PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 183,279)

The Antinociceptive Effects of JWH-015 in Chronic Inflammatory Pain Are Produced by Nitric Oxide-cGMP-PKG-KATP Pathway Activation Mediated by Opioids

Background Cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R) agonists attenuate inflammatory pain but the precise mechanism implicated in these effects is not completely elucidated. We investigated if the peripheral nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG)-ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels signaling pathway triggered by the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) and modulated by opioids, participates in ...

Modulation of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Channels by Alkaline Earth Cations

Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) function is modulated by Ca2+ and Mg2+. To better characterize Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding sites involved in RyR2 regulation, the effects of cytosolic and luminal earth alkaline divalent cations (M2+: Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) were studied on RyR2 from pig ventricle reconstituted in bilayers. RyR2 were activated by M2+ binding to high affinity activating ...

Characterization of Brca2-Deficient Plants Excludes the Role of NHEJ and SSA in the Meiotic Chromosomal Defect Phenotype

In somatic cells, three major pathways are involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DBS): Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ), Single-Strand Annealing (SSA) and Homologous Recombination (HR). In somatic and meiotic HR, DNA DSB are 5′ to 3′ resected, producing long 3′ single-stranded DNA extensions. Brca2 is essential to load the Rad51 recombinase onto these 3′ overhangs. ...

Mechanisms for Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Activation of ERK1/2 during Leukocyte Transendothelial Migration

Background During inflammation, adhesion molecules regulate recruitment of leukocytes to inflamed tissues. It is reported that vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) activates extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), but the mechanism for this activation is not known. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 partially inhibit leukocyte transendothelial migration in a ...

CcpA Ensures Optimal Metabolic Fitness of Streptococcus pneumoniae

In Gram-positive bacteria, the transcriptional regulator CcpA is at the core of catabolite control mechanisms. In the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, links between CcpA and virulence have been established, but its role as a master regulator in different nutritional environments remains to be elucidated. Thus, we performed whole-transcriptome and metabolic analyses of S. ...

Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana

Physalis peruviana, commonly known as Cape gooseberry, is an Andean Solanaceae fruit with high nutritional value and interesting medicinal properties. In the present study we report the development and characterization of microsatellite loci from a P. peruviana commercial Colombian genotype. We identified 932 imperfect and 201 perfect Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) loci in ...

Functional Redundancy Patterns Reveal Non-Random Assembly Rules in a Species-Rich Marine Assemblage

The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used ...

Determination of the Crystal Structure and Active Residues of FabV, the Enoyl-ACP Reductase from Xanthomonas oryzae

Background Enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR) catalyses the last reduction reaction in the fatty acid elongation cycle in bacteria and is a good antimicrobial target candidate. FabV is the most recently discovered class of ENR, but we lack information about the atomic structure and the key residues involved in reductase activity except for the known conserved tyrosine and lysine residues in ...

A Comparison of Parallel Pyrosequencing and Sanger Clone-Based Sequencing and Its Impact on the Characterization of the Genetic Diversity of HIV-1

Background Pyrosequencing technology has the potential to rapidly sequence HIV-1 viral quasispecies without requiring the traditional approach of cloning. In this study, we investigated the utility of ultra-deep pyrosequencing to characterize genetic diversity of the HIV-1 gag quasispecies and assessed the possible contribution of pyrosequencing technology in studying HIV-1 biology ...

Biological Responses to Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEPs) Depend on the Physicochemical Properties of the DEPs

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are the main components of ambient particulate materials, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-PAHs, heavy metals, and gaseous materials. Many epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies have shown that ambient particles, including DEPs, are associated with respiratory disorders, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and lung cancer. ...

Identification of Human NK17/NK1 Cells

Background Natural killer (NK) cells have both cytolytic and immunoregulatory functions. We recently described that these cells release the inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IFN-γ. However, the precise identity of the NK cell subset(s) that secrete these cytokines is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings To isolate the cells secreting IL-17 and IFN-γ, we took advantage of the ...

Misleading Population Estimates: Biases and Consistency of Visual Surveys and Matrix Modelling in the Endangered Bearded Vulture

Conservation strategies for long-lived vertebrates require accurate estimates of parameters relative to the populations' size, numbers of non-breeding individuals (the “cryptic” fraction of the population) and the age structure. Frequently, visual survey techniques are used to make these estimates but the accuracy of these approaches is questionable, mainly because of the existence ...

Neuropilin-2 Mediated β-Catenin Signaling and Survival in Human Gastro-Intestinal Cancer Cell Lines

NRP-2 is a high-affinity kinase-deficient receptor for ligands belonging to the class 3 semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor families. NRP-2 has been detected on the surface of several types of human cancer cells, but its expression and function in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells remains to be determined. We sought to determine the function of NRP-2 in mediating ...

Effects of DAPT and Atoh1 Overexpression on Hair Cell Production and Hair Bundle Orientation in Cultured Organ of Corti from Neonatal Rats

Background In mammals, hair cells do not undergo spontaneous regeneration when they are damaged and result in permanent hearing loss. Previous studies in cultured Organ of Corti dissected from neonatal animals have shown that both DAPT (r-secretase inhibitor in the Notch signal pathway) treatment and Atoh1 overexpression can induce supernumerary hair cells. The effects of ...

Mutation Analysis of NR5A1 Encoding Steroidogenic Factor 1 in 77 Patients with 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) Including Hypospadias

Background Mutations of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 have been reported in association with a wide spectrum of 46,XY DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) phenotypes including severe forms of hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the frequency of NR5A1 gene mutations in a large series of patients presenting with 46,XY DSD and hypospadias. Based on ...

The Interplay between Branching and Pruning on Neuronal Target Search during Developmental Growth: Functional Role and Implications

Regenerative strategies that facilitate the regrowth and reconnection of neurons are some of the most promising methods in spinal cord injury research. An essential part of these strategies is an increased understanding of the mechanisms by which growing neurites seek out and synapse with viable targets. In this paper, we use computational and theoretical tools to examine the ...

The Involvement of Voltage-Operated Calcium Channels in Somato-Dendritic Oxytocin Release

Magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) secrete oxytocin and vasopressin from axon terminals in the neurohypophysis, but they also release large amounts of peptide from their somata and dendrites, and this can be regulated both by activity-dependent Ca2+ influx and by mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. This somato-dendritic release can also be primed by agents that ...

Acid Stimulation (Sour Taste) Elicits GABA and Serotonin Release from Mouse Taste Cells

Several transmitter candidates including serotonin (5-HT), ATP, and norepinephrine (NE) have been identified in taste buds. Recently, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as well as the associated synthetic enzymes and receptors have also been identified in taste cells. GABA reduces taste-evoked ATP secretion from Receptor cells and is considered to be an inhibitory transmitter in taste ...

Atrial Fibrillation and Delayed Gastric Emptying

Background Atrial fibrillation and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) are common after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Our aim was to investigate a potential relationship between atrial fibrillation and DGE, which we defined as failure to tolerate a regular diet by the 7th postoperative day. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 249 patients who underwent ...

Serotype Specific Primers and Gel-Based RT-PCR Assays for ‘Typing’ African Horse Sickness Virus: Identification of Strains from Africa

African horse sickness is a devastating, transboundary animal disease, that is ‘listed’ by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Although attenuated, inactivated and subunit vaccines have been developed for African horse sickness virus (AHSV), these are serotype-specific and their effective deployment therefore relies on rapid and reliable identification of virus type. ...

The Expression and Function of Fatty Acid Transport Protein-2 and -4 in the Murine Placenta

Background The uptake and trans-placental trafficking of fatty acids from the maternal blood into the fetal circulation are essential for embryonic development, and involve several families of proteins. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) uniquely transport fatty acids into cells. We surmised that placental FATPs are germane for fetal growth, and are regulated during hypoxic ...

In Silico Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) in Human β-Globin Gene

Single amino acid substitutions in the globin chain are the most common forms of genetic variations that produce hemoglobinopathies- the most widespread inherited disorders worldwide. Several hemoglobinopathies result from homozygosity or compound heterozygosity to beta-globin (HBB) gene mutations, such as that producing sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS), HbC, HbD and HbE. Several of ...

Influences of DMP on the Fertilization Process and Subsequent Embryogenesis of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) by Gametes Exposure

Di-methyl phthalate (DMP), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor ...

Epigenetic Subgroups of Esophageal and Gastric Adenocarcinoma with Differential GATA5 DNA Methylation Associated with Clinical and Lifestyle Factors

Background Adenocarcinomas located near the gastroesophageal junction have unclear etiology and are difficult to classify. We used DNA methylation analysis to identify subtype-specific markers and new subgroups of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas, and studied their association with epidemiological risk factors and clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings We used logistic ...

Current Guidelines Have Limited Applicability to Patients with Comorbid Conditions: A Systematic Analysis of Evidence-Based Guidelines

Background Guidelines traditionally focus on the diagnosis and treatment of single diseases. As almost half of the patients with a chronic disease have more than one disease, the applicability of guidelines may be limited. The aim of this study was to assess the extent that guidelines address comorbidity and to assess the supporting evidence of recommendations related to ...