PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,765)

The association between being currently in school and HIV prevalence among young women in nine eastern and southern African countries

Introduction Interventions to keep adolescent girls and young women in school, or support their return to school, are hypothesised to also reduce HIV risk. Such interventions are included in the DREAMS combination package of evidence-based interventions. Although there is evidence of reduced risky sexual behaviours, the impact on HIV incidence is unclear. We used nationally...

Left-handed metamaterial inspired by joint T-D geometry on flexible NiAl2O4 substrate

In this paper, we introduce a new compact left-handed tunable metamaterial structure, inspired by a joint T-D shape geometry on a flexible NiAl2O4 substrate. The designed metamaterial exhibits an extra-large negative refractive index bandwidth of 6.34 GHz, with an operating frequency range from 4 to 18 GHz. We demonstrate the effects of substrate material thickness on the...

A mobile clinic approach to the delivery of community-based mental health services in rural Haiti

This study evaluates the use of a mental health mobile clinic to overcome two major challenges to the provision of mental healthcare in resource-limited settings: the shortage of trained specialists; and the need to improve access to safe, effective, and culturally sound care in community settings. Employing task-shifting and supervision, mental healthcare was largely delivered...

Depth and coral cover drive the distribution of a coral macroborer across two reef systems

Bioerosion, the removal of calcium carbonate from coral frameworks by living organisms, influences a variety of reef features, from their topographic complexity to the net balance of carbonate budgets. Little is known, however, about how macroborers, which bore into reef substrates leaving traces greater than 0.1 mm diameter, are distributed across coral reefs, particularly reef...

Identification of hepatic protein-protein interaction targets for betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase

Protein-protein interactions are an important mechanism for the regulation of enzyme function allowing metabolite channeling, crosstalk between pathways or the introduction of post-translational modifications. Therefore, a number of high-throughput studies have been carried out to shed light on the protein networks established under different pathophysiological settings...

Optical coherence tomography findings as a predictor of clinical course in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion treated with ranibizumab

Purpose To examine the relationship between optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and clinical course in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IVR). Design Prospective cohort study. Participants Thirty eyes of 30 patients with BRVO treated with IVR. Methods All patients received 1 initial IVR followed by repeated...

Escherichia coli β-clamp slows down DNA polymerase I dependent nick translation while accelerating ligation

The nick translation property of DNA polymerase I (Pol I) ensures the maturation of Okazaki fragments by removing primer RNAs and facilitating ligation. However, prolonged nick translation traversing downstream DNA is an energy wasting futile process, as Pol I simultaneously polymerizes and depolymerizes at the nick sites utilizing energy-rich dNTPs. Using an in vitro assay...

Telomere length and mortality in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study

Introduction Short telomeres have been associated with adverse lifestyle factors, cardiovascular risk factors and age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and also with mortality. However, previous studies report conflicting results. Objectives The aim of the present study has been to investigate...

An Eigenspace approach for detecting multiple space-time disease clusters: Application to measles hotspots detection in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Identifying the abnormally high-risk regions in a spatiotemporal space that contains an unexpected disease count is helpful to conduct surveillance and implement control strategies. The EigenSpot algorithm has been recently proposed for detecting space-time disease clusters of arbitrary shapes with no restriction on the distribution and quality of the data, and has shown some...

Viewers can keep up with fast subtitles: Evidence from eye movements

People watch subtitled audiovisual materials more than ever before. With the proliferation of subtitled content, we are also witnessing an increase in subtitle speeds. However, there is an ongoing controversy about what optimum subtitle speeds should be. This study looks into whether viewers can keep up with increasingly fast subtitles and whether the way people cope with...

Single cell transcriptome analysis of MCF-7 reveals consistently and inconsistently expressed gene groups each associated with distinct cellular localization and functions

Single cell transcriptome (SCT) analysis provides superior resolution to illustrate tumor cell heterogeneity for clinical implications. We characterized four SCTs of MCF-7 using 143 housekeeping genes (HKGs) as control, of which lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) expression is silenced. These SCT libraries mapped to 11,423, 11,486, 10,380, and 11,306 RefSeq genes (UCSC), respectively...

AR negative triple negative or “quadruple negative” breast cancers in African American women have an enriched basal and immune signature

There is increasing evidence that Androgen Receptor (AR) expression has prognostic usefulness in Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), where tumors that lack AR expression are considered “Quadruple negative” Breast Cancers (“QNBC”). However, a comprehensive analysis of AR expression within all breast cancer subtypes or stratified by race has not been reported. We assessed AR mRNA...

Adolescent religious attendance and spirituality—Are they associated with leisure-time choices?

Background Spirituality and religious attendance (RA) have been associated with personal attitudes and values, and this may affect lifestyle. The aim of this study was to explore their association with adolescent leisure-time choices in a highly secular environment. Methods A nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 4,182, 14.4±1.1 years, 48.6% boys) participated in...

Performance of point-of-care birth HIV testing in primary health care clinics: An observational cohort study

Background Failure to timely diagnose HIV in infants is a major barrier for scaling-up paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART). WHO recommends birth testing for earlier diagnosis and to improve test coverage, but current diagnosis takes 2–3 weeks to complete, thereby limiting the ability of care givers to provide follow-on care, especially in low-resource settings. We evaluated...

Life-threatening dermatoses: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Impact on the Spanish public health system (2010-2015)

Background Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are serious mucocutaneous reactions. In Spain, the epidemiology and resulting expenses of these diseases are not well established. Methodology Retrospective descriptive study using the Minimum Basic Data Set (CMBD in Spanish) in patients admitted to hospitals of the National Health System between 2010...

Mitochondrial dysfunction reduces yeast replicative lifespan by elevating RAS-dependent ROS production by the ER-localized NADPH oxidase Yno1

Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is associated with cellular dysfunction, disease etiology, and senescence. Here, we used the eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly studied for cellular aging, to demonstrate how defective mitochondrial function affects yeast replicative lifespan (RLS). We show that RLS of...

Opportunism or aquatic specialization? Evidence of freshwater fish exploitation at Ohalo II- A waterlogged Upper Paleolithic site

Analysis of ca. 17,000 fish remains recovered from the late Upper Paleolithic/early Epi-Paleolithic (LGM; 23,000 BP) waterlogged site of Ohalo II (Rift Valley, Israel) provides new insights into the role of wetland habitats and the fish inhabiting them during the evolution of economic strategies prior to the agricultural evolution. Of the current 19 native fish species in Lake...

Adenosine A1 receptor: A neuroprotective target in light induced retinal degeneration

Light induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) is a useful model that resembles human retinal degenerative diseases. The modulation of adenosine A1 receptor is neuroprotective in different models of retinal injury. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of the modulation of A1 receptor in LIRD. The eyes of rats intravitreally injected with N6...

Information processes of task-switching and modality-shifting across development

Developmental research on flexible attentional control in young children has often focused on the role of attention in task-switching in a unimodal context. In real life, children must master the art of switching attention not only between task demands, but also between sensory modalities. Previous study has shown that young children can be efficient at switching between unimodal...

Sensitive operation of enzyme-based biodevices by advanced signal processing

Analytical devices that combine sensitive biological component with a physicochemical detector hold a great potential for various applications, e.g., environmental monitoring, food analysis or medical diagnostics. Continuous efforts to develop inexpensive sensitive biodevices for detecting target substances typically focus on the design of biorecognition elements and their...

A novel gel liner system with embedded electrodes for use with upper limb myoelectric prostheses

We present the development and evaluation of a gel liner system for upper limb prosthesis users that enables acquisition of electromyographic (myoelectric) control signals through embedded electrodes and flexible, conductive fabric leads. This liner system is constructed using a manufacturing approach rather than by modifying a commercially available liner. To evaluate the...

NEV supply chain coordination and sustainability considering sales effort and risk aversion under the CVaR criterion

In a two-echelon new energy vehicle (NEV) supply chain consisting of a risk-neutral manufacturer and a risk-averse retailer, the coordination and sustainability problem is investigated. The risk-averse retailer, who makes sales effort and undertakes the incurred effort cost, decides the order quantity and sales effort level under the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) criterion. We...

Lévy foraging patterns of rural humans

Movement patterns resembling Lévy walks, often attributed to the execution of an advantageous probabilistic searching strategy, are found in a wide variety of organisms, from cells to human hunter-gatherers. It has been suggested that such movement patterns may be fundamental to how humans interact and experience the world and that they may have arisen early in our genus with the...

Multigenerational effects of bisphenol A or ethinyl estradiol exposure on F2 California mice (Peromyscus californicus) pup vocalizations

Rodent pups use vocalizations to communicate with one or both parents in biparental species, such as California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Previous studies have shown California mice developmentally exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) or ethinyl estradiol (EE), demonstrate later compromised parental behaviors. Reductions in F1 parental behaviors...

Low-dose ionizing radiation exposure represses the cell cycle and protein synthesis pathways in in vitro human primary keratinocytes and U937 cell lines

The effects of the high-dose ionizing radiation used in radiotherapy have been thoroughly demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) such as computed tomography-guided biopsies and X-ray fluoroscopy on skin cells remain controversial. This study investigated the molecular effects of LDIR on the human primary keratinocytes (HPKs...