PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 192,493)

One step generation of customizable gRNA vectors for multiplex CRISPR approaches through string assembly gRNA cloning (STAgR)

Novel applications based on the bacterial CRISPR system make genetic, genomic, transcriptional and epigenomic engineering widely accessible for the first time. A significant advantage of CRISPR over previous methods is its tremendous adaptability due to its bipartite nature. Cas9 or its engineered variants define the molecular effect, while short gRNAs determine the targeting...

How digital design shapes political participation: A natural experiment with social information

Political behaviour increasingly takes place on digital platforms, where people are presented with a range of social information—real-time feedback about the behaviour of peers and reference groups—which can stimulate (or depress) participation. This social information is hypothesized to impact the distribution of political activity, stimulating participation in mobilizations...

Aridity drives plant biogeographical sub regions in the Caatinga, the largest tropical dry forest and woodland block in South America

Our aims were to quantify and map the plant sub regions of the the Caatinga, that covers 844,453 km2 and is the largest block of seasonally dry forest in South America. We performed spatial analyses of the largest dataset of woody plant distributions in this region assembled to date (of 2,666 shrub and tree species; 260 localities), compared these distributions with the current...

Knowledge of hepatitis C status moderates the relationship between history of drug treatment and sterile syringe use

High-risk injection related behavior including use of non-sterile syringes is associated with negative health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). Drug treatment programs have been reported to curb hepatitis C (HCV) transmission. This study aims to assess the role of drug treatment programs and knowledge of HCV status, and how they influence current injection-related...

Use of weighted multivariate estimates in trials of multi-serotype vaccines to simplify interpretation of treatment differences

Background Many vaccines contain multiple components. Licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) contain polysaccharides from 7, 10, or 13 different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The main outcomes in randomised trials of pneumococcal vaccines are serotype-specific antibody measures. Comparisons are made between groups for each serotype, resulting in multiple separate...

Social network analysis of stakeholder networks from two community-based obesity prevention interventions

Introduction Studies of community-based obesity prevention interventions have hypothesized that stakeholder networks are a critical element of effective implementation. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the interpersonal network structures within a sub-sample of stakeholders from two past successful childhood obesity prevention interventions. Methods Participants...

Acceptability of oral rapid HIV testing at dental clinics in communities with high HIV prevalence in South Florida

Background Expanding HIV screening for populations at risk necessitates testing in nontraditional settings. We assessed HIV testing in dental clinics in South Florida, an urban area with the highest rates of HIV diagnoses in the United States in 2015. Aims We explored patients’ acceptance of oral HIV rapid tests administered by dental providers and identified reasons for...

Meta-analysis of sonication prosthetic fluid PCR for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a catastrophic complication following total joint arthroplasty. Until now, the diagnosis of PJI is still confronted with difficulties, which is characterized by technical limitations. The question of whether sonication fluid PCR can provide high value in the diagnosis of PJI remains unanswered. This meta-analysis included 9 studies that...

Heat shock proteins expressed in the marsupial Tasmanian devil are potential antigenic candidates in a vaccine against devil facial tumour disease

The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), the largest extant carnivorous marsupial and endemic to Tasmania, is at the verge of extinction due to the emergence of a transmissible cancer known as devil facial tumour disease (DFTD). DFTD has spread over the distribution range of the species and has been responsible for a severe decline in the global devil population. To protect...

Adaptive fractional order sliding mode control for Boost converter in the Battery/Supercapacitor HESS

In this paper, an adaptive fractional order sliding mode control (AFSMC) scheme is designed for the current tracking control of the Boost-type converter in a Battery/Supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS). In order to stabilize the current, the adaptation rules based on state-observer and Lyapunov function are being designed. A fractional order sliding surface...

Performance of next-generation sequencing on small tumor specimens and/or low tumor content samples using a commercially available platform

Background Next generation sequencing tests (NGS) are usually performed on relatively small core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples. Data is limited on what amount of tumor by volume or minimum number of FNA passes are needed to yield sufficient material for running NGS. We sought to identify the amount of tumor for running the PCDx NGS platform. Methods 2,723...

Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory

Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a...

Predicting language diversity with complex networks

We analyze the model of social interactions with coevolution of the topology and states of the nodes. This model can be interpreted as a model of language change. We propose different rewiring mechanisms and perform numerical simulations for each. Obtained results are compared with the empirical data gathered from two online databases and anthropological study of Solomon Islands...

A new method for evaluating tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in colorectal cancer using hematoxylin and eosin (H-E)-stained tumor sections

Purpose Numerous reports indicate that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are a prognostic factor in various cancers and that they must be good biomarkers. However, the methods of evaluating TILs differ in each study; thus, there is not yet a standardized methodology for evaluating TILs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating...

The complex association between the antioxidant defense system and clinical status in early psychosis

Oxidative stress is a pathophysiological mechanism potentially involved in psychiatric disorders. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between total antioxidant status (TAS) and the functional status of patients with a first episode of psychosis at the onset of the disease. For this purpose, a sample of 70 patients aged between 9 and 17 years with a first...

Heparin free dialysis in critically sick children using sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLEDD-f): A new hybrid therapy for dialysis in developing world

Background In critically sick adults, sustained low efficiency dialysis [SLED] appears to be better tolerated hemodynamically and outcomes seem to be comparable to CRRT. However, there is paucity of data in critically sick children. In children, two recent studies from Taiwan (n = 11) and India (n = 68) showed benefits of SLED in critically sick children. Aims and objectives The...

Determining the minimum number of protein-protein interactions required to support known protein complexes

The prediction of protein complexes from protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a well-studied problem in bioinformatics. However, the currently available PPI data is not enough to describe all known protein complexes. In this paper, we express the problem of determining the minimum number of (additional) required protein-protein interactions as a graph theoretic problem under...

Regulation of oxidative phosphorylation is different in electrically- and cortically-stimulated skeletal muscle

A computer model of the skeletal muscle bioenergetic system was used to study the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in electrically-stimulated and cortically-stimulated skeletal muscle. Two types of the dependence of the intensity of each-step activation (ESA) of OXPHOS complexes on ATP usage activity were tested: power-type dependence and saturating-type...

Ten-year cumulative incidence of epiretinal membranes assessed on fundus photographs. The Beijing Eye Study 2001/2011

Purpose To assess the 10-year incidence and progression of epiretinal membranes (ERMs). Methods The population-based longitudinal Beijing Eye Study, which included 4439 subjects (age:40+years) in 2001, was repeated in 2011 with 2695 subjects participating (66.4% of the survivors). The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination, including retinal photography...

Hidden diversity: Phylogeography of genus Ototyphlonemertes Diesing, 1863 (Ototyphlonemertidae: Hoplonemertea) reveals cryptic species and high diversity in Chilean populations

Ototyphlonemertes is a cosmopolitan genus of meiofaunal nemerteans. Their morphological characters are insufficient to reliably identify and delimit species. Consequently, some of the species are considered cosmopolitan despite anticipated low dispersion capability of the adults and a short planktonic larval phase. Indeed, recent studies show that some species actually comprise...

Proof of concept of a workflow methodology for the creation of basic canine head anatomy veterinary education tool using augmented reality

Neuroanatomy can be challenging to both teach and learn within the undergraduate veterinary medicine and surgery curriculum. Traditional techniques have been used for many years, but there has now been a progression to move towards alternative digital models and interactive 3D models to engage the learner. However, digital innovations in the curriculum have typically involved the...

Intraoperative ultrasonography in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for intrarenal tumors

Objective To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of intraoperative ultrasonography in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for intrarenal tumors. Patients and methods All patients who underwent LPN for renal tumors in our institution from January 2010 to October 2016 were assessed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups, the first with totally intrarenal tumors...

Evaluation of cell count and classification capabilities in body fluids using a fully automated Sysmex XN equipped with high-sensitive Analysis (hsA) mode and DI-60 hematology analyzer system

The XN series automated hematology analyzer has been equipped with a body fluid (BF) mode to count and differentiate leukocytes in BF samples including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, its diagnostic accuracy is not reliable for CSF samples with low cell concentration at the border between normal and pathologic level. To overcome this limitation, a new flow cytometry-based...

Fusing metabolomics data sets with heterogeneous measurement errors

Combining different metabolomics platforms can contribute significantly to the discovery of complementary processes expressed under different conditions. However, analysing the fused data might be hampered by the difference in their quality. In metabolomics data, one often observes that measurement errors increase with increasing measurement level and that different platforms...