PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 182,323)

Hearing impairment in premature newborns—Analysis based on the national hearing screening database in Poland

Objectives The incidence of sensorineural hearing loss is between 1 and 3 per 1000 in healthy neonates and 2–4 per 100 in high-risk infants. The national universal neonatal hearing screening carried out in Poland since 2002 enables selection of infants with suspicion and/or risk factors of hearing loss. In this study, we assessed the incidence and risk factors of hearing impairment ...

Application of unsupervised analysis techniques to lung cancer patient data

This study applies unsupervised machine learning techniques for classification and clustering to a collection of descriptive variables from 10,442 lung cancer patient records in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database. The goal is to automatically classify lung cancer patients into groups based on clinically measurable disease-specific variables in ...

Sources of pain in laparoendoscopic gynecological surgeons: An analysis of ergonomic factors and proposal of an aid to improve comfort

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) offers cosmetic benefits to patients; however, surgeons often experience pain during MIS. We administered an ergonomic questionnaire to 176 Korean laparoscopic gynecological surgeons to determine potential sources of pain during surgery. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that had a significant impact on gynecological ...

The influence of threatening visual warnings on tobacco packaging: Measuring the impact of threat level, image size, and type of pack through psychophysiological and self-report methods

The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings) displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used–for the first time in this ...

Effect of dialyzer membrane materials on survival in chronic hemodialysis patients: Results from the annual survey of the Japanese Nationwide Dialysis Registry

Background Little information is available regarding which type of dialyzer membrane results in good prognosis in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Therefore, we conducted a cohort study from a nationwide registry of hemodialysis patients in Japan to establish the association between different dialyzer membranes and mortality rates. Methods We followed 142,412 patients on ...

A look back on how far to walk: Systematic review and meta-analysis of physical access to skilled care for childbirth in Sub-Saharan Africa

Objectives To (i) summarize the methods undertaken to measure physical accessibility as the spatial separation between women and health services, and (ii) establish the extent to which distance to skilled care for childbirth affects utilization in Sub-Saharan Africa. Method We defined spatial separation as the distance/travel time between women and skilled care services. The use of ...

Src- and Fyn-dependent apical membrane trafficking events control endothelial lumen formation during vascular tube morphogenesis

Here we examine the question of how endothelial cells (ECs) develop their apical membrane surface domain during lumen and tube formation. We demonstrate marked apical membrane targeting of activated Src kinases to this apical domain during early and late stages of this process. Immunostaining for phosphotyrosine or phospho-Src reveals apical membrane staining in intracellular ...

Reproducibility of frequency-dependent low frequency fluctuations in reaction time over time and across tasks

Objective Increased levels of reaction time variability (RTV) are characteristics of sustained attention deficits. The clinical significance of RTV has been widely recognized. However, the reliability of RTV measurements has not been widely studied. The present study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of RTV conventional measurements, e.g., the standard deviation (SD), the ...

Lab meets real life: A laboratory assessment of spontaneous thought and its ecological validity

People’s minds frequently wander towards self-generated thoughts, which are unrelated to external stimuli or demands. These phenomena, referred to as “spontaneous thought” (ST) and “mind wandering” (MW), have previously been linked with both costs and benefits. Current assessments of ST and MW have predominantly been conducted in the laboratory, whereas studies on the ecological ...

Mercerized mesoporous date pit activated carbon—A novel adsorbent to sequester potentially toxic divalent heavy metals from water

A substantive approach converting waste date pits to mercerized mesoporous date pit activated carbon (DPAC) and utilizing it in the removal of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) was reported. In general, rapid heavy metals adsorption kinetics for Co range: 25–100 mg/L was observed, accomplishing 77–97% adsorption within 15 min, finally, attaining equilibrium in 360 min. Linear and ...

High HPgV replication is associated with improved surrogate markers of HIV progression

Background Human Pegivirus (HPgV) may have a beneficial effect on HIV disease progression in co-infected patients; however, the virologic characteristics of this infection are not well defined. In this study, we determined HPgV viremia prevalence in Mexico and provide new insights to understand HPgV infection and HPgV/HIV co-infection. Methods We analyzed and quantified 7,890 serum ...

Effects of reduced nitrogen inputs on crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency in a long-term maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system

The blind pursuit of high yields via increased fertilizer inputs increases the environmental costs. Relay intercropping has advantages for yield, but a strategy for N management is urgently required to decrease N inputs without yield loss in maize-soybean relay intercropping systems (IMS). Experiments were conducted with three levels of N and three planting patterns, and dry matter ...

Parametric analysis of occupant ankle and tibia injuries in frontal impact

Objective Non-fatal tibia and ankle injuries without proper protection from the restraint system has gotten wide attention from researchers. This study aimed to investigate occupant tibia and ankle injuries under realistic frontal impact environment that is rarely considered in previous experimental and simulant studies. Methods An integrated occupant-vehicle model was established ...

Medical leaders or masters?—A systematic review of medical leadership in hospital settings

Medical leadership is increasingly considered as crucial for improving the quality of care and the sustainability of healthcare. However, conceptual clarity is lacking in the literature and in practice. Therefore, a systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted to reveal the different conceptualizations of medical leadership in terms of definitions, roles and ...

In-silico analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements of pathogenesis-related proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa

Pathogenesis related (PR) proteins are low molecular weight family of proteins induced in plants under various biotic and abiotic stresses. They play an important role in plant-defense mechanism. PRs have wide range of functions, acting as hydrolases, peroxidases, chitinases, anti-fungal, protease inhibitors etc. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze promoter ...

Successful 1:1 proportion ventilation with a unique device for independent lung ventilation using a double-lumen tube without complications in the supine and lateral decubitus positions. A pilot study

Introduction Adequate blood oxygenation and ventilation/perfusion matching should be main goal of anaesthetic and intensive care management. At present, one of the methods of improving gas exchange restricted by ventilation/perfusion mismatching is independent ventilation with two ventilators. Recently, however, a unique device has been developed, enabling ventilation of ...

Home modification to reduce falls at a health district level: Modeling health gain, health inequalities and health costs

Background There is some evidence that home safety assessment and modification (HSAM) is effective in reducing falls in older people. But there are various knowledge gaps, including around cost-effectiveness and also the impacts at a health district-level. Methods and findings A previously established Markov macro-simulation model built for the whole New Zealand (NZ) population ...

Academic career intentions in the life sciences: Can research self-efficacy beliefs explain low numbers of aspiring physician and female scientists?

A lack of physician scientists as well as a high female dropout rate from academic medicine and basic life sciences is a concern in many countries. The current study analyzes academic career intentions within a sample of recent doctoral graduates from medicine and basic life sciences (N = 1109), focusing on research self-efficacy beliefs as explanatory variable of gender and ...

E-inclusion: Beyond individual socio-demographic characteristics

The changing demographic structure of the population, resulting in unparalleled growth of the elderly population, means that e-inclusion of this population group is considered to be a social and political priority in the context of the Information Society. Most research studies have only considered individual variables -such as age, gender, education, income and health- in the ...

Deep learning approach to bacterial colony classification

In microbiology it is diagnostically useful to recognize various genera and species of bacteria. It can be achieved using computer-aided methods, which make the recognition processes more automatic and thus significantly reduce the time necessary for the classification. Moreover, in case of diagnostic uncertainty (the misleading similarity in shape or structure of bacterial cells), ...

Expression of surfactant protein B is dependent on cell density in H441 lung epithelial cells

Background Expression of surfactant protein (SP)-B, which assures the structural stability of the pulmonary surfactant film, is influenced by various stimuli, including glucocorticoids; however, the role that cell-cell contact plays in SP-B transcription remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of cell-cell contact on SP-B mRNA and mature SP-B ...

The effect of corn trypsin inhibitor, anti-tissue factor pathway inhibitor antibodies and phospholipids on microvesicle-associated thrombin generation in patients with pancreatic cancer and healthy controls

Circulating microvesicles (MVs) are suggested to be important contributors to cancer-associated thrombosis due to the presence of surface-bound procoagulant molecules like tissue factor (TF) and phosphatidylserine (PS). Pancreatic cancer is considered to be one of the most prothrombotic malignancies. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of analytical variables on ...

Transcriptional responses in the hepatopancreas of Eriocheir sinensis exposed to deltamethrin

Deltamethrin is an important pesticide widely used against ectoparasites. Deltamethrin contamination has resulted in a threat to the healthy breeding of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. In this study, we investigated transcriptional responses in the hepatopancreas of E. sinensis exposed to deltamethrin. We obtained 99,087,448, 89,086,478, and 100,117,958 raw sequence ...

A semi-symmetric image encryption scheme based on the function projective synchronization of two hyperchaotic systems

Both symmetric and asymmetric color image encryption have advantages and disadvantages. In order to combine their advantages and try to overcome their disadvantages, chaos synchronization is used to avoid the key transmission for the proposed semi-symmetric image encryption scheme. Our scheme is a hybrid chaotic encryption algorithm, and it consists of a scrambling stage and a ...

The rise of the middle author: Investigating collaboration and division of labor in biomedical research using partial alphabetical authorship

Contemporary biomedical research is performed by increasingly large teams. Consequently, an increasingly large number of individuals are being listed as authors in the bylines, which complicates the proper attribution of credit and responsibility to individual authors. Typically, more importance is given to the first and last authors, while it is assumed that the others (the middle ...