PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 182,349)

Human Resistin Is a Systemic Immune-Derived Proinflammatory Cytokine Targeting both Leukocytes and Adipocytes

The characteristics of human resistin (RETN) are unclear and controversial despite intensive adipose-focused research. Its transcriptional and functional similarity with the murine myeloid-specific and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon (Cebpe)-dependent gene, resistin-like gamma (Retnlg), is unexplored. We examined the human CEBPE-regulatory pathway by unbiased reference and ...

A Mouse Stromal Response to Tumor Invasion Predicts Prostate and Breast Cancer Patient Survival

Primary and metastatic tumor growth induces host tissue responses that are believed to support tumor progression. Understanding the molecular changes within the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression may therefore be relevant not only for discovering potential therapeutic targets, but also for identifying putative molecular signatures that may improve tumor classification ...

A Weakened Transcriptional Enhancer Yields Variegated Gene Expression

Identical genes in the same cellular environment are sometimes expressed differently. In some cases, including the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus, this type of differential gene expression has been related to the absence of a transcriptional enhancer. To gain additional information on the role of the IgH enhancer, we examined expression driven by enhancers that were merely ...

Electrochemically Generated Acid and Its Containment to 100 Micron Reaction Areas for the Production of DNA Microarrays

An addressable electrode array was used for the production of acid at sufficient concentration to allow deprotection of the dimethoxytrityl (DMT) protecting group from an overlaying substrate bound to a porous reaction layer. Containment of the generated acid to an active electrode of 100 micron diameter was achieved by the presence of an organic base. This procedure was then used ...

Restructuring of Pancreatic Islets and Insulin Secretion in a Postnatal Critical Window

Function and structure of adult pancreatic islets are determined by early postnatal development, which in rats corresponds to the first month of life. We analyzed changes in blood glucose and hormones during this stage and their association with morphological and functional changes of alpha and beta cell populations during this period. At day 20 (d20), insulin and glucose plasma ...

Use of Confocal Laser as Light Source Reveals Stomata-Autonomous Function

In most terrestrial plants, stomata open during the day to maximize the update of CO2 for photosynthesis, but they close at night to minimize water loss. Blue light, among several environmental factors, controls this process. Stomata response to diverse stimuli seems to be dictated by the behaviour of neighbour stomata creating leaf areas of coordinated response. Here individual ...

Ribosomal Protein Gene Knockdown Causes Developmental Defects in Zebrafish

The ribosomal proteins (RPs) form the majority of cellular proteins and are mandatory for cellular growth. RP genes have been linked, either directly or indirectly, to various diseases in humans. Mutations in RP genes are also associated with tissue-specific phenotypes, suggesting a possible role in organ development during early embryogenesis. However, it is not yet known how ...

Efficient Non-Viral Ocular Gene Transfer with Compacted DNA Nanoparticles

Background The eye is an excellent candidate for gene therapy as it is immune privileged and much of the disease-causing genetics are well understood. Towards this goal, we evaluated the efficiency of compacted DNA nanoparticles as a system for non-viral gene transfer to ocular tissues. The compacted DNA nanoparticles examined here have been shown to be safe and effective in a ...

A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments

Background Stanley Milgram's 1960s experimental findings that people would administer apparently lethal electric shocks to a stranger at the behest of an authority figure remain critical for understanding obedience. Yet, due to the ethical controversy that his experiments ignited, it is nowadays impossible to carry out direct experimental studies in this area. In the study reported ...

Mapping the Antigenicity of the Parasites in Leishmania donovani Infection by Proteome Serology

Background Leishmaniasis defines a cluster of protozoal diseases with diverse clinical manifestations. The visceral form caused by Leishmania donovani is the most severe. So far, no vaccines exist for visceral leishmaniasis despite indications of naturally developing immunity, and sensitive immunodiagnostics are still at early stages of development. Methodology/Principle Findings ...

Association and Host Selectivity in Multi-Host Pathogens

The distribution of multi-host pathogens over their host range conditions their population dynamics and structure. Also, host co-infection by different pathogens may have important consequences for the evolution of hosts and pathogens, and host-pathogen co-evolution. Hence it is of interest to know if the distribution of pathogens over their host range is random, or if there are ...

A Uniform Genomic Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Typing Methodology and Database Designed to Facilitate Clinical Applications

Background Minor Histocompatibility (H) antigen mismatches significantly influence the outcome of HLA-matched allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The molecular identification of human H antigens is increasing rapidly. In parallel, clinical application of minor H antigen typing has gained interest. So far, relevant and simple tools to analyze the minor H antigens in a quick and ...

Is Adipose Tissue a Place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence?

Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), has the ability to persist in its human host for exceptionally long periods of time. However, little is known about the location of the bacilli in latently infected individuals. Long-term mycobacterial persistence in the lungs has been reported, but this may not sufficiently account for strictly ...

Predator Mimicry: Metalmark Moths Mimic Their Jumping Spider Predators

Cases of mimicry provide many of the nature's most convincing examples of natural selection. Here we report evidence for a case of predator mimicry in which metalmark moths in the genus Brenthia mimic jumping spiders, one of their predators. In controlled trials, Brenthia had higher survival rates than other similarly sized moths in the presence of jumping spiders and jumping ...

Fine Tuning of Globin Gene Expression by DNA Methylation

Expression patterns in the globin gene cluster are subject to developmental regulation in vivo. While the γA and γG genes are expressed in fetal liver, both are silenced in adult erythrocytes. In order to decipher the role of DNA methylation in this process, we generated a YAC transgenic mouse system that allowed us to control γA methylation during development. DNA methylation ...

Cdx4 and Menin Co-Regulate Hoxa9 Expression in Hematopoietic Cells

Background Transcription factor Cdx4 and transcriptional coregulator menin are essential for Hoxa9 expression and normal hematopoiesis. However, the precise mechanism underlying Hoxa9 regulation is not clear. Methods and Findings Here, we show that the expression level of Hoxa9 is correlated with the location of increased trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4M3). The active and ...

Does FXIII Deficiency Impair Wound Healing after Myocardial Infarction?

Inadequate healing of myocardial infarction may contribute to local expansion of the infarct, frequently leading to chamber dilation, heart failure, or myocardial rupture. Experimental evidence in mouse models suggests that Factor XIII might play a key role in wound healing, and low persistent values lead to increased incidence of cardiac rupture following myocardial infarction. ...

Adaptive Response of a Gene Network to Environmental Changes by Fitness-Induced Attractor Selection

Cells switch between various stable genetic programs (attractors) to accommodate environmental conditions. Signal transduction machineries efficiently convey environmental changes to the gene regulation apparatus in order to express the appropriate genetic program. However, since the number of environmental conditions is much larger than that of available genetic programs so that ...

Human Natural Killer T Cells Are Heterogeneous in Their Capacity to Reprogram Their Effector Functions

Background Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T cells that help potentiate and regulate immune responses. Although human NKT cell subsets with distinct effector functions have been identified, it is unclear whether the effector functions of these subsets are imprinted during development or can be selectively reprogrammed in the periphery. Results We found that neonatal ...

Physiological Mouse Brain Aβ Levels Are Not Related to the Phosphorylation State of Threonine-668 of Alzheimer's APP

Background Amyloid-β peptide species ending at positions 40 and 42 (Aβ40, Αβ42) are generated by the proteolytic processing of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP). Aβ peptides accumulate in the brain early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially Aβ42. The cytoplasmic domain of APP regulates intracellular trafficking and metabolism of APP and its ...

Impact of Neuroprotection on Incidence of Alzheimer's Disease

Converging evidence suggests that high levels of education and intellectual activity increase the cognitive reserve and reduce the risk of dementia. However, little is known about the impact that different neuroprotective strategies may have on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Using a simple mathematical regression model, it is shown here that age-specific counts of basic ...

PIASγ Is Required for Faithful Chromosome Segregation in Human Cells

Background The precision of the metaphase-anaphase transition ensures stable genetic inheritance. The spindle checkpoint blocks anaphase onset until the last chromosome biorients at metaphase plate, then the bonds between sister chromatids are removed and disjoined chromatids segregate to the spindle poles. But, how sister separation is triggered is not fully understood. Principal ...

The Dark Side of EGFP: Defective Polyubiquitination

Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) is the most commonly used live cell reporter despite a number of conflicting reports that it can affect cell physiology. Thus far, the precise mechanism of GFP-associated defects remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that EGFP and EGFP fusion proteins inhibit polyubiquitination, a posttranslational modification that controls a wide variety ...

Monitoring the T-Cell Receptor Repertoire at Single-Clone Resolution

The adaptive immune system recognizes billions of unique antigens using highly variable T-cell receptors. The αβ T-cell receptor repertoire includes an estimated 106 different rearranged β chains per individual. This paper describes a novel micro-array based method that monitors the β chain repertoire with a resolution of a single T-cell clone. These T-arrays are quantitative and ...

A Low Protein Diet Increases the Hypoxic Tolerance in Drosophila

Dietary restriction is well known to increase the life span of a variety of organisms from yeast to mammals, but the relationships between nutrition and the hypoxic tolerance have not yet been considered. Hypoxia is a major cause of cell death in myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we forced hypoxia-related death by exposing one-day-old male Drosophila to chronic hypoxia (5% O2) ...