PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,217)

Hypotheses and evidence related to intense sweeteners and effects on appetite and body weight changes: A scoping review of reviews

Observed associations between consumption of diet foods and obesity have sparked controversy over whether intense sweeteners may promote weight gain, despite their negligible energy contribution. We conducted a scoping review of reviews, to obtain an overview of hypotheses, research approaches and features of the evidence on intense sweeteners’ potential relationships to appetite...

The osteology of Periptychus carinidens: A robust, ungulate-like placental mammal (Mammalia: Periptychidae) from the Paleocene of North America

Periptychus is the archetypal genus of Periptychidae, a clade of prolific Paleocene ‘condylarth’ mammals from North America that were among the first placental mammals to radiate after the end-Cretaceous extinction, remarkable for their distinctive dental anatomy. A comprehensive understanding of the anatomy of Periptychus has been hindered by a lack of cranial and postcranial...

No evidence that facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is associated with women's sexual desire

Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been linked to many different behavioral tendencies. However, not all of these correlations have replicated well across samples. Arnocky et al. (in press, Archives of Sexual Behavior) recently reported that sexual desire was correlated with fWHR. The current study aimed to test this relationship in a large sample of women. fWHR was measured...

The mathematics of market timing

Market timing is an investment technique that tries to continuously switch investment into assets forecast to have better returns. What is the likelihood of having a successful market timing strategy? With an emphasis on modeling simplicity, I calculate the feasible set of market timing portfolios using index mutual fund data for perfectly timed (by hindsight) all or nothing...

Usefulness of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing Whipple’s disease in rheumatology

Objectives To determine when Tropheryma whipplei polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is appropriate in patients evaluated for rheumatological symptoms. Methods In a retrospective observational study done in rheumatology units of five hospitals, we assessed the clinical and radiological signs that prompted T. whipplei PCR testing between 2010 and 2014, the proportion of patients...

A novel multiplex assay of SNP-STR markers for forensic purpose

Like DIP-STR markers (deletion/insertion polymorphism-short tandem repeat combinations), SNP-STR markers (single nucleotide polymorphism-STR combinations) are also valuable in forensic DNA mixture analysis. In this study, eight SNP-STRs were selected, and a stable and sensitive multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for amplifying these SNP-STRs and the...

Feline calicivirus- and murine norovirus-induced COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway has proviral effects

Cyclooxygenases (COXs)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling pathways are known to modulate a variety of homeostatic processes and are involved in various pathophysiological conditions. COXs/PGE2 signaling pathways have also been demonstrated to have proviral or antiviral effects, which appeared different even in the same virus family. A porcine sapovirus Cowden strain, a member of...

Seasonal variation of Cesium-137 concentration in Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

To elucidate and reduce the risk of radionuclide contamination in wildlife caused by the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident, it is important to understand radionuclide variations in the wild animal population. Here, we used environmental monitoring data and muscle samples collected from Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and wild boar...

A qualitative exploration of the misconceptions, knowledge gaps and constructs of leptospirosis among rural and urban communities in Malaysia

This qualitative study aimed to explore the misconceptions, knowledge gaps and constructs of leptospirosis among 72 respondents from rural and urban districts in two states of Malaysia. We conducted focus group discussions and data were examined using thematic analyses. The layman term of ‘rat urine disease’ contributed the most to the misconceptions regarding leptospirosis...

A study on the dynamics of temporary HIV treatment to assess the controversial outcomes of clinical trials: An in-silico approach

It is still unclear under which conditions temporary combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) results in a prolonged remission after interruption. Clinical trials have contradicting reposts about the effect of cART during primary HIV infection on the disease progression. Here we propose that the apparent contradiction is due the presence of a window of opportunity for cART...

Establishing a mucosal gut microbial community in vitro using an artificial simulator

The Twin Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (TWINSHIME®) was initially developed to study the luminal gut microbiota of the ascending (AC), transverse (TC), and descending (DC) colon regions. Given the unique composition and potential importance of the mucosal microbiota for human health, the TWINSHIME was recently adapted to simulate the mucosal microbiota as...

Bank1 and NF-kappaB as key regulators in anti-nucleolar antibody development

Systemic autoimmune rheumatic disorders (SARD) represent important causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. The mechanisms triggering autoimmune responses are complex and involve a network of genetic factors. Mercury-induced autoimmunity (HgIA) in mice is an established model to study the mechanisms of the development of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), which is a hallmark in...

Reinforcement learning for solution updating in Artificial Bee Colony

In the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, the employed bee and the onlooker bee phase involve updating the candidate solutions by changing a value in one dimension, dubbed one-dimension update process. For some problems which the number of dimensions is very high, the one-dimension update process can cause the solution quality and convergence speed drop. This paper proposes a...

Effects of infection by Turnip mosaic virus on the population growth of generalist and specialist aphid vectors on turnip plants

Recent studies have revealed that relationships between plant pathogens and their vectors differ depending on species, strains and associated host plants. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most important plant viruses worldwide and is transmitted by at least 89 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. TuMV is fundamentally divided into six phylogenetic groups; among which...

A 60 Hz uniform electromagnetic field promotes human cell proliferation by decreasing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels

Previously, we showed that exposure of human normal and cancer cells to a 6 mT, 60 Hz gradient electromagnetic field (EMF) induced genotoxicity. Here, we investigated the cellular effects of a uniform EMF. Single or repetitive exposure to a 6 mT, 60 Hz uniform EMF neither induced DNA damage nor affected cell viability in HeLa and primary IMR-90 fibroblasts. However, continuous...

Illict drug use and academia in North Kosovo: Prevalence, patterns, predictors and health-related quality of life

Purpose The purpose of this study were to estimate the prevalence and patterns of illicit drug use in a sample of University students from North Kosovo, to assess factors associated with illicit drug use and to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among students according to illicit drug use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Student Public Health...

Species-specific variations in reproductive traits of three yellow catfish species (Pelteobagrus spp.) in relation to habitats in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

The reproductive biology of three yellow catfish congeners was studied in the Three Gorges Reservoir of the Yangtze River, China. We compared reproductive traits among the lentic, transitional, and lotic zones. A total of 4502 individuals of the three species was collected, and the sex ratio, size at 50% maturity, spawning season, fecundity, and egg size were determined. Results...

Identification of influencers through the wisdom of crowds

Identifying individuals who are influential in diffusing information, ideas or products in a population remains a challenging problem. Most extant work can be abstracted by a process in which researchers first decide which features describe an influencer and then identify them as the individuals with the highest values of these features. This makes the identification dependent on...

Questionable research practices in ecology and evolution

We surveyed 807 researchers (494 ecologists and 313 evolutionary biologists) about their use of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs), including cherry picking statistically significant results, p hacking, and hypothesising after the results are known (HARKing). We also asked them to estimate the proportion of their colleagues that use each of these QRPs. Several of the QRPs...

In vitro effects of PI3K/mTOR inhibition in canine hemangiosarcoma

While extremely rare in humans, hemangiosarcoma (HSA) accounts for nearly 2% of canine neoplasia, and is characterized by both aggressive local growth/invasion and a high rate of metastasis. Both canine and human HSA exhibit sustained aberrant PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway signaling. The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of a novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, VDC...

A standardized protocol for quantification of saccadic eye movements: DEMoNS

Objective Quantitative saccadic testing is a non-invasive method of evaluating the neural networks involved in the control of eye movements. The aim of this study is to provide a standardized and reproducible protocol for infrared oculography measurements of eye movements and analysis, which can be applied for various diseases in a multicenter setting. Methods Development of a...

Pregestational overweight and obesity are associated with differences in gut microbiota composition and systemic inflammation in the third trimester

The obesity epidemic is a global challenge, and the velocity of propagation is high in the population at reproductive age. Overweight and obesity during pregnancy have been associated with high birth weight and an increased risk of childhood obesity, reinforcing the risk of other non-communicable diseases. Obesity involves chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. New biomarkers...

Use of an anionic collagen matrix made from bovine intestinal serosa for in vivo repair of cranial defects

Polymeric biomaterials composed of extracellular matrix components possess osteoconductive capacity that is essential for bone healing. The presence of collagen and the ability to undergo physicochemical modifications render these materials a suitable alternative in bone regenerative therapies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic capacity of collagen-based...