PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 195,632)

Optimizing the immunogenicity of HIV prime-boost DNA-MVA-rgp140/GLA vaccines in a phase II randomized factorial trial design

Background We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of (i) an intradermal HIV-DNA regimen given with/without intradermal electroporation (EP) as prime and (ii) the impact of boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (HIV-MVA) administered with or without subtype C CN54rgp140 envelope protein adjuvanted with Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA-AF) in volunteers from Tanzania and...

Alterations in bone turnover markers in patients with noncardio-embolic ischemic stroke

Background The major cause of ischemic stroke is unstable or thrombogenic atherosclerotic plaques. Vascular calcification, a process that appears crucial for plaque stability, shares common features with bone formation. Many bone turnover proteins exhibit metabolic properties, but the evidence is conflicting regarding their possible involvement in vascular disease. Antibodies...

Intravenous to oral switch therapy in cancer patients with catheter-related bloodstream infection due to methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus: A single-center retrospective observational study

The most common complication in cancer patients is catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), of which Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen. Although S. aureus CRBSI patients are recommended for prolonged intravenous therapy, this is often not feasible. We assessed the effectiveness of switching from intravenous to oral antimicrobial therapy in cancer patients with...

A searchable personal health records framework with fine-grained access control in cloud-fog computing

Fog computing can extend cloud computing to the edge of the network so as to reduce latency and network congestion. However, existing encryption schemes were rarely used in fog environment, resulting in high computational and storage overhead. Aiming at the demands of local information for terminal device and the shortcomings of cloud computing framework in supporting mobile...

Privacy-preserving aggregation of personal health data streams

Recently, as the paradigm of medical services has shifted from treatment to prevention, there is a growing interest in smart healthcare that can provide users with healthcare services anywhere, at any time, using information and communications technologies. With the development of the smart healthcare industry, there is a growing need for collecting large-scale personal health...

Modelling the impact of changes in the extracellular environment on the cytosolic free NAD+/NADH ratio during cell culture

Cancer cells depend on glucose metabolism via glycolysis as a primary energy source, despite the presence of oxygen and fully functioning mitochondria, in order to promote growth, proliferation and longevity. Glycolysis relies upon NAD+ to accept electrons in the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) reaction, linking the redox state of the cytosolic NAD+ pool to...

Quantifying skeletal muscle volume and shape in humans using MRI: A systematic review of validity and reliability

Aims The aim of this study was to report the metrological qualities of techniques currently used to quantify skeletal muscle volume and 3D shape in healthy and pathological muscles. Methods A systematic review was conducted (Prospero CRD42018082708). PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched using relevant keywords and inclusion/exclusion criteria. The...

Willing to pay to save the planet? Evaluating support for increased spending on sustainable development and environmentally friendly policies in five countries

While the 2016 Paris Agreement is in many ways an important attainment with the potential to represent a milestone in humanity’s path towards sustainable development, and avoid thus a potential calamitous and destructive future, the achievement of the goals set in the agreement is a long way off. This paper investigates one of the most important worldwide hurdles frustrating the...

Factors associated with time to first healthcare visit, diagnosis and treatment, and their impact on survival among breast cancer patients in Mali

Objective To analyse patient and healthcare system related factors influencing the time to first healthcare visit, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer patients in sub-Saharan Africa and the impact on survival in order to advise on early detection strategies. Methods A prospective hospital cohort study was conducted at the only pathology department in Mali, at the University...

The effects of individual and community-level factors on maternal health outcomes in Ghana

Background Utilization of maternal health care services is key to reducing the number of perinatal deaths and post-natal complications in sub-Saharan Africa. With a few exceptions, many studies that examine the use of maternal health services in sub-Saharan Africa have focused largely on individual-level explanations and have ignored the importance of contextual and community...

Feature engineering for sentiment analysis in e-health forums

Introduction Exploiting information in health-related social media services is of great interest for patients, researchers and medical companies. The challenge is, however, to provide easy, quick and relevant access to the vast amount of information that is available. One step towards facilitating information access to online health data is opinion mining. Even though the...

TargetClone: A multi-sample approach for reconstructing subclonal evolution of tumors

Most tumors are composed of a heterogeneous population of subclones. A more detailed insight into the subclonal evolution of these tumors can be helpful to study progression and treatment response. Problematically, tumor samples are typically very heterogeneous, making deconvolving individual tumor subclones a major challenge. To overcome this limitation, reducing heterogeneity...

Defining pediatric polypharmacy: A scoping review

Objectives Lack of consensus regarding the semantics and definitions of pediatric polypharmacy challenges researchers and clinicians alike. We conducted a scoping review to describe definitions and terminology of pediatric polypharmacy. Methods Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane CENTRAL, and the Web of Science Core Collection databases were searched for English...

Obesity matters but is not perceived: A cross-sectional study on cardiovascular disease risk factors among a population-based probability sample in rural Zambia

Background Sub-Saharan Africa, including Zambia, has experienced an increase in overweight and obesity due to rapid lifestyle changes associated with recent economic growth. We explored the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity in rural Zambia. We also investigated the role of self-perception of body weight in weight control given the local socio-cultural context...

Identifying animal taxa used to manufacture bone tools during the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu, South Africa: Results of a CT-rendered histological analysis

This paper presents the histological characterisation of a selection of worked bone artefacts from Middle Stone Age layers at Sibudu cave, South Africa. Histographic rendering is achieved using high-resolution Computed Tomography, which is non-destructive and facilitates three-dimensional histologic analysis. Excellent congruency in image quality was achieved with previous...

Widening health inequalities between the employed and the unemployed: A decomposition of trends in Canada (2000-2014)

Recent developments in the social epidemiological literature indicate that health inequalities between the employed and the unemployed are widening in many advanced capitalist countries. At present, we know relatively little about why these inequalities are worsening. Drawing on nationally-representative data from the largest health survey in Canada, we explored this question by...

A multicriteria adaptive opportunistic treecast routing protocol for multimedia dissemination in vehicle-to-vehicle telescreen

This paper presents vehicle-to-vehicle telescreen (VVT) and a multicast scheme to disseminate digital signage multimedia services to vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Multimedia dissemination in VANETs is challenging because of the high packet losses (PLs), delays and longer disconnection times, which degrade the network quality of service (QoS) and user quality of experience...

A two-stage filter for removing salt-and-pepper noise using noise detector based on characteristic difference parameter and adaptive directional mean filter

In this paper, a two-stage filter for removing salt-and-pepper noise using noise detector based on characteristic difference parameter and adaptive directional mean filter is proposed. The first stage firstly detects the noise corrupted pixels by combining characteristic difference parameter and gray level extreme, then develops an improved adaptive median filter to firstly...

Identifying mechanisms of regulation to model carbon flux during heat stress and generate testable hypotheses

Understanding biological response to stimuli requires identifying mechanisms that coordinate changes across pathways. One of the promises of multi-omics studies is achieving this level of insight by simultaneously identifying different levels of regulation. However, computational approaches to integrate multiple types of data are lacking. An effective systems biology approach...

Eye-tracking evidence shows that non-fit messaging impacts attention, attitudes and choice

When patients have strong initial attitudes about a medical intervention, they might not be open to learning new information when choosing whether or not to receive the intervention. We aim to show that non-fit messaging (messages framed in a manner that is incongruent with recipients’ motivational orientation) can increase attention to the message content, thereby de...

Self-report versus electronic medical record recorded healthcare utilisation in older community-dwelling adults: Comparison of two prospective cohort studies

Introduction Self-reported measures of healthcare utilisation are often used in longitudinal cohort studies involving older community-dwelling people. The aim of this study is to compare healthcare utilisation rates using patient self-report and manual extraction from the general practice (GP) electronic medical record (EMR). Methods Study population: Two prospective cohort...

Social stress during adolescence activates long-term microglia inflammation insult in reward processing nuclei

The experience of social stress during adolescence is associated with higher vulnerability to drug use. Increases in the acquisition of cocaine self-administration, in the escalation of cocaine-seeking behavior, and in the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine have been observed in rodents exposed to repeated social defeat (RSD). In addition, prolonged or severe stress induces...

Corrected QT interval on the electrocardiogram after liver transplantation: Surrogate marker of poor clinical outcomes?

Background Prolongation of corrected QT interval (QTc) on the electrocardiogram is associated with cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. Changes in the QTc (corrected QT) interval before and after liver transplantation (LT) for the treatment of liver cirrhosis (LC) and its association with clinical outcomes have not been fully evaluated. Methods From January 2011 to May 2016...

Identification of novel antimicrobial peptide from Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) by in silico and activity characterization

Background The global crisis of antibiotic resistance increases the demand for the new promising alternative drugs such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Accordingly, we have described a new, previously unrecognized effective AMP, named dicentracin-like, from Asian sea bass and characterized its antimicrobial activity by comparison with moronecidin. Methodology/ Results Gene...

Post-treatment changes in hematological parameters predict response to nivolumab monotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients

Background The absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are known markers of inflammation. We evaluated whether ANC, ALC, AMC and NLR, both before and after treatment with nivolumab, are indicative markers of overall survival (OS) and evaluated change in NLR as a predictive marker of...