PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,866)

PASI: A novel pathway method to identify delicate group effects

Pathway analysis is a common approach in diverse biomedical studies, yet the currently-available pathway tools do not typically support the increasingly popular personalized analyses. Another weakness of the currently-available pathway methods is their inability to handle challenging data with only modest group-based effects compared to natural individual variation. In an effort...

Alternative splicing of helicase-like transcription factor (Hltf): Intron retention-dependent activation of immune tolerance at the feto-maternal interface

Hltf is regulated by intron retention, and global Hltf-deletion causes perinatal lethality from hypoglycemia. In heart, full-length Hltf is a transcriptional regulator of Hif-1α that controls transport systems. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that Hltf deletion from placenta caused or exacerbated neonatal hypoglycemia via Hif-1α regulation of nutrient transporters. RNA-seq data...

Teaching hospital alternatives for Veterans Health Administration facilities: A Google Maps proximity study

The United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA) serves more than 9 million enrolled Veterans each year. Although most of the care that the VHA sponsors is delivered within its own facilities, there has been a call for “privatizing” some or all of these services. Under such an arrangement, the Department of Veterans Affairs would pay non-VHA providers to deliver care in...

Multi-scale multi-level marine spatial planning: A novel methodological approach applied in South Africa

This study proposes and discusses a multi-scale spatial planning method implemented simultaneously at local and national level to prioritize ecosystem management actions across landscapes and seascapes. Mismatches in scale between the occurrence of biodiversity patterns and ecological processes, and the size and nature of the human footprint, and the different levels and scope of...

Dynamical Hurst analysis identifies EEG channel differences between PTSD and healthy controls

We employ a time-dependent Hurst analysis to identify EEG signals that differentiate between healthy controls and combat-related PTSD subjects. The Hurst exponents, calculated using a rescaled range analysis, demonstrate a significant differential response between healthy and PTSD samples which may lead to diagnostic applications. To overcome the non-stationarity of EEG data, we...

Activation of Th2 cells downregulates CRTh2 through an NFAT1 mediated mechanism

CRTh2 (encoded by PTGDR2) is a G-protein coupled receptor expressed by Th2 cells as well as eosinophils, basophils and innate lymphoid cells (ILC)2s. Activation of CRTh2, by its ligand prostaglandin (PG)D2, mediates production of type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), chemotaxis and inhibition of apoptosis. As such, the PGD2-CRTh2 pathway is considered important to the...

Molecular phylogeography of East Asian Boea clarkeana (Gesneriaceae) in relation to habitat restriction

Subfamily Cyrtandroideae (Gesneriaceae) comprises a broadly distributed group of rocky-slope herbs, with China being the center of its distributional range. The normal growth of many species within the family is particularly dependent on special habitats. Due to the paucity of molecular studies, very little is known regarding East Asian herb phylogeographic pattern. Here, we...

The influence of pressure on crude oil biodegradation in shallow and deep Gulf of Mexico sediments

A significant portion of oil released during the Deepwater Horizon disaster reached the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) seafloor. Predicting the long-term fate of this oil is hindered by a lack of data about the combined influences of pressure, temperature, and sediment composition on microbial hydrocarbon remineralization in deep-sea sediments. To investigate crude oil biodegradation by...

The duration of hypothermia affects short-term neuroprotection in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxic ischaemic injury

Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Therapeutic hypothermia is standard clinical care for moderate hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury, however it reduces the risk of death and disability only by 11% and 40% of the treated infants still develop disabilities. Thus it is necessary to develop supplementary therapies to...

Intracranial compliance is associated with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance in chronic fatigue syndrome

Symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) are common in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and similar disorders. These symptoms may relate to individual differences in intracranial compliance and cerebral blood perfusion. The present study used phase-contrast, quantitative flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine intracranial compliance based on arterial inflow, venous...

New avatars for Myriapods: Complete 3D morphology of type specimens transcends conventional species description (Myriapoda, Chilopoda)

We present high-resolution X-ray microtomography (microCT) to enhance the standard morphological description of a recently described centipede, Eupolybothrus liburnicus Akkari, Komerički, Weigand, Edgecombe and Stoev, 2017. The 3D images of the holotype and paratype specimens are considered here as cybertypes for the species–a universal and virtual representation of the type...

Sexual behaviors, HIV knowledge, HIV testing attitudes and recent HIV testing among female entertainment workers in Cambodia: A cross-sectional study

Background In Cambodian context, female entertainment workers (FEWs) are young women working at establishments such as karaoke bars, restaurants, beer gardens or massage parlors. FEWs may sell sex to male patrons and are considered a high-risk group for HIV. This study aimed to identify factors associated with recent HIV testing among FEWs in Cambodia to inform future prevention...

Whole genome comparison of Aspergillus flavus L-morphotype strain NRRL 3357 (type) and S-morphotype strain AF70

Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus that infects corn, peanuts, tree nuts and other agriculturally important crops. Once the crop is infected the fungus has the potential to secrete one or more mycotoxins, the most carcinogenic of which is aflatoxin. Aflatoxin contaminated crops are deemed unfit for human or animal consumption, which results in both food and economic...

Welfare effects of health insurance in Mexico: The case of Seguro Popular de Salud

Abstract This study contributes with original empirical evidence on the distributional and welfare effects of one of the most important health policies implemented by the Mexican government in the last decade, the Seguro Popular de Salud (SPS). We analyze the effect of SPS on households’ welfare using a decomposable index that considers insured and uninsured households’ response...

Emotional cues from expressive behavior of women and men with Parkinson’s disease

Objective Emotional experience of people with Parkinson’s disease is prone to being misunderstood by observers and even healthcare practitioners, which affects treatment effectiveness and makes clients suffer distress in their social lives. This study was designed to identify reliable emotional cues from expressive behavior in women and men with Parkinson’s disease. Method...

Preparation and characterization of functionalized heparin-loaded poly-Ɛ-caprolactone fibrous mats to prevent infection with human papillomaviruses

In this study, heparin-loaded poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) fibrous mats were prepared and characterized based on their physical, cytotoxic, thermal, and biological properties. The main objective of the work described here was to test the hypothesis that incorporation of heparin into a PCL carrier could serve as bio-compatible material capable of inhibiting Human Papillomavirus (HPV...

Gene expression in the corneal endothelium of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy patients with and without expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in TCF4

Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD) is a late onset, autosomal dominant eye disease that can lead to loss of vision. Expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat in the third intron of the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene is highly associated with FECD. However, only about 75% of FECD patients in the northern European population possess an expansion of this repeat. The...

Induction of labor after one previous Cesarean section in women with an unfavorable cervix: A retrospective cohort study

Objective Uterine rupture is a well-known but unusual complication in vaginal deliveries with a Cesarean section in the history. The risk of uterine rupture is at least two-fold when labor is induced. In Sweden, women are allowed to deliver vaginally after one previous Cesarean section, regardless if labor starts spontaneously or is induced. The aim of the study is to compare the...

Evaluation of glycoprotein Ov8 as a potential antigen for an OvHV-2-specific diagnostic assay

Gammaherpesviruses in the genus Macavirus establish clinically unapparent persistent infections in reservoir species. Transmission of some of these viruses, including alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), to clinically susceptible species in the order Artiodactyla can result in malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a usually fatal lymphoproliferative...

Sensory information and the perception of verticality in post-stroke patients. Another point of view in sensory reweighting strategies

Introduction Perception of verticality is highly related to balance control in human. Head-on-body tilt <60° results in the E-effect, meaning that a tilt of the perceived vertical is observed contralateral to the head tilt in the frontal plane. Furthermore, somatosensory loss also impacts the accuracy of verticality perception. However, when several input sources are absent or...

Enhancing radiosensitivity of melanoma cells through very high dose rate pulses released by a plasma focus device

Radiation therapy is a useful and standard tumor treatment strategy. Despite recent advances in delivery of ionizing radiation, survival rates for some cancer patients are still low because of recurrence and radioresistance. This is why many novel approaches have been explored to improve radiotherapy outcome. Some strategies are focused on enhancement of accuracy in ionizing...