PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 182,258)

Wind Data Mining by Kohonen Neural Networks

Time series of Circulation Weather Type (CWT), including daily averaged wind direction and vorticity, are self-classified by similarity using Kohonen Neural Networks (KNN). It is shown that KNN is able to map by similarity all 7300 five-day CWT sequences during the period of 1975–94, in London, United Kingdom. It gives, as a first result, the most probable wind sequences preceding ...

Bacterial Toxicity of Potassium Tellurite: Unveiling an Ancient Enigma

Biochemical, genetic, enzymatic and molecular approaches were used to demonstrate, for the first time, that tellurite (TeO3 2−) toxicity in E. coli involves superoxide formation. This radical is derived, at least in part, from enzymatic TeO3 2− reduction. This conclusion is supported by the following observations made in K2TeO3-treated E. coli BW25113: i) induction of the ibpA gene ...

Exploitation of Other Social Amoebae by Dictyostelium caveatum

Dictyostelium amoebae faced with starvation trigger a developmental program during which many cells aggregate and form fruiting bodies that consist of a ball of spores held aloft by a thin stalk. This developmental strategy is open to several forms of exploitation, including the remarkable case of Dictyostelium caveatum, which, even when it constitutes 1/103 of the cells in an ...

Xnrs and Activin Regulate Distinct Genes during Xenopus Development: Activin Regulates Cell Division

Background The mesoderm of the amphibian embryo is formed through an inductive interaction in which vegetal cells of the blastula-staged embryo act on overlying equatorial cells. Candidate mesoderm-inducing factors include members of the transforming growth factor type β family such as Vg1, activin B, the nodal-related proteins and derrière. Methodology and Principle Findings ...

Biological Feedbacks as Cause and Demise of Neoproterozoic Icehouse: Astrobiological Prospects for Faster Evolution and Importance of Cold Conditions

Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630–850 Ma). While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately ...

Sensory Cell Proliferation within the Olfactory Epithelium of Developing Adult Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera)

Background Insects detect a multitude of odors using a broad array of phenotypically distinct olfactory organs referred to as olfactory sensilla. Each sensillum contains one to several sensory neurons and at least three support cells; these cells arise from mitotic activities from one or a small group of defined precursor cells. Sensilla phenotypes are defined by distinct ...

Comparison of Protein and mRNA Expression Evolution in Humans and Chimpanzees

Even though mRNA expression levels are commonly used as a proxy for estimating functional differences that occur at the protein level, the relation between mRNA and protein expression is not well established. Further, no study to date has tested whether the evolutionary differences in mRNA expression observed between species reflect those observed in protein expression. Since a ...

Quantifying Organismal Complexity using a Population Genetic Approach

Background Various definitions of biological complexity have been proposed: the number of genes, cell types, or metabolic processes within an organism. As knowledge of biological systems has increased, it has become apparent that these metrics are often incongruent. Methodology Here we propose an alternative complexity metric based on the number of genetically uncorrelated ...

Acquired Obesity Is Associated with Changes in the Serum Lipidomic Profile Independent of Genetic Effects – A Monozygotic Twin Study

Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of obesity and the associated lipid disturbances. We determined whether acquired obesity is associated with changes in global serum lipid profiles independent of genetic factors in young adult monozygotic (MZ) twins. 14 healthy MZ pairs discordant for obesity (10 to 25 kg weight difference) and ten weight ...

High-Throughput Sequencing of Arabidopsis microRNAs: Evidence for Frequent Birth and Death of MIRNA Genes

In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) comprise one of two classes of small RNAs that function primarily as negative regulators at the posttranscriptional level. Several MIRNA genes in the plant kingdom are ancient, with conservation extending between angiosperms and the mosses, whereas many others are more recently evolved. Here, we use deep sequencing and computational methods to ...

The +4G Site in Kozak Consensus Is Not Related to the Efficiency of Translation Initiation

The optimal context for translation initiation in mammalian species is GCCRCCaugG (where R = purine and “aug” is the initiation codon), with the -3R and +4G being particularly important. The presence of +4G has been interpreted as necessary for efficient translation initiation. Accumulated experimental and bioinformatic evidence has suggested an alternative explanation based on ...

Insights into the Molecular Evolution of the PDZ/LIM Family and Identification of a Novel Conserved Protein Motif

The PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein family is encoded by a diverse group of genes whose phylogeny has currently not been analyzed. In mammals, ten genes are found that encode both a PDZ- and one or several LIM-domains. These genes are: ALP, RIL, Elfin (CLP36), Mystique, Enigma (LMP-1), Enigma homologue (ENH), ZASP (Cypher, Oracle), LMO7 and the two LIM domain kinases (LIMK1 ...

Biological Designer Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffolds Significantly Enhance Osteoblast Proliferation, Differentiation and 3-D Migration

A class of self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds has been shown to be an excellent biological material for 3-dimension cell culture and stimulating cell migration into the scaffold, as well as for repairing tissue defects in animals. We report here the development of several peptide nanofiber scaffolds designed specifically for osteoblasts. We designed one of the pure ...

Temperature Drops and the Onset of Severe Avian Influenza A H5N1 Virus Outbreaks

Global influenza surveillance is one of the most effective strategies for containing outbreaks and preparing for a possible pandemic influenza. Since the end of 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) H5N1 have caused many outbreaks in poultries and wild birds from East Asia and have spread to at least 48 countries. For such a fast and wide-spreading virulent ...

Early Respiratory Management of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Very Preterm Infants and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Case-Control Study

Background In the period immediately after birth, preterm infants are highly susceptible to lung injury. Early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (ENCPAP) is an attempt to avoid intubation and may minimize lung injury. In contrast, ENCPAP can fail, and at that time surfactant rescue can be less effective. Objective To compare the pulmonary clinical course and outcome of very ...

Niche Occupation Limits Adaptive Radiation in Experimental Microcosms

Adaptive radiations have played a key role in the evolution of biological diversity. The breadth of adaptive radiation in an invading lineage is likely to be influenced by the availability of ecological niches, which will be determined to some extent by the diversity of the resident community. High resident diversity may result in existing ecological niches being filled, inhibiting ...

Percutaneous Exposure Incidents of the Health Care Personnel in a Newly Founded Tertiary Hospital: A Prospective Study

Background Percutaneous exposure incidents (PEIs) and blood splashes on the skin of health care workers are a major concern, since they expose susceptible employees to the risk of infectious diseases. We undertook this study in order to estimate the overall incidence of such injuries in a newly founded tertiary hospital, and to evaluate possible changes in their incidence over ...

Is the Prevalence of Overactive Bladder Overestimated? A Population-Based Study in Finland

Background In earlier studies, one in six adults had overactive bladder which may impair quality of life. However, earlier studies have either not been population-based or have suffered from methodological limitations. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms, based on a representative study population and using consistent definitions and exclusions. ...

Meta-Analysis in Genome-Wide Association Datasets: Strategies and Application in Parkinson Disease

Background Genome-wide association studies hold substantial promise for identifying common genetic variants that regulate susceptibility to complex diseases. However, for the detection of small genetic effects, single studies may be underpowered. Power may be improved by combining genome-wide datasets with meta-analytic techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings Both single and ...

Kiwi Forego Vision in the Guidance of Their Nocturnal Activities

Background In vision, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and resolution, and any eye which maximises information gain at low light levels needs to be large. This imposes exacting constraints upon vision in nocturnal flying birds. Eyes are essentially heavy, fluid-filled chambers, and in flying birds their increased size is countered by selection for both reduced body mass and ...

Artificially Introduced Aneuploid Chromosomes Assume a Conserved Position in Colon Cancer Cells

Background Chromosomal aneuploidy is a defining feature of carcinomas. For instance, in colon cancer, an additional copy of Chromosome 7 is not only observed in early pre-malignant polyps, but is faithfully maintained throughout progression to metastasis. These copy number changes show a positive correlation with average transcript levels of resident genes. An independent line of ...

A Functional Architecture of Optic Flow in the Inferior Parietal Lobule of the Behaving Monkey

The representation of navigational optic flow across the inferior parietal lobule was assessed using optical imaging of intrinsic signals in behaving monkeys. The exposed cortex, corresponding to the dorsal-most portion of areas 7a and dorsal prelunate (DP), was imaged in two hemispheres of two rhesus monkeys. The monkeys actively attended to changes in motion stimuli while ...

Great Tits (Parus major) Reduce Caterpillar Damage in Commercial Apple Orchards

Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple orchard. We tested whether this reduction also occurs under practical conditions of ...

Ecological Niche and Geographic Distribution of Human Monkeypox in Africa

Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic member of the genus Orthopoxviridae, can cause a severe, smallpox-like illness in humans. Monkeypox virus is thought to be endemic to forested areas of western and Central Africa. Considerably more is known about human monkeypox disease occurrence than about natural sylvatic cycles of this virus in non-human animal hosts. We use human monkeypox case data ...

Selective Loss of TGFβ Smad-Dependent Signalling Prevents Cell Cycle Arrest and Promotes Invasion in Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines

In cancer, Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) increases proliferation and promotes invasion via selective loss of signalling pathways. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett's oesophagus, progresses rapidly and is usually fatal. The contribution of perturbed TGFβ signalling in the promotion of metastasis in this disease has not been elucidated. We therefore investigated ...