PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 192,555)

Differential Regulation of Macropinocytosis by Abi1/Hssh3bp1 Isoforms

Background Macropinocytosis, which is a constitutive cellular process of fluid and macromolecule uptake, is regulated by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements near the plasma membrane. Activation of Rac1, which is proposed to act upstream of the actin polymerization regulatory Wave 2 complex, has been found to correlate with enhanced macropinocytosis. One of the components of the...

Insights into the Influence of Priors in Posterior Mapping of Discrete Morphological Characters: A Case Study in Annonaceae

Background Posterior mapping is an increasingly popular hierarchical Bayesian based method used to infer character histories and reconstruct ancestral states at nodes of molecular phylogenies, notably of morphological characters. As for all Bayesian analyses specification of prior values is an integrative and important part of the analysis. He we provide an example of how...

Quantitative Metabolomics by 1H-NMR and LC-MS/MS Confirms Altered Metabolic Pathways in Diabetes

Insulin is as a major postprandial hormone with profound effects on carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. In the absence of exogenous insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes exhibit a variety of metabolic abnormalities including hyperglycemia, glycosurea, accelerated ketogenesis, and muscle wasting due to increased proteolysis. We analyzed plasma from type 1 diabetic (T1D...

Evidence for an Essential Deglycosylation-Independent Activity of PNGase in Drosophila melanogaster

Background Peptide:N-glycanase (PNGase) is an enzyme which releases N-linked glycans from glycopeptides/glycoproteins. This enzyme plays a role in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway in yeast and mice, but the biological importance of this activity remains unknown. Principal Findings In this study, we characterized the ortholog of cytoplasmic PNGases, PNGase-like (Pngl...

ETS Transcription Factors Control Transcription of EZH2 and Epigenetic Silencing of the Tumor Suppressor Gene Nkx3.1 in Prostate Cancer

Background ETS transcription factors regulate important signaling pathways involved in cell differentiation and development in many tissues and have emerged as important players in prostate cancer. However, the biological impact of ETS factors in prostate tumorigenesis is still debated. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an analysis of the ETS gene family using...

A Novel, Low-Volume Method for Organ Culture of Embryonic Kidneys That Allows Development of Cortico-Medullary Anatomical Organization

Here, we present a novel method for culturing kidneys in low volumes of medium that offers more organotypic development compared to conventional methods. Organ culture is a powerful technique for studying renal development. It recapitulates many aspects of early development very well, but the established techniques have some disadvantages: in particular, they require relatively...

MicroRNA-29b Regulates the Expression Level of Human Progranulin, a Secreted Glycoprotein Implicated in Frontotemporal Dementia

Progranulin deficiency is thought to cause some forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a major early-onset age-dependent neurodegenerative disease. How progranulin (PGRN) expression is regulated is largely unknown. We identified an evolutionarily conserved binding site for microRNA-29b (miR-29b) in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the human PGRN (hPGRN) mRNA. miR-29b...

Ancient Nursery Area for the Extinct Giant Shark Megalodon from the Miocene of Panama

Background As we know from modern species, nursery areas are essential shark habitats for vulnerable young. Nurseries are typically highly productive, shallow-water habitats that are characterized by the presence of juveniles and neonates. It has been suggested that in these areas, sharks can find ample food resources and protection from predators. Based on the fossil record, we...

Disulfide Bonds in the Ectodomain of Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2 Are Required for the Receptor-Bound Protective-Antigen Pore to Function

Background Cell-surface receptors play essential roles in anthrax toxin action by providing the toxin with a high-affinity anchor and self-assembly site on the plasma membrane, mediating the toxin entry into cells through endocytosis, and shifting the pH threshold for prepore-to-pore conversion of anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA) to a more acidic pH, thereby inhibiting...

A Cell-Free Microtiter Plate Screen for Improved [FeFe] Hydrogenases

Background [FeFe] hydrogenase enzymes catalyze the production and dissociation of H2, a potential renewable fuel. Attempts to exploit these catalysts in engineered systems have been hindered by the biotechnologically inconvenient properties of the natural enzymes, including their extreme oxygen sensitivity. Directed evolution has been used to improve the characteristics of a...

Safety and Immunogenicity of Therapeutic DNA Vaccination in Individuals Treated with Antiretroviral Therapy during Acute/Early HIV-1 Infection

Background An effective therapeutic vaccine that could augment immune control of HIV-1 replication may abrogate or delay the need for antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5187 was a phase I/II, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an HIV-1 DNA vaccine (VRC-HVDNA 009-00-VP) in subjects treated with...

Neural Competition for Conscious Representation across Time: An fMRI Study

Background The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the attentional blink (AB) - a deficit in identifying the second of two temporally-close targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a rapid stream of distracters. Theories of the AB generally agree that it results from competition between stimuli for conscious representation. However, they...

DeadEasy Mito-Glia: Automatic Counting of Mitotic Cells and Glial Cells in Drosophila

Cell number changes during normal development, and in disease (e.g., neurodegeneration, cancer). Many genes affect cell number, thus functional genetic analysis frequently requires analysis of cell number alterations upon loss of function mutations or in gain of function experiments. Drosophila is a most powerful model organism to investigate the function of genes involved in...

Modulation of IL-17 and Foxp3 Expression in the Prevention of Autoimmune Arthritis in Mice

Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune mediated disease associated with deregulation of many cell types. It has been reported that different T cell subsets have opposite effects in disease pathogenesis, in particular Th17 and Treg cells. Methodology and Findings We investigated whether non-depleting anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies, which have been reported as pro...

Genetic Risk Factors in Lupus Nephritis and IgA Nephropathy – No Support of an Overlap

Background IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and nephritis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) are two common forms of glomerulonephritis in which genetic findings are of importance for disease development. We have recently reported an association of IgAN with variants of TGFB1. In several autoimmune diseases, particularly in SLE, IRF5, STAT4 genes and TRAF1-C5 locus have been shown to be...

Mitochondrial Superoxide Contributes to Blood Flow and Axonal Transport Deficits in the Tg2576 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive decline in cognitive functions and the deposition of aggregated amyloid β (Aβ) into senile plaques and the protein tau into tangles. In addition, a general state of oxidation has long been known to be a major hallmark of the disease. What is not known however, are the mechanisms by...

Organophosphorus Pesticides Decrease M2 Muscarinic Receptor Function in Guinea Pig Airway Nerves via Indirect Mechanisms

Background Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP) exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase...

Serum Anti-BPAG1 Auto-Antibody Is a Novel Marker for Human Melanoma

Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of tumor. Because malignant melanoma is difficult to treat once it has metastasized, early detection and treatment are essential. The search for reliable biomarkers of early-stage melanoma, therefore, has received much attention. By using a novel method of screening tumor antigens and their auto-antibodies, we identified...

Transcription-Associated Mutagenesis Increases Protein Sequence Diversity More Effectively than Does Random Mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

Background During transcription, the nontranscribed DNA strand becomes single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which can form secondary structures. Unpaired bases in the ssDNA are less protected from mutagens and hence experience more mutations than do paired bases. These mutations are called transcription-associated mutations. Transcription-associated mutagenesis is increased under stress...

A New Strategy to Identify and Annotate Human RPE-Specific Gene Expression

Background To identify and functionally annotate cell type-specific gene expression in the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a key tissue involved in age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Methodology RPE, photoreceptor and choroidal cells were isolated from selected freshly frozen healthy human donor eyes using laser microdissection. RNA isolation...

Extranuclear Estrogen Receptors Mediate the Neuroprotective Effects of Estrogen in the Rat Hippocampus

Background 17β-estradiol (E2) has been implicated to exert neuroprotective effects in the brain following cerebral ischemia. Classically, E2 is thought to exert its effects via genomic signaling mediated by interaction with nuclear estrogen receptors. However, the role and contribution of extranuclear estrogen receptors (ER) is unclear and was the subject of the current study...

A Role of Canonical Transient Receptor Potential 5 Channel in Neuronal Differentiation from A2B5 Neural Progenitor Cells

Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) channels are the main pathway of Ca2+ entry in non-excitable cells such as neural progenitor cells (NPCs). However, the role of SOCE channels has not been defined in the neuronal differentiation from NPCs. Here, we show that canonical transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) as SOCE channel influences the induction of the neuronal...

Repeated and Time-Correlated Morphological Convergence in Cave-Dwelling Harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores) from Montane Western North America

Background Many cave-dwelling animal species display similar morphologies (troglomorphism) that have evolved convergent within and among lineages under the similar selective pressures imposed by cave habitats. Here we study such ecomorphological evolution in cave-dwelling Sclerobuninae harvestmen (Opiliones) from the western United States, providing general insights into...

Designed Inhibitors of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Regulate the Catabolism and Activity of Insulin

Background Insulin is a vital peptide hormone that is a central regulator of glucose homeostasis, and impairments in insulin signaling cause diabetes mellitus. In principle, it should be possible to enhance the activity of insulin by inhibiting its catabolism, which is mediated primarily by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a structurally and evolutionarily distinctive zinc...

Calpain 4 Is Not Necessary for LFA-1-Mediated Function in CD4+ T Cells

Background T cell activation and immune synapse formation require the appropriate activation and clustering of the integrin, LFA-1. Previous work has reported that the calpain family of calcium-dependent proteases are important regulators of integrin activation and modulate T cell adhesion and migration. However, these studies have been limited by the use of calpain inhibitors...