitoes collected at the Demilitarized Zone of the Republic of Korea

Rickettsiae are associated with a diverse range of invertebrate hosts. Of these, mosquitoes could emerge as one of the most important vectors because of their ability to transmit significant numbers of pathogens and parasites throughout the world. Recent studies have implicated Anopheles gambiae as a potential vector of Rickettsia felis. Herein we report that a metagenome ...

Longitudinal fasting blood glucose patterns and arterial stiffness risk in a population without diabetes

Objective To identify long-term fasting blood glucose trajectories and to assess the association between the trajectories and the risk of arterial stiffness in individuals without diabetes. Methods We enrolled 16,454 non-diabetic participants from Kailuan cohort. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010 survey. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities ...

Tocilizumab potentially prevents bone loss in patients with anticitrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a high risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors may suppress osteoclast activation. Anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) titers are inversely associated with bone mineral density (BMD). However, the differential effect of ACPA on bone turnover marker (BTM) and BMD changes after IL-6 inhibition remains ...

Sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in HVTN 505 identifies vaccine pressure targeting the CD4 binding site of Env-gp120

Although the HVTN 505 DNA/recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector HIV-1 vaccine trial showed no overall efficacy, analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in participants can help determine whether vaccine-induced immune responses impacted viruses that caused infection. We analyzed 480 HIV-1 genomes sampled from 27 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients and found that intra-host HIV-1 ...

Vibrio parahaemolyticus VtrA is a membrane-bound regulator and is activated via oligomerization

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis. A major virulence determinant of the organism is a type III secretion system (T3SS2) encoded on a pathogenicity island, Vp-PAI. Vp-PAI gene expression is regulated by two transcriptional regulators, VtrA and VtrB, whose N-terminal regions share homology with an OmpR-family DNA-binding ...

Per-service supervised learning for identifying desired WoT apps from user requests in natural language

Web of Things (WoT) platforms are growing fast so as the needs for composing WoT apps more easily and efficiently. We have recently commenced the campaign to develop an interface where users can issue requests for WoT apps entirely in natural language. This requires an effort to build a system that can learn to identify relevant WoT functions that fulfill user’s requests. In our ...

New insights on the species-specific allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and marine HAB dinoflagellates

Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa) and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis). ...

Intraspecific evolutionary relationships among peregrine falcons in western North American high latitudes

Subspecies relationships within the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) have been long debated because of the polytypic nature of melanin-based plumage characteristics used in subspecies designations and potential differentiation of local subpopulations due to philopatry. In North America, understanding the evolutionary relationships among subspecies may have been further ...

The influence of filtering and downsampling on the estimation of transfer entropy

Transfer entropy (TE) provides a generalized and model-free framework to study Wiener-Granger causality between brain regions. Because of its nonparametric character, TE can infer directed information flow also from nonlinear systems. Despite its increasing number of applications in neuroscience, not much is known regarding the influence of common electrophysiological preprocessing ...

Specific effects of working memory training on the reading skills of Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

Most research on working memory (WM) training for children with developmental dyslexia (DD) has focused on western alphabetical languages. Moreover, most of these studies used a combination of training tasks targeting a variety of WM components, making it difficult to determine whether WM training generates a general improvement in overall reading, or improves specific cognitive ...

Adolescents' perception of parental feeding practices: Adaptation and validation of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire for Brazilian adolescents—The CFPQ-Teen

Background Parental feeding practices may play a key role in dietary habits and nutritional status of adolescents, but research from adolescents’ point of view on this topic is scarce. Objective To adapt and validate an instrument of parental feeding practices as perceived by adolescents in a Brazilian setting. Methods The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was ...

Statistical analysis of co-occurrence patterns in microbial presence-absence datasets

Drawing on a long history in macroecology, correlation analysis of microbiome datasets is becoming a common practice for identifying relationships or shared ecological niches among bacterial taxa. However, many of the statistical issues that plague such analyses in macroscale communities remain unresolved for microbial communities. Here, we discuss problems in the analysis of ...

Plant organ cultures as masked mycotoxin biofactories: Deciphering the fate of zearalenone in micropropagated durum wheat roots and leaves

“Masked mycotoxins” senso strictu are conjugates of mycotoxins resulting from metabolic pathways activated by the interplay between pathogenic fungi and infected plants. Zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp, was the first masked mycotoxin ever described in the literature, but its biotransformation has been studied to a lesser extent if compared to other ...

Abnormal brain white matter microstructure is associated with both pre-hypertension and hypertension

Objectives To characterize effects of chronically elevated blood pressure on the brain, we tested for brain white matter microstructural differences associated with normotension, pre-hypertension and hypertension in recently available brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 4659 participants without known neurological or psychiatric disease (62.3±7.4 yrs, 47.0% male) in UK ...

Missense mutation at CLDN8 associated with a high plasma interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 level in methadone-maintained patients with urine test positive for morphine

We previously reported a high plasma chemokine interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) level and prolonged electrocardiography QT-interval in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients with HIV or HCV infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genetic association of high plasma IP-10 level in the MMT patients. The gene-based and pathway-based association ...

Insights into soybean transcriptome reconfiguration under hypoxic stress: Functional, regulatory, structural, and compositional characterization

Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic) or total (anoxic) oxygen deficiency is important component ...

Development of visual cortical function in infant macaques: A BOLD fMRI study

Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ...

Stromal interaction molecule 1 haploinsufficiency causes maladaptive response to pressure overload

Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor, has been shown to control a Ca2+-dependent signal that promotes cardiac hypertrophy. However, whether STIM1 has adaptive role that helps to protect against cardiac overload stress remains unknown. We hypothesized that STIM1 deficiency causes a maladaptive response to pressure overload stress. We ...

Opposite effects of non-thermal plasma on cell migration and collagen production in keloid and normal fibroblasts

Recent progress in the understanding non-thermal plasma (NTP) properties prompted its application in the treatment of various diseases. However, therapeutic effect of NTP on keloid cells has not been reported previously. We sought to investigate the effect of NTP treatment on keloid by comparing cell migration and collagen production of keloid (KFs) and normal fibroblasts (NFs) and ...

Functional characterisation of filamentous actin probe expression in neuronal cells

Genetically encoded filamentous actin probes, Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin, are used as tools to label the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence in several different cell types indicates that these probes can cause changes in filamentous actin dynamics, altering cell morphology and function. Although these probes are commonly used to visualise actin dynamics in neurons, their ...

Downregulation of KCNMB4 expression and changes in BK channel subtype in hippocampal granule neurons following seizure activity

A major challenge is to understand maladaptive changes in ion channels that sets neurons on a course towards epilepsy development. Voltage- and calcium-activated K+ (BK) channels contribute to early spike timing in neurons, and studies indicate that the BK channel plays a pathological role in increasing excitability early after a seizure. Here, we have investigated changes in BK ...

Enhanced expression of cell-surface B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 contributes to poor survival of non-small cell lung carcinoma cells

B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein which plays a role as a molecular chaperone for the newly synthesized transmembrane proteins. BAP31 is also an important apoptosis regulator for extrinsic apoptosis induction in the ER membrane. Recent studies have shown that BAP31 is also expressed on the surface of embryonic stem ...