PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 183,348)

Global analysis of gene expression mediated by OX1 orexin receptor signaling in a hypothalamic cell line

The orexins and their cognate G-protein coupled receptors have been widely studied due to their associations with various behaviors and cellular processes. However, the detailed downstream signaling cascades that mediate these effects are not completely understood. We report the generation of a neuronal model cell line that stably expresses the OX1 orexin receptor (OX1) and an ...

RNAi screen reveals a role of SPHK2 in dengue virus–mediated apoptosis in hepatic cell lines

Hepatic dysfunction is a feature of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Hepatic biopsy specimens obtained from fatal cases of DENV infection show apoptosis, which relates to the pathogenesis of DENV infection. However, how DENV induced liver injury is not fully understood. In this study, we aim to identify the factors that influence cell death by employing an apoptosis-related siRNA ...

Replacing methyl bromide with a combination of 1,3-dichloropropene and metam sodium for cucumber production in China

The combination of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and metam sodium (MNa) is a potential resource to replace methyl bromide (MB) as a soil fumigant. The efficacy of 1,3-D+MNa as a crucial factor to limit soil-borne pests was evaluated in one laboratory experiment and two cucumber greenhouse studies conducted in commercial operations. Laboratory results revealed that 1,3-D and MNa ...

Adenosine, lidocaine and Mg2+ (ALM) fluid therapy attenuates systemic inflammation, platelet dysfunction and coagulopathy after non-compressible truncal hemorrhage

Background Systemic inflammation and coagulopathy are major drivers of injury progression following hemorrhagic trauma. Our aim was to examine the effect of small-volume 3% NaCl adenosine, lidocaine and Mg2+ (ALM) bolus and 0.9% NaCl/ALM ‘drip’ on inflammation and coagulation in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (429±4 g) were randomly assigned to: 1) ...

Hi-fidelity discrimination of isomiRs using G-quadruplex gatekeepers

Core microRNA (miRNA) sequences exist as populations of variants called isomiRs made up of different lengths and nucleotide compositions. In particular, the short sequences of miRNA make single-base isomiR mismatches very difficult to be discriminated. Non-specific hybridizations often arise when DNA probe-miRNA target hybridization is the primary, or initial, mode of detection. ...

Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A cross-sectional analysis of risk factors in South African tertiary public hospitals

Introduction Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a study to determine risk factors for HA-MRSA in order to inform control strategies in South Africa. Methods We used surveillance data collected from five tertiary hospitals in Gauteng and Western Cape provinces during 2014 for ...

A model-guided symbolic execution approach for network protocol implementations and vulnerability detection

Formal techniques have been devoted to analyzing whether network protocol specifications violate security policies; however, these methods cannot detect vulnerabilities in the implementations of the network protocols themselves. Symbolic execution can be used to analyze the paths of the network protocol implementations, but for stateful network protocols, it is difficult to reach ...

The chicken or the egg? Exploring bi-directional associations between Newcastle disease vaccination and village chicken flock size in rural Tanzania

Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest ...

Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation caused by the 2010 Haiti earthquake using advanced satellite radar interferometry

Mapping three-dimensional (3D) surface deformation caused by an earthquake is very important for the environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems made it possible to measure precise 3D deformations by combining SAR interferometry (InSAR) and multiple aperture interferometry (MAI). In this paper, we retrieve the ...

The urine biomarker panel [IGFBP7]x[TIMP-2] (NephroCheck® parameter) does not correlate with IGFBP7 and TIMP-2 gene expression in urinary sediment

Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently observed in serious infections, following nephrotoxic medication, surgery and trauma. Here we tested whether the detection of two recently identified biomarkers for AKI, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 7 (IGFBP7), depends on the expression of these proteins in cells of ...

Amiloride-enhanced gene transfection of octa-arginine functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles

Nanoparticles represent promising gene delivery systems in biomedicine to facilitate prolonged gene expression with low toxicity compared to viral vectors. Specifically, nanoparticles of calcium phosphate (nCaP), the main inorganic component of human bone, exhibit high biocompatibility and good biodegradability and have been reported to have high affinity for protein or DNA, having ...

CSF in the ventricles of the brain behaves as a relay medium for arteriovenous pulse wave phase coupling

The ventricles of the brain remain perhaps the largest anatomic structure in the human body without established primary purpose, even though their existence has been known at least since described by Aristotle. We hypothesize that the ventricles help match a stroke volume of arterial blood that arrives into the rigid cranium with an equivalent volume of ejected venous blood by ...

Process strengths determine the forms of the relationship between plant species richness and primary productivity

The current rates of biodiversity loss have exceeded the rates observed during the earth’s major extinction events, which spurs the studies of the ecological relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functions, stability, and services to determine the consequences of biodiversity loss. Plant species richness-productivity relationship (SRPR) is crucial to the understanding of ...

Adherence to inhaled therapies of COPD patients from seven Latin American countries: The LASSYC study

Background This study assessed the adherence profiles to inhaled therapies and the agreement between two patient self-report adherence methods in stable COPD lpatients from seven Latin American countries. Methods This observational, cross-sectional, multinational, multicenter study involved 795 COPD patients (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital ...

Ecosystem services in European protected areas: Ambiguity in the views of scientists and managers?

Protected Areas are a key component of nature conservation. They can play an important role in counterbalancing the impacts of ecosystem degradation. For an optimal protection of a Protected Area it is essential to account for the variables underlying the major Ecosystem Services an area delivers, and the threats upon them. Here we show that the perception of these important ...

Nucleotide patterns aiding in prediction of eukaryotic promoters

Computational analysis of promoters is hindered by the complexity of their architecture. In less studied genomes with complex organization, false positive promoter predictions are common. Accurate identification of transcription start sites and core promoter regions remains an unsolved problem. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of genomic features associated with ...

Effects of music therapy and music-based interventions in the treatment of substance use disorders: A systematic review

Music therapy (MT) and music-based interventions (MBIs) are increasingly used for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD). Previous reviews on the efficacy of MT emphasized the dearth of research evidence for this topic, although various positive effects were identified. Therefore, we conducted a systematic search on published articles examining effects of music, MT and MBIs ...

Notch signaling and progenitor/ductular reaction in steatohepatitis

Background and objective Persistent hepatic progenitor cells (HPC) activation resulting in ductular reaction (DR) is responsible for pathologic liver repair in cholangiopathies. Also, HPC/DR expansion correlates with fibrosis in several chronic liver diseases, including steatohepatitis. Increasing evidence indicates Notch signaling as a key regulator of HPC/DR response in biliary ...

Smartphone-based quantitative measurements on holographic sensors

The research reported herein integrates a generic holographic sensor platform and a smartphone-based colour quantification algorithm in order to standardise and improve the determination of the concentration of analytes of interest. The utility of this approach has been exemplified by analysing the replay colour of the captured image of a holographic pH sensor in near real-time. ...

Transcriptome profile of lung dendritic cells after in vitro porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection

The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system generally defends against infectious diseases, especially dendritic cells (DCs), which play a ...

Evidence for proactive and reactive helping in two- to five-year-olds from a small-scale society

Humans are unique in their propensity for helping. Not only do we help others in need by reacting to their requests, we also help proactively by assisting in the absence of a request. Proactive helping requires the actor to detect the need for help, recognize the intention of the other, and remedy the situation. Very little is known about the development of this social phenomenon ...

Escitalopram and NHT normalized stress-induced anhedonia and molecular neuroadaptations in a mouse model of depression

Anhedonia is defined as a diminished ability to obtain pleasure from otherwise positive stimuli. Anxiety and mood disorders have been previously associated with dysregulation of the reward system, with anhedonia as a core element of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether stress-induced anhedonia could be prevented by treatments with ...

eDNA for detection of five highly invasive molluscs. A case study in urban rivers from the Iberian Peninsula

Biological invasions are an important threat to biodiversity especially in aquatic ecosystems, and their frequency is generally higher near urban areas. Potentially invasive non-indigenous molluscs were deliberately introduced into European waters for food (Corbicula fluminea) and biocontrol (Melanoides tuberculata), and unintentionally introduced by ballast water (Mytilopsis ...

A systematic review of grandparents’ influence on grandchildren’s cancer risk factors

Many lifestyle patterns are established when children are young. Research has focused on the potential role of parents as a risk factor for non communicable disease in children, but there is limited investigation of the role of other caregivers, such as grandparents. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise evidence for any influence grandparents’ care practices may ...

Early resumption of sexual activity following voluntary medical male circumcision in Botswana: A qualitative study

Unprotected sexual intercourse after undergoing voluntary medical male circumcision but prior to complete wound healing can lead to major adverse events including HIV acquisition. To better understand perceptions related to early resumption of sex prior to wound healing, 27 focus group discussions were conducted among 238 adult men, women, and community leaders in Botswana. Median ...