PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,387)

Single DermaVir Immunization: Dose-Dependent Expansion of Precursor/Memory T Cells against All HIV Antigens in HIV-1 Infected Individuals

Background The GIHU004 study was designed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of three doses of DermaVir immunization in HIV-infected subjects on fully suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methodology/Principal Findings This first-in-human dose escalation study was conducted with three topical DermaVir doses targeted to epidermal Langerhans cells to...

Viral Diversity and Diversification of Major Non-Structural Genes vif, vpr, vpu, tat exon 1 and rev exon 1 during Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection

To assess the level of intra-patient diversity and evolution of HIV-1C non-structural genes in primary infection, viral quasispecies obtained by single genome amplification (SGA) at multiple sampling timepoints up to 500 days post-seroconversion (p/s) were analyzed. The mean intra-patient diversity was 0.11% (95% CI; 0.02 to 0.20) for vif, 0.23% (95% CI; 0.08 to 0.38) for vpr, 0...

More Stable Productivity of Semi Natural Grasslands than Sown Pastures in a Seasonally Dry Climate

In the Neotropics the predominant pathway to intensify productivity is generally thought to be to convert grasslands to sown pastures, mostly in monoculture. This article examines how above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) in semi-natural grasslands and sown pastures in Central America respond to rainfall by: (i) assessing the relationships between ANPP and accumulated...

Leadership in Orchestra Emerges from the Causal Relationships of Movement Kinematics

Non-verbal communication enables efficient transfer of information among people. In this context, classic orchestras are a remarkable instance of interaction and communication aimed at a common aesthetic goal: musicians train for years in order to acquire and share a non-linguistic framework for sensorimotor communication. To this end, we recorded violinists' and conductors...

Auditory Deficit as a Consequence Rather than Endophenotype of Specific Language Impairment: Electrophysiological Evidence

Background Are developmental language disorders caused by poor auditory discrimination? This is a popular theory, but behavioural evidence has been inconclusive. Here we studied children with specific language impairment, measuring the brain’s electrophysiological response to sounds in a passive paradigm. We focused on the T-complex, an event-related peak that has different...

Redundancy and Cooperativity in the Mechanics of Compositely Crosslinked Filamentous Networks

The cytoskeleton of living cells contains many types of crosslinkers. Some crosslinkers allow energy-free rotations between filaments and others do not. The mechanical interplay between these different crosslinkers is an open issue in cytoskeletal mechanics. Therefore, we develop a theoretical framework based on rigidity percolation to study a generic filamentous system...

A Comparison of Three Methods of Mendelian Randomization when the Genetic Instrument, the Risk Factor and the Outcome Are All Binary

The method of instrumental variable (referred to as Mendelian randomization when the instrument is a genetic variant) has been initially developed to infer on a causal effect of a risk factor on some outcome of interest in a linear model. Adapting this method to nonlinear models, however, is known to be problematic. In this paper, we consider the simple case when the genetic...

Understanding Disease Control: Influence of Epidemiological and Economic Factors

We present a model of disease transmission on a regular and small world network and compare different control options. Comparison is based on a total cost of epidemic, including cost of palliative treatment of ill individuals and preventive cost aimed at vaccination or culling of susceptible individuals. Disease is characterized by pre-symptomatic phase, which makes detection and...

Font Size Matters—Emotion and Attention in Cortical Responses to Written Words

For emotional pictures with fear-, disgust-, or sex-related contents, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in attention-related event-related potentials (ERPs), presumably reflecting the enhanced biological impact of larger emotion-inducing pictures. If this is true, size should not enhance emotion effects for written words with symbolic and acquired meaning...

Reading Speed, Comprehension and Eye Movements While Reading Japanese Novels: Evidence from Untrained Readers and Cases of Speed-Reading Trainees

Background A growing body of evidence suggests that meditative training enhances perception and cognition. In Japan, the Park-Sasaki method of speed-reading involves organized visual training while forming both a relaxed and concentrated state of mind, as in meditation. The present study examined relationships between reading speed, sentence comprehension, and eye movements while...

A Quasi-Exclusive European Ancestry in the Senepol Tropical Cattle Breed Highlights the Importance of the slick Locus in Tropical Adaptation

Background The Senepol cattle breed (SEN) was created in the early XXth century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT) breed (Red Poll) and a West African taurine (AFT) breed (N’Dama). Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to define relevant husbandry...

Maternal Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Coactivates Transcription through NF-κB Binding Sites during Xenopus Axis Formation

Maternal Wnt/β-Catenin signaling establishes a program of dorsal-specific gene expression required for axial patterning in Xenopus. We previously reported that a subset of dorsally expressed genes depends not only on Wnt/β-Catenin stimulation, but also on a MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor/IL1-receptor (TLR/IL1-R) signaling pathway. Here we show that these two signal...

A Carnivorous Plant Fed by Its Ant Symbiont: A Unique Multi-Faceted Nutritional Mutualism

Scarcity of essential nutrients has led plants to evolve alternative nutritional strategies, such as myrmecotrophy (ant-waste-derived nutrition) and carnivory (invertebrate predation). The carnivorous plant Nepenthes bicalcarata grows in the Bornean peatswamp forests and is believed to have a mutualistic relationship with its symbiotic ant Camponotus schmitzi. However, the...

Hypocotyl Transcriptome Reveals Auxin Regulation of Growth-Promoting Genes through GA-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

Many processes critical to plant growth and development are regulated by the hormone auxin. Auxin responses are initiated through activation of a transcriptional response mediated by the TIR1/AFB family of F-box protein auxin receptors as well as the AUX/IAA and ARF families of transcriptional regulators. However, there is little information on how auxin regulates a specific...

How Academic Biologists and Physicists View Science Outreach

Scholars and pundits alike argue that U.S. scientists could do more to reach out to the general public. Yet, to date, there have been few systematic studies that examine how scientists understand the barriers that impede such outreach. Through analysis of 97 semi-structured interviews with academic biologists and physicists at top research universities in the United States, we...

FKBP5 as a Selection Biomarker for Gemcitabine and Akt Inhibitors in Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

We have recently shown that the immunophilin FKBP5 (also known as FKBP51) is a scaffolding protein that can enhance PHLPP-AKT interaction and facilitate PHLPP-mediated dephosphorylation of Akt Ser473, negatively regulating Akt activation in vitro. Therefore, FKBP5 might function as a tumor suppressor, and levels of FKBP5 would affect cell response to chemotherapy. In the current...

The Functions of Grainy Head-Like Proteins in Animals and Fungi and the Evolution of Apical Extracellular Barriers

The Grainy head (GRH) family of transcription factors are crucial for the development and repair of epidermal barriers in all animals in which they have been studied. This is a high-level functional conservation, as the known structural and enzymatic genes regulated by GRH proteins differ between species depending on the type of epidermal barrier being formed. Interestingly...

Objective vs. Self-Reported Physical Activity and Sedentary Time: Effects of Measurement Method on Relationships with Risk Biomarkers

Purpose Imprecise measurement of physical activity variables might attenuate estimates of the beneficial effects of activity on health-related outcomes. We aimed to compare the cardiometabolic risk factor dose-response relationships for physical activity and sedentary behaviour between accelerometer- and questionnaire-based activity measures. Methods Physical activity and...

Gametogenesis in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas: A Microarrays-Based Analysis Identifies Sex and Stage Specific Genes

Background The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca, Lophotrochozoa) is an alternative and irregular protandrous hermaphrodite: most individuals mature first as males and then change sex several times. Little is known about genetic and phenotypic basis of sex differentiation in oysters, and little more about the molecular pathways regulating reproduction. We have recently...

The Gracilis Myocutaneous Free Flap: A Quantitative Analysis of the Fasciocutaneous Blood Supply and Implications for Autologous Breast Reconstruction

Background Mastectomies are one of the most common surgical procedures in women of the developed world. The gracilis myocutaneous flap is favoured by many reconstructive surgeons due to the donor site profile and speed of dissection. The distal component of the longitudinal skin paddle of the gracilis myocutaneous flap is unreliable. This study quantifies the fasciocutaneous...

A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen to Identify Modulators of Insulin Sensitivity and Gluconeogenesis

Background Hepatic insulin resistance impairs insulin’s ability to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP) and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although the interests to discover novel genes that modulate insulin sensitivity and HGP are high, it remains challenging to have a human cell based system to identify novel genes. Methodology/Principal Findings...

International Network for Comparison of HIV Neutralization Assays: The NeutNet Report II

Background Neutralizing antibodies provide markers for vaccine-induced protective immunity in many viral infections. By analogy, HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced by immunization may well predict vaccine effectiveness. Assessment of neutralizing antibodies is therefore of primary importance, but is hampered by the fact that we do not know which assay(s) can provide measures...

Human Tears Reveal Insights into Corneal Neovascularization

Corneal neovascularization results from the encroachment of blood vessels from the surrounding conjunctiva onto the normally avascular cornea. The aim of this study is to identify factors in human tears that are involved in development and/or maintenance of corneal neovascularization in humans. This could allow development of diagnostic tools for monitoring corneal...

Ordered Self-Assembly Mechanism of a Spherical Oncoprotein Oligomer Triggered by Zinc Removal and Stabilized by an Intrinsically Disordered Domain

Background Self-assembly is a common theme in proteins of unrelated sequences or functions. The human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein is an extended dimer with an intrinsically disordered domain, that can form large spherical oligomers. These are the major species in the cytosol of HPV transformed and cancerous cells. E7 binds to a large number of targets, some of which lead to...

Sustainable Sources of Biomass for Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in Waste Water Derived from Coal-Fired Power Generation

Biosorption of heavy metals using dried algal biomass has been extensively described but rarely implemented. We contend this is because available algal biomass is a valuable product with a ready market. Therefore, we considered an alternative and practical approach to algal bioremediation in which algae were cultured directly in the waste water stream. We cultured three species...