PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 184,702)

A Bistable Gene Switch for Antibiotic Biosynthesis: The Butyrolactone Regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor

Many microorganisms, including bacteria of the class Streptomycetes, produce various secondary metabolites including antibiotics to gain a competitive advantage in their natural habitat. The production of these compounds is highly coordinated in a population to expedite accumulation to an effective concentration. Furthermore, as antibiotics are often toxic even to their producers, ...

Prelimbic and Infralimbic Prefrontal Cortex Interact during Fast Network Oscillations

BackgroundThe medial prefrontal cortex has been implicated in a variety of cognitive and executive processes such as decision making and working memory. The medial prefrontal cortex of rodents consists of several areas including the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex that are thought to be involved in different aspects of cognitive performance. Despite the distinct roles in cognitive ...

Transmembrane Protein Oxygen Content and Compartmentalization of Cells

Recently, there was a report that explored the oxygen content of transmembrane proteins over macroevolutionary time scales where the authors observed a correlation between the geological time of appearance of compartmentalized cells with atmospheric oxygen concentration. The authors predicted, characterized and correlated the differences in the structure and composition of ...

Antimalarial Therapy Selection for Quinolone Resistance among Escherichia coli in the Absence of Quinolone Exposure, in Tropical South America

BackgroundBacterial resistance to antibiotics is thought to develop only in the presence of antibiotic pressure. Here we show evidence to suggest that fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli has developed in the absence of fluoroquinolone use.MethodsOver 4 years, outreach clinic attendees in one moderately remote and five very remote villages in rural Guyana were surveyed ...

Forty Years Trends in Timing of Pubertal Growth Spurt in 157,000 Danish School Children

BackgroundEntering puberty is an important milestone in reproductive life and secular changes in the timing of puberty may be an important indicator of the general reproductive health in a population. Too early puberty is associated with several psychosocial and health problems. The aim of our study was to determine if the age at onset of pubertal growth spurt (OGS) and at peak ...

Willingness of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in the United States to Be Circumcised as Adults to Reduce the Risk of HIV Infection

BackgroundCircumcision reduces HIV acquisition among heterosexual men in Africa, but it is unclear if circumcision may reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, or whether MSM would be willing to be circumcised if recommended.MethodsWe interviewed presumed-HIV negative MSM at gay pride events in 2006. We asked uncircumcised respondents about ...

Genistein-Supplemented Diet Decreases Malaria Liver Infection in Mice and Constitutes a Potential Prophylactic Strategy

In tropical regions millions of people still live at risk of malaria infection. Indeed the emergence of resistance to chloroquine and other drugs in use in these areas reinforces the need to implement alternative prophylactic strategies. Genistein is a naturally occurring compound that is widely used as a food supplment and is thought to be effective in countering several ...

Differential Interactions of the Autonomous Pathway RRM Proteins and Chromatin Regulators in the Silencing of Arabidopsis Targets

We have recently shown that two proteins containing RRM-type RNA-binding domains, FCA and FPA, originally identified through their role in flowering time control in Arabidopsis, silence transposons and other repeated sequences in the Arabidopsis genome. In flowering control, FCA and FPA function in the autonomous pathway with conserved chromatin regulators, the histone demethylase ...

Oncogenic BRAF Regulates Melanoma Proliferation through the Lineage Specific Factor MITF

The Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is an important regulator of cell-type specific functions in melanocytic cells. MITF is essential for the survival of pigmented cells, but whereas high levels of MITF drive melanocyte differentiation, lower levels are required to permit proliferation and survival of melanoma cells. MITF is phosphorylated by ERK, and this ...

AIP4/Itch Regulates Notch Receptor Degradation in the Absence of Ligand

BackgroundThe regulation of Notch signaling heavily relies on ubiquitination events. Drosophila Su(dx), a member of the HECT family of ubiquitin-ligases, has been described as a negative regulator of Notch signaling, acting on the post-endocytic sorting of Notch. The mammalian ortholog of Su(dx), Itch/AIP4, has been shown to have multiple substrates, including Notch, but the ...

Rheological Characterization of the Bundling Transition in F-Actin Solutions Induced by Methylcellulose

In many in vitro experiments Brownian motion hampers quantitative data analysis. Therefore, additives are widely used to increase the solvent viscosity. For this purpose, methylcellulose (MC) has been proven highly effective as already small concentrations can significantly slow down diffusive processes. Beside this advantage, it has already been reported that high MC ...

Type I Interferon: Potential Therapeutic Target for Psoriasis?

BackgroundPsoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterized by aberrant epidermal differentiation, surface scale formation, and marked cutaneous inflammation. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify potential mediators, we used whole genome array analysis to profile paired lesional and nonlesional psoriatic skin and skin from healthy ...

Conservation of the S10-spc-α Locus within Otherwise Highly Plastic Genomes Provides Phylogenetic Insight into the Genus Leptospira

S10-spc-α is a 17.5 kb cluster of 32 genes encoding ribosomal proteins. This locus has an unusual composition and organization in Leptospira interrogans. We demonstrate the highly conserved nature of this region among diverse Leptospira and show its utility as a phylogenetically informative region. Comparative analyses were performed by PCR using primer sets covering the whole ...

A Visual Metaphor Describing Neural Dynamics in Schizophrenia

Background In many scientific disciplines the use of a metaphor as an heuristic aid is not uncommon. A well known example in somatic medicine is the ‘defense army metaphor’ used to characterize the immune system. In fact, probably a large part of the everyday work of doctors consists of ‘translating’ scientific and clinical information (i.e. causes of disease, percentage of succes ...

Superfast Vocal Muscles Control Song Production in Songbirds

Birdsong is a widely used model for vocal learning and human speech, which exhibits high temporal and acoustic diversity. Rapid acoustic modulations are thought to arise from the vocal organ, the syrinx, by passive interactions between the two independent sound generators or intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of sound generating structures. Additionally, direct neuromuscular control ...

RickA Expression Is Not Sufficient to Promote Actin-Based Motility of Rickettsia raoultii

BackgroundRickettsia raoultii is a novel Rickettsia species recently isolated from Dermacentor ticks and classified within the spotted fever group (SFG). The inability of R. raoultii to spread within L929 cells suggests that this bacterium is unable to polymerize host cell actin, a property exhibited by all SFG rickettsiae except R. peacocki. This result led us to investigate if ...

Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay Impacts MSI-Driven Carcinogenesis and Anti-Tumor Immunity in Colorectal Cancers

Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay (NMD) degrades mutant mRNAs containing premature termination codon (PTC-mRNAs). Here we evaluate the consequence of NMD activity in colorectal cancers (CRCs) showing microsatellite instability (MSI) whose progression is associated with the accumulation of PTC-mRNAs encoding immunogenic proteins due to frameshift mutations in coding repeat sequences. ...

The Pleiotropic Effects of Simvastatin on Retinal Microvascular Endothelium Has Important Implications for Ischaemic Retinopathies

BackgroundCurrent guidelines encourage the use of statins to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients; however the impact of these drugs on diabetic retinopathy is not well defined. Moreover, pleiotropic effects of statins on the highly specialised retinal microvascular endothelium remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the ...

Ubiquitination Is Required for Effective Replication of Coxsackievirus B3

BackgroundProtein ubiquitination and/or degradation by the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) have been recognized as critical mechanisms in the regulation of numerous essential cellular functions. The importance of the UPS in viral pathogenesis has become increasingly apparent. Using murine cardiomyocytes, we have previously demonstrated that the UPS plays a key role in the ...

Human AQP5 Plays a Role in the Progression of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

Aquaporins (AQPs) have previously been associated with increased expression in solid tumors. However, its expression in hematologic malignancies including CML has not been described yet. Here, we report the expression of AQP5 in CML cells by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. While normal bone marrow biopsy samples (n = 5) showed no expression of AQP5, 32% of CML patient samples ...

Prenatal Activation of Microglia Induces Delayed Impairment of Glutamatergic Synaptic Function

BackgroundEpidemiological studies have linked maternal infection during pregnancy to later development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. In mice, experimental inflammation during embryonic development impairs behavioral and cognitive performances in adulthood. Synaptic dysfunctions may be at the origin of cognitive impairments, however the link between prenatal ...

Identification of a Common Gene Expression Response in Different Lung Inflammatory Diseases in Rodents and Macaques

To identify gene expression responses common to multiple pulmonary diseases we collected microarray data for acute lung inflammation models from 12 studies and used these in a meta-analysis. The data used include exposures to air pollutants; bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections; and allergic asthma models. Hierarchical clustering revealed a cluster of 383 up-regulated genes ...

Can Machines Think? Interaction and Perspective Taking with Robots Investigated via fMRI

BackgroundWhen our PC goes on strike again we tend to curse it as if it were a human being. Why and under which circumstances do we attribute human-like properties to machines? Although humans increasingly interact directly with machines it remains unclear whether humans implicitly attribute intentions to them and, if so, whether such interactions resemble human-human interactions ...

Lifespan Mental Activity Predicts Diminished Rate of Hippocampal Atrophy

ObjectiveEpidemiological studies suggest that complex mental activity may reduce the risk for dementia, however an underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our objective was to determine whether individual differences in lifespan complex mental activity are linked to altered rates of hippocampal atrophy independent of global measures of neurodegeneration.MethodsThirty seven healthy ...

Increased Level of Extracellular ATP at Tumor Sites: In Vivo Imaging with Plasma Membrane Luciferase

BackgroundThere is growing awareness that tumour cells build up a “self-advantageous” microenvironment that reduces effectiveness of anti-tumour immune response. While many different immunosuppressive mechanisms are likely to come into play, recent evidence suggests that extracellular adenosine acting at A2A receptors may have a major role in down-modulating the immune response as ...