PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 182,323)

Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) side-effects in the treatment of depression

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS). Rodent studies have provided valuable ...

Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm panel from maturity groups IV and V

Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we ...

Rapid plasticity of visually evoked responses in rat monocular visual cortex

Sensory cortical circuits are shaped by experience during sensitive periods in development. In the primary visual cortex (V1) altered visual experience results in changes in visual responsiveness of cortical neurons. The experience-dependent refinement of the circuit in V1 is thought to rely on competitive interactions between feedforward circuits driven by the two eyes. However, ...

Prevalence and determinants of oral infection by Human Papillomavirus in HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men

Background Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is rare in the general population but common in high-risk individuals. Recent data indicate that oral HPV is associated with the development of head and neck carcinomas. HPV16 infection, in particular, increases the risk of oropharyngeal cancer. Methods We evaluated oral HPV prevalence and determinants of infection in cancer-free ...

Concurrent treatment with simvastatin and NF-κB inhibitor in human castration-resistant prostate cancer cells exerts synergistic anti-cancer effects via control of the NF-κB/LIN28/let-7 miRNA signaling pathway

We examined the anti-cancer effects and molecular mechanism of simvastatin in human castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells, particularly focused on LIN28B and its target molecule, let-7 microRNA (miRNA) among the various target genes of NF-κB. A human CRPC cell line (PC3) was used in the current study. Gene expression patterns were evaluated using real time-PCR and ...

The evolution of Lachancea thermotolerans is driven by geographical determination, anthropisation and flux between different ecosystems

The yeast Lachancea thermotolerans (formerly Kluyveromyces thermotolerans) is a species with remarkable, yet underexplored, biotechnological potential. This ubiquist occupies a range of natural and anthropic habitats covering a wide geographic span. To gain an insight into L. thermotolerans population diversity and structure, 172 isolates sourced from diverse habitats worldwide ...

Strontium-doped hydroxyapatite polysaccharide materials effect on ectopic bone formation

Previous studies performed using polysaccharide-based matrices supplemented with hydroxyapatite (HA) particles showed their ability to form in subcutaneous and intramuscular sites a mineralized and osteoid tissue. Our objectives are to optimize the HA content in the matrix and to test the combination of HA with strontium (Sr-HA) to increase the matrix bioactivity. First, non-doped ...

Escherichia coli attachment to model particulates: The effects of bacterial cell characteristics and particulate properties

E. coli bacteria move in streams freely in a planktonic state or attached to suspended particulates. Attachment is a dynamic process, and the fraction of attached microorganisms is thought to be affected by both bacterial characteristics and particulate properties. In this study, we investigated how the properties of cell surfaces and stream particulates influence attachment. ...

Acute effects of strength exercises and effects of regular strength training on cell free DNA concentrations in blood plasma

Creatine kinase (CK) is a marker for muscle cell damage with limited potential as marker for training load in strength training. Recent exercise studies identified cell free DNA (cfDNA) as a marker for aseptic inflammation and cell damage. Here we overserved in a pilot study the acute effects during strength exercise and chronic effects of regular strength training on cfDNA ...

Reference equations for the six-minute walk distance in the healthy Chinese population aged 18–59 years

Background The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a safe, simple, inexpensive tool for evaluating the functional exercise capacity of patients with chronic respiratory disease. However, there is a lack of standard reference equations for the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in the healthy Chinese population aged 18–59 years. Aims The purposes of the present study were as follows: 1) to ...

Individual, household and contextual factors associated with skilled delivery care in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian demographic and health surveys

Despite evidence that social contexts are key determinants of health, research into factors associated with maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia has often focused on individual and household factors. The downside is that this underestimates the importance of taking contextual factors into account when planning appropriate interventions in promoting safe motherhood in the ...

Recent trends in 30-day mortality in patients with blunt splenic injury: A nationwide trauma database study in Japan

Background Splenic injury frequently occurs after blunt abdominal trauma; however, limited epidemiological data regarding mortality are available. We aimed to investigate mortality rate trends after blunt splenic injury in Japan. Methods We retrospectively identified 1,721 adults with blunt splenic injury (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma splenic injury scale grades ...

Classification and conservation priority of five Deccani sheep ecotypes of Maharashtra, India

Characterization of Indian livestock breeds has mostly been limited to single breed/population focused on either physical description of traditionally recognized breeds/populations or to their genetic description. Usually, morphological and genetic characterization has taken place in isolation. A parallel morphological characterization of genetically identified breeds or genetic ...

Differential impact of the dual CCR2/CCR5 inhibitor cenicriviroc on migration of monocyte and lymphocyte subsets in acute liver injury

A hallmark of acute hepatic injury is the recruitment of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) or T cells, towards areas of inflammation. The recruitment of leukocytes from their reservoirs bone marrow or spleen into the liver is directed by chemokines such as CCL2 (for monocytes) and CCL5 (for lymphocytes). We herein elucidated the impact of ...

Systematic review and meta-analysis of school-based obesity interventions in mainland China

Background Numerous school-based interventions for childhood obesity have been emerging in mainland China in recent decades, but little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of school-based interventions for childhood obesity conducted in mainland China. Methods A systematic search was undertaken in eight databases to ...

Identify changes of brain regional homogeneity in early and later adult onset patients with first-episode depression using resting-state fMRI

Objective Previous work exhibited different brain grey matter volume (GMV) changes between patients with early adult onset depression (EOD, age 18–29) and later adult onset depression (LOD, age 30–44) by using 30-year-old as the cut-off age. To identify whether regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes are also different between EOD and LOD by using same cut-off age, we used ...

Cholesterol added prior to vitrification on the cryotolerance of immature and in vitro matured bovine oocytes

This study examines whether incorporating cholesterol-loaded methyl-β-cyclodextrin (CLC) in the bovine oocyte plasma membrane improves oocyte tolerance to vitrification. In vitro matured oocytes were incubated with 2 mg/ml BODIPY-labeled CLC for different time intervals in FCS or PVA supplemented medium or exposed to different CLC concentrations to examine the subcellular ...

Genetic characterization of blaNDM-harboring plasmids in carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from Myanmar

The bacterial enzyme New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase hydrolyzes almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are drugs of last resort for severe bacterial infections. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that carry the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaNDM, poses a serious threat to public health. In this study, we genetically characterized ...

Structural signatures of thermal adaptation of bacterial ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, and messenger RNA

Temperature adaptation of bacterial RNAs is a subject of both fundamental and practical interest because it will allow a better understanding of molecular mechanism of RNA folding with potential industrial application of functional thermophilic or psychrophilic RNAs. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of rRNA, tRNA, and mRNA of more than 200 bacterial species with optimal ...

Accuracy of cited “facts” in medical research articles: A review of study methodology and recalculation of quotation error rate

Previous reviews estimated that approximately 20 to 25% of assertions cited from original research articles, or “facts,” are inaccurately quoted in the medical literature. These reviews noted that the original studies were dissimilar and only began to compare the methods of the original studies. The aim of this review is to examine the methods of the original studies and provide a ...

A novel panel of α-synuclein antibodies reveal distinctive staining profiles in synucleinopathies

Synucleinopathies are a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the intracellular deposition of the protein α-synuclein leading to multiple outcomes, including dementia and Parkinsonism. Recent findings support the notion that across the spectrum of synucleinopathies there exist diverse but specific biochemical modifications and/or structural conformations of ...

Transgelin-2 is upregulated on activated B-cells and expressed in hyperplastic follicles in lupus erythematosus patients

Transgelin-2 (TAGLN2) is an actin-binding protein that controls actin stability and promotes T cell activation. TAGLN2 is also expressed on B-cells but its function in B-cells is unknown. We found that TAGLN2-expressing B-cells were localized in the germinal center (GC) of secondary lymphoid tissues and TAGLN2 mRNA was significantly upregulated after IgM+IgG stimulation in primary ...

Surge of immune cell formation at birth differs by mode of delivery and infant characteristics—A population-based cohort study

Background Birth by cesarean section is associated with increased risks of immune disorders. We tested whether establishment of immune function at birth relates to mode of delivery, taking other maternal and infant characteristics into account. Methods and findings Using a prospectively collected database, we retrieved information on maternal and infant characteristics of 6,014 ...

Application of droplet digital PCR for quantitative detection of Spiroplasma citri in comparison with real time PCR

Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a method for performing digital PCR that is based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. This study evaluated the applicability of ddPCR as a quantitative detection tool for the Spiroplasma citri, causal ...

Heightened circulating levels of antimicrobial peptides in tuberculosis—Diabetes co-morbidity and reversal upon treatment

Background The association of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with tuberculosis—diabetes comorbidity (PTB-DM) is not well understood. Methods To study the association of AMPs with PTB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of cathelicidin (LL37), human beta defensin– 2 (HBD2), human neutrophil peptides 1–3, (HNP1-3) and granulysin in individuals with either PTB-DM, PTB, latent TB (LTB) ...