PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,765)

Increasing success and evolving barriers in the hepatitis C cascade of care during the direct acting antiviral era

Barriers remain in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) cascade of care (CoC), limiting the overall impact of direct acting antivirals. This study examines movement between the stages of the HCV CoC and identifies reasons why patients and specific patient populations fail to advance through care in a real world population. We performed a single-center, ambispective cohort study of...

Patients' perceptions of their experiences with nurse-patient communication in oncology settings: A focused ethnographic study

Background The nursing shortage and its impact on patient care are well-documented global issues. Patients living with cancer as a chronic illness have many psychosocial problems and often lack adequate support as a result of ineffective nurse-patient communication. A review of the literature on factors influencing the delivery of psychosocial care to cancer patients indicates...

Multigene phylogeny supports diversification of four-eyed fishes and one-sided livebearers (Cyprinodontiformes: Anablepidae) related to major South American geological events

The high diversity of Neotropical fishes has been attributed to major South American palaeogeographic events, such as Andean uplift, rise of the Isthmus of Panama and marine transgressions. However, the unavailability of temporal information about evolution and diversification of some fish groups prevents the establishment of robust hypotheses about correlations between species...

Successful re-establishment of a rabbit population from embryos vitrified 15 years ago: The importance of biobanks in livestock conservation

Genetic resource banks (GRB) are a valuable tool for maintaining genetic variability and preserving breeds from pathogens or catastrophe, enabling us to assess and correct breeding schemes, minimizing the impact of genetic drift and facilitating diffusion. This study tests their efficiency in re-establishing two extinct populations of a synthetic rabbit line selected for daily...

Bias due to differential and non-differential disease- and exposure misclassification in studies of vaccine effectiveness

Background Studies of vaccine effectiveness (VE) rely on accurate identification of vaccination and cases of vaccine-preventable disease. In practice, diagnostic tests, clinical case definitions and vaccination records often present inaccuracies, leading to biased VE estimates. Previous studies investigated the impact of non-differential disease misclassification on VE estimation...

Finite element analysis of annuloplasty and papillary muscle relocation on a patient-specific mitral regurgitation model

Objectives Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a significant complication of left ventricle (LV) dysfunction associated with poor prognosis and commonly treated by undersized ring annuloplasty. This study aimed to quantitatively simulate the treatment outcomes and mitral valve (MV) biomechanics following ring annulopalsty and papillary muscle relocation (PMR) procedures for...

LatY136F knock-in mouse model for human IgG4-related disease

Background The adaptor protein Linker for activation of T cell (LAT) is a key signaling hub used by the T cell antigen receptor. Mutant mice expressing loss-of-function mutations affecting LAT and including a mutation in which tyrosine 136 is replaced by a phenylalanine (LatY136F) develop lymphoproliferative disorder involving T helper type 2 effector cells capable of triggering...

Blocking the interaction between S100A9 protein and RAGE V domain using S100A12 protein

The proteins S100A9 and S100A12 are associated with the human S100 calcium-binding protein family. These proteins promote interaction with target proteins and alter their conformation when they bind to calcium ions in EF-hand motifs. The V domain of RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products) is crucial for S100A9 binding. The binding of RAGE with S100 family proteins...

Body weight perception, disordered weight control behaviors, and depressive symptoms among Korean adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014

Background/ Purpose Despite emerging evidence suggesting harmful influences of accurate weight perception on psychological health among individuals with obesity, little is known about the association in Asian populations. The aim of this study was investigate the association between body weight perception and depressive symptoms among Korean adults, and potential differential...

The economic burden of inpatient care of depression in Poznan (Poland) and Kiel (Germany) in 2016

Depression is a global health problem associated with a significant public health burden and costs. Although studies on costs of diseases are being considered as an increasingly important factor for health policies, information concerning costs of inpatient care of depression is still insufficient. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate costs of hospitalization of...

Automatic characterization of stride parameters in canines with a single wearable inertial sensor

Background and objective Gait analysis is valuable for studying neuromuscular and skeletal diseases. Wearable motion sensors or inertial measurement units (IMUs) have become common for human gait analysis. Canines are important large animal models for translational research of human diseases. Our objective is to develop a method for accurate and reliable determination of the...

PIK3CA copy number aberration and activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway in varied disease states of penile cancer

Background Therapeutic targeting of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway may benefit patients with advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC). Objectives To determine the prevalence of PIK3CA copy number gain and correlate this with the activity status of PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway in pre-malignant penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) and invasive PSCC. Materials and methods Archival...

Clinical analgesic efficacy of dexamethasone as a local anesthetic adjuvant for transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block: A meta-analysis

Background Perineural dexamethasone has been shown to prolong the duration of local anesthetic (LA) effect in regional anesthesia; however, the use of perineural dexamethasone as an adjuvant to to the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block remains controversial. This meta-analysis sought to assess the efficacy of dexamethasone in prolonging the TAP block and enhancing recovery...

Modeling human early otic sensory cell development with induced pluripotent stem cells

The inner ear represents a promising system to develop cell-based therapies from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In the developing ear, Notch signaling plays multiple roles in otic region specification and for cell fate determination. Optimizing hiPSC induction for the generation of appropriate numbers of otic progenitors and derivatives, such as hair cells, may...

Enhanced transformation of incidentally learned knowledge into explicit memory by dopaminergic modulation

During incidental learning statistical regularities are extracted from the environment without the intention to learn. Acquired implicit memory of these regularities can affect behavior in the absence of awareness. However, conscious insight in the underlying regularities can also develop during learning. Such emergence of explicit memory is an important learning mechanism that...

Neuropathic-like symptoms and the association with joint-specific function and quality of life in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis

Objective There is an association between osteoarthritis-related pain severity and function, yet clear evidence about the sole influence of neuropathic-like symptoms on joint function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is lacking. Previous studies among knee OA patients show an association between neuropathic-like symptoms, lower functional status and lower quality of...

Impact of climate variability on the transmission risk of malaria in northern Côte d'Ivoire

Since the 1970s, the northern part of Côte d'Ivoire has experienced considerable fluctuation in its meteorology including a general decrease of rainfall and increase of temperature from 1970 to 2000, a slight increase of rainfall since 2000, a severe drought in 2004–2005 and flooding in 2006–2007. Such changing climate patterns might affect the transmission of malaria. The...

Overwintering aggregations are part of Hippodamia undecimnotata’s (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) mating system

Aggregation during diapause is a common phenomenon in arthropods that nevertheless remains poorly understood. The most commonly claimed benefit is that survival is higher in aggregations but animal aggregations could also be driven by sexual selection. In this perspective, we investigated whether aggregations in insects could be part of their mating system. We studied the...

Stalled decline in infant mortality among Palestine refugees in the Gaza Strip since 2006

Background The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has periodically estimated infant mortality rates (IMR) among Palestine refugees in the Gaza Strip (Gaza). These surveys have recorded a decline from 127 per 1000 live births in 1960 to 20.2 in 2006. Thereafter, a survey revealed an IMR of 22.4 in 2011. Alerted by these findings...

The views of the general public on prioritising vaccination programmes against childhood diseases: A qualitative study

Background Decisions regarding which vaccines are funded in the United Kingdom (UK) are increasingly informed by cost-effectiveness analyses. Such analyses use Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) as a measure of effectiveness and assume that QALYs are equal regardless of where and in whom they occur in the population. However, there is increasing debate about whether this QALY...

An investigation of the determinants of quality of life in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome

Background Young people with Down syndrome experience varying abilities in activities of daily living, cognitive functioning, behaviour and social skills. The aim of this research was to investigate, from a carer’s perspective, the factors that influenced the quality of life of these young people. Methods Families of young people with Down syndrome (n = 197), aged 16–31 years...

Early cessation of pressure garment therapy results in scar contraction and thickening

Pressure garment therapy is often prescribed to improve scar properties following full-thickness burn injuries. Pressure garment therapy is generally recommended for long periods of time following injury (1–2 years), though it is plagued by extremely low patient compliance. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of early cessation of pressure garment therapy on scar...

New species of Plectromacronema Ulmer 1906 (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) from Brazil, with association of immature stages and aspects of its biology

Plectromacronema Ulmer 1906 is a Neotropical genus recorded sparsely from South of Mexico to the North of Argentina. The genus is placed within the Macronematinae sub-family, members of which are relatively large among the Trichoptera and bears conspicuous wing ornamentations. There are only two species recorded for Brazil, Plectromacronema comptum Ulmer 1906 and Plectromacronema...

Comparative physiological and metabolomics analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following post-anthesis heat stress

Genetic improvement for stress tolerance requires a solid understanding of biochemical processes involved with different physiological mechanisms and their relationships with different traits. The objective of this study was to demonstrate genetic variability in altered metabolic levels in a panel of six wheat genotypes in contrasting temperature regimes, and to quantify the...