PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 182,323)

Proteomic Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Proximal Fluids: Validation of Elevated Peroxiredoxin 1 in Patient Peripheral Circulation

Background Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Unfortunately, a validated protein biomarker-screening test to detect early stage disease from peripheral blood has not yet been developed. The present investigation assesses the ability to identify tumor relevant proteins from ovarian cancer proximal fluids, including tissue ...

New Striatal Neurons in a Mouse Model of Progressive Striatal Degeneration Are Generated in both the Subventricular Zone and the Striatal Parenchyma

Acute striatal lesions increase proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and induce migration of SVZ neuroblasts to the striatum. However, the potential of these cells to replace acutely degenerated neurons is controversial. The possible contribution of parenchymal progenitors to striatal lesion-induced neurogenesis has been poorly explored. Here, we present a detailed ...

Smart Skin Patterns Protect Springtails

Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated ...

Phase I Randomised Clinical Trial of an HIV-1CN54, Clade C, Trimeric Envelope Vaccine Candidate Delivered Vaginally

We conducted a phase 1 double-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a HIV-1 envelope protein (CN54 gp140) candidate vaccine delivered vaginally to assess immunogenicity and safety. It was hypothesised that repeated delivery of gp140 may facilitate antigen uptake and presentation at this mucosal surface. Twenty two healthy female volunteers aged 18–45 years were entered into ...

TGF-β Regulates DNA Methyltransferase Expression in Prostate Cancer, Correlates with Aggressive Capabilities, and Predicts Disease Recurrence

Background DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) is one of the major factors mediating the methylation of cancer related genes such as TGF-β receptors (TβRs). This in turn may result in a loss of sensitivity to physiologic levels of TGF-β in aggressive prostate cancer (CaP). The specific mechanisms of DNMT's role in CaP remain undetermined. In this study, we describe the mechanism of ...

Comparison of Four ChIP-Seq Analytical Algorithms Using Rice Endosperm H3K27 Trimethylation Profiling Data

Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high throughput DNA Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has emerged as a powerful tool for genome wide profiling of the binding sites of proteins associated with DNA such as histones and transcription factors. However, no peak calling program has gained consensus acceptance by the scientific community as the preferred tool for ChIP-Seq data analysis. ...

Identification of a Conserved Anti-Apoptotic Protein That Modulates the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway

Here we identified an evolutionarily highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein (C9orf82) that shows structural similarities to the death effector domain of apoptosis-related proteins. RNAi knockdown of C9orf82 induced apoptosis in A-549 and MCF7/casp3-10b lung and breast carcinoma cells, respectively, but not in cells lacking caspase-3, caspase-10 or both. Apoptosis was ...

Genetic Susceptibility to Acute Rheumatic Fever: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Twin Studies

Background Acute rheumatic fever is considered to be a heritable condition, but the magnitude of the genetic effect is unknown. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of twin studies of concordance of acute rheumatic fever in order to derive quantitative estimates of the size of the genetic effect. Methods We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI ...

Transcriptional Networks in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

Backround Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) changes polarized epithelial cells into migratory phenotypes associated with loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal rearrangements. This form of plasticity is seen in mesodermal development, fibroblast formation, and cancer metastasis. Methods and Findings Here we identify prominent transcriptional networks active ...

Dopamine and Octopamine Influence Avoidance Learning of Honey Bees in a Place Preference Assay

Biogenic amines are widely characterized in pathways evaluating reward and punishment, resulting in appropriate aversive or appetitive responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. We utilized the honey bee model and a newly developed spatial avoidance conditioning assay to probe effects of biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA) on avoidance learning. In this new protocol ...

Changes in Parasitoid Communities Over Time and Space: A Historical Case Study of the Maize Pest Ostrinia nubilalis

Understanding the ways in which human environmental modifications affect biodiversity is a key challenge in conservation planning, pest control and evolutionary ecology. Parasitoid communities, particularly those associated with agricultural pests, may be susceptible to such modifications. We document here changes in the larval parasitoid communities of Ostrinia nubilalis — the ...

Safety, Immunogenicity and Dose Ranging of a New Vi-CRM197 Conjugate Vaccine against Typhoid Fever: Randomized Clinical Testing in Healthy Adults

Background Typhoid fever causes more than 21 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths yearly worldwide, with more than 90% of the disease burden being reported from Asia. Epidemiological data show high disease incidence in young children and suggest that immunization programs should target children below two years of age: this is not possible with available vaccines. The ...

Do Clonal Plants Show Greater Division of Labour Morphologically and Physiologically at Higher Patch Contrasts?

Background When growing in reciprocal patches in terms of availability of different resources, connected ramets of clonal plants will specialize to acquire and exchange locally abundant resources more efficiently. This has been termed division of labour. We asked whether division of labour can occur physiologically as well as morphologically and will increase with patch contrasts. ...

Activation of Anti-Tumor Immune Response and Reduction of Regulatory T Cells with Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) Therapy in Tumor Bearing Mice

Background Role of immune system in protecting the host from cancer is well established. Growing cancer however subverts immune response towards Th2 type and escape from antitumor mechanism of the host. Activation of both innate and Th1 type response is crucial for host antitumor activity. In our previous study it was found, that Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) also known as M. ...

Catalytic Mechanism Investigation of Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1): A Computational Study

Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), the first identified histone demethylase, is a flavin-dependent amine oxidase which specifically demethylates mono- or dimethylated H3K4 and H3K9 via a redox process. It participates in a broad spectrum of biological processes and is of high importance in cell proliferation, adipogenesis, spermatogenesis, chromosome segregation and embryonic ...

Activation of WNT / β-Catenin Signaling in Pulmonary Fibroblasts by TGF-β1 Is Increased in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. Recently, activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway has been associated with abnormal ECM turnover in various chronic diseases. We determined WNT-pathway gene expression in pulmonary fibroblasts of individuals with and without COPD and disentangled the role of ...

Revealing the Functional Neuroanatomy of Intrinsic Alertness Using fMRI: Methodological Peculiarities

Clinical observations and neuroimaging data revealed a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal-thalamic-brainstem network for intrinsic alertness, and additional left fronto-parietal activity during phasic alertness. The primary objective of this fMRI study was to map the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic alertness as precisely as possible in healthy participants, using a novel ...

Biophysical Characteristics Reveal Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Potential

Background Distinguishing human neural stem/progenitor cell (huNSPC) populations that will predominantly generate neurons from those that produce glia is currently hampered by a lack of sufficient cell type-specific surface markers predictive of fate potential. This limits investigation of lineage-biased progenitors and their potential use as therapeutic agents. A live-cell ...

siRNAs Induce Efficient RNAi Response in Bombyx mori Embryos

Short interference RNA (siRNA) is widely used in mammalian cells. In insects, however, reports concerning the suitablility of siRNA in vivo is very limited compared with that of long dsRNA, which is thought to be more effective. There is insufficient information on the essential rules of siRNA design in insects, as very few siRNAs have been tested in this context. To establish an ...

Practical Tools to Implement Massive Parallel Pyrosequencing of PCR Products in Next Generation Molecular Diagnostics

Despite improvements in terms of sequence quality and price per basepair, Sanger sequencing remains restricted to screening of individual disease genes. The development of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies heralded an era in which molecular diagnostics for multigenic disorders becomes reality. Here, we outline different PCR amplification based strategies for the ...

Measurements of Elastic Moduli of Silicone Gel Substrates with a Microfluidic Device

Thin layers of gels with mechanical properties mimicking animal tissues are widely used to study the rigidity sensing of adherent animal cells and to measure forces applied by cells to their substrate with traction force microscopy. The gels are usually based on polyacrylamide and their elastic modulus is measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Here we present a simple ...

Requirement of Interaction between Mast Cells and Skin Dendritic Cells to Establish Contact Hypersensitivity

The role of mast cells (MCs) in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) remains controversial. This is due in part to the use of the MC-deficient Kit W/Wv mouse model, since Kit W/Wv mice congenitally lack other types of cells as a result of a point mutation in c-kit. A recent study indicated that the intronic enhancer (IE) for Il4 gene transcription is essential for MCs but not in other ...

In Situ Distribution of HIV-Binding CCR5 and C-Type Lectin Receptors in the Human Endocervical Mucosa

The endocervical mucosa is believed to be a primary site of HIV transmission. However, to date there is little known about the distribution of the HIV co-receptor CCR5 and the HIV-binding C-type lectin receptors, including Langerin, dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and mannose receptor (MR) at this site. We therefore ...

Male Red Ornamentation Is Associated with Female Red Sensitivity in Sticklebacks

Sexual selection theory proposes correlated evolutionary changes in mating preferences and secondary sexual characters based on a positive genetic correlation between preference and the preferred trait. Empirical work has provided support for a genetic covariation between female preference and male attractiveness in several taxa. Here, we study parent and offspring visual traits in ...

Genetic Variants in TGF-β Pathway Are Associated with Ovarian Cancer Risk

The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is involved in a diverse array of cellular processes responsible for tumorigenesis. In this case-control study, we applied a pathway-based approach to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TGF-β signaling pathway as predictors of ovarian cancer risk. We systematically genotyped 218 SNPs from 21 genes in the ...