PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 169,307)

Puma and Trail/Dr5 Pathways Control Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Distinct Populations of Testicular Progenitors

Spermatogonia- stem cells and progenitors of adult spermatogenesis- are killed through a p53-regulated apoptotic process after γ-irradiation but the death effectors are still poorly characterized. Our data demonstrate that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved, and especially that spermatogonia can be split into two main populations, according to apoptotic ...

Does Social Capital Promote Physical Activity? A Population-Based Study in Japan

Background To examine the association between individual-level social capital and physical activity. Methodology/Principal Findings In February 2009, data were collected in a population-based cross-sectional survey in Okayama city, Japan. A cluster-sampling approach was used to randomly select 4,000 residents from 20 school districts. A total of 2260 questionnaires were returned ...

Host Immune Response to Mosquito-Transmitted Chikungunya Virus Differs from That Elicited by Needle Inoculated Virus

Background Mosquito-borne diseases are a worldwide public health threat. Mosquitoes transmit viruses or parasites during feeding, along with salivary proteins that modulate host responses to facilitate both blood feeding and pathogen transmission. Understanding these earliest events in mosquito transmission of arboviruses by mosquitoes is essential for development and assessment of ...

A Genome-Wide Gene Function Prediction Resource for Drosophila melanogaster

Predicting gene functions by integrating large-scale biological data remains a challenge for systems biology. Here we present a resource for Drosophila melanogaster gene function predictions. We trained function-specific classifiers to optimize the influence of different biological datasets for each functional category. Our model predicted GO terms and KEGG pathway memberships for ...

The SWR1 Histone Replacement Complex Causes Genetic Instability and Genome-Wide Transcription Misregulation in the Absence of H2A.Z

The SWR1 complex replaces the canonical histone H2A with the variant H2A.Z (Htz1 in yeast) at specific chromatin regions. This dynamic alteration in nucleosome structure provides a molecular mechanism to regulate transcription, gene silencing, chromosome segregation and DNA repair. Here we show that genetic instability, sensitivity to drugs impairing different cellular processes ...

From Grazing Resistance to Pathogenesis: The Coincidental Evolution of Virulence Factors

To many pathogenic bacteria, human hosts are an evolutionary dead end. This begs the question what evolutionary forces have shaped their virulence traits. Why are these bacteria so virulent? The coincidental evolution hypothesis suggests that such virulence factors result from adaptation to other ecological niches. In particular, virulence traits in bacteria might result from ...

A Minimal Model of Signaling Network Elucidates Cell-to-Cell Stochastic Variability in Apoptosis

Background Signaling networks are designed to sense an environmental stimulus and adapt to it. We propose and study a minimal model of signaling network that can sense and respond to external stimuli of varying strength in an adaptive manner. The structure of this minimal network is derived based on some simple assumptions on its differential response to external stimuli. ...

SUMOylation by Pias1 Regulates the Activity of the Hedgehog Dependent Gli Transcription Factors

Background Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, a vital signaling pathway for the development and homeostasis of vertebrate tissues, is mediated by members of the Gli family of zinc finger transcription factors. Hh signaling increases the transcriptional activity of Gli proteins, at least in part, by inhibiting their proteolytic processing. Conversely, phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein ...

Livelihood Diversification in Tropical Coastal Communities: A Network-Based Approach to Analyzing ‘Livelihood Landscapes’

Background Diverse livelihood portfolios are frequently viewed as a critical component of household economies in developing countries. Within the context of natural resources governance in particular, the capacity of individual households to engage in multiple occupations has been shown to influence important issues such as whether fishers would exit a declining fishery, how people ...

CHL1 Is a Selective Organizer of the Presynaptic Machinery Chaperoning the SNARE Complex

Proteins constituting the presynaptic machinery of vesicle release undergo substantial conformational changes during the process of exocytosis. While changes in the conformation make proteins vulnerable to aggregation and degradation, little is known about synaptic chaperones which counteract these processes. We show that the cell adhesion molecule CHL1 directly interacts with and ...

Herbivore and Fungal Pathogen Exclusion Affects the Seed Production of Four Common Grassland Species

Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via ...

The Native Copper- and Zinc- Binding Protein Metallothionein Blocks Copper-Mediated Aβ Aggregation and Toxicity in Rat Cortical Neurons

Background A major pathological hallmark of AD is the deposition of insoluble extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques. There are compelling data suggesting that Aβ aggregation is catalysed by reaction with the metals zinc and copper. Methodology/Principal Findings We now report that the major human-expressed metallothionein (MT) subtype, MT-2A, is capable of preventing the in vitro ...

Declining Orangutan Encounter Rates from Wallace to the Present Suggest the Species Was Once More Abundant

Background Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) currently occur at low densities and seeing a wild one is a rare event. Compared to present low encounter rates of orangutans, it is striking how many orangutan each day historic collectors like Alfred Russel Wallace were able to shoot continuously over weeks or even months. Does that indicate that some 150 years ago encounter rates ...

Characterization of ftsZ Mutations that Render Bacillus subtilis Resistant to MinC

Background Cell division in Bacillus subtilis occurs precisely at midcell. Positional control of cell division is exerted by two mechanisms: nucleoid occlusion, through Noc, which prevents division through nucleoids, and the Min system, where the combined action of the MinC, D and J proteins prevents formation of the FtsZ ring at cell poles or recently completed division sites. ...

TIP-1 Translocation onto the Cell Plasma Membrane Is a Molecular Biomarker of Tumor Response to Ionizing Radiation

Background Tumor response to treatment has been generally assessed with anatomic and functional imaging. Recent development of in vivo molecular and cellular imaging showed promise in time-efficient assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of a prescribed regimen. Currently, the in vivo molecular imaging is limited with shortage of biomarkers and probes with sound biological ...

miRNAs in Newt Lens Regeneration: Specific Control of Proliferation and Evidence for miRNA Networking

Background Lens regeneration in adult newts occurs via transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelial cells (PECs) of the dorsal iris. The same source of cells from the ventral iris is not able to undergo this process. In an attempt to understand this restriction we have studied in the past expression patterns of miRNAs. Among several miRNAs we have found that mir-148 shows an ...

A Geospatial Modelling Approach Integrating Archaeobotany and Genetics to Trace the Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Plants

Background The study of the prehistoric origins and dispersal routes of domesticated plants is often based on the analysis of either archaeobotanical or genetic data. As more data become available, spatially explicit models of crop dispersal can be used to combine different types of evidence. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a model in which a crop disperses through a ...

The Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Consecutive Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

Background Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is tightly linked to some components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). However, most of the evidence evaluated individual components of the MetS or patients with a diagnosis of OSA that were referred for sleep studies due to sleep complaints. Therefore, it is not clear whether OSA exacerbates the metabolic abnormalities in a representative ...

An Event-Related fMRI Study of Phonological Verbal Working Memory in Schizophrenia

Background While much is known about the role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in working memory (WM) deficits of schizophrenia, the nature of the relationship between cognitive components of WM and brain activation patterns remains unclear. We aimed to elucidate the neural correlates of the maintenance component of verbal WM by examining correct and error trials with event-related fMRI. ...

Reduction in Structural Disorder and Functional Complexity in the Thermal Adaptation of Prokaryotes

Genomic correlates of evolutionary adaptation to very low or very high optimal growth temperature (OGT) values have been the subject of many studies. Whereas these provided a protein-structural rationale of the activity and stability of globular proteins/enzymes, the point has been neglected that adaptation to extreme temperatures could also have resulted from an increased use of ...

A Common Left Occipito-Temporal Dysfunction in Developmental Dyslexia and Acquired Letter-By-Letter Reading?

Background We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem. Similar to acquired cases of letter-by-letter reading, the developmental cases exhibited an abnormal strong effect of length (i.e., number of letters) on response time for words and pseudowords. Results ...

Comparative Immunogenicity of HIV-1 Clade C Envelope Proteins for Prime/Boost Studies

Background Previous clinical efficacy trials failed to support the continued development of recombinant gp120 (rgp120) as a candidate HIV vaccine. However, the recent RV144 HIV vaccine trial in Thailand showed that a prime/boost immunization strategy involving priming with canarypox vCP1521 followed by boosting with rgp120 could provide significant, although modest, protection from ...

Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites

Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to ...

Synergy in Efficacy of Fungal Entomopathogens and Permethrin against West African Insecticide-Resistant Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes

Background Increasing incidences of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors are threatening the sustainable use of contemporary chemical vector control measures. Fungal entomopathogens provide a possible additional tool for the control of insecticide-resistant malaria mosquitoes. This study investigated the compatibility of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin and two ...

Clinical Prediction Rule for Stratifying Risk of Pulmonary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin, is a worldwide problem. Objective To develop a clinical prediction rule to stratify risk for MDR-TB among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods Derivation and internal validation of the rule among adult patients prospectively recruited from 37 health centers (Perú), either ...