PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 183,232)

Identification of Upper Respiratory Tract Pathogens Using Electrochemical Detection on an Oligonucleotide Microarray

Bacterial and viral upper respiratory infections (URI) produce highly variable clinical symptoms that cannot be used to identify the etiologic agent. Proper treatment, however, depends on correct identification of the pathogen involved as antibiotics provide little or no benefit with viral infections. Here we describe a rapid and sensitive genotyping assay and microarray for URI ...

Iron Storage within Dopamine Neurovesicles Revealed by Chemical Nano-Imaging

Altered homeostasis of metal ions is suspected to play a critical role in neurodegeneration. However, the lack of analytical technique with sufficient spatial resolution prevents the investigation of metals distribution in neurons. An original experimental setup was developed to perform chemical element imaging with a 90 nm spatial resolution using synchrotron-based X-ray ...

Lactate, Fructose and Glucose Oxidation Profiles in Sports Drinks and the Effect on Exercise Performance

Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation was assessed in 6 male Category 1 and 2 cyclists who consumed CytoMax™ (C) or a leading sports drink (G) before and during continuous exercise (CE). C contained lactate-polymer, fructose, glucose and glucose polymer, while G contained fructose and glucose. Peak power output and VO2 on a cycle ergometer were 408±13 W and 67.4±3.2 mlO2·kg−1·min−1. ...

Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032

BackgroundBacillus spores are notoriously resistant to unfavorable conditions such as UV radiation, γ-radiation, H2O2, desiccation, chemical disinfection, or starvation. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 survives standard decontamination procedures of the Jet Propulsion Lab spacecraft assembly facility, and both spores and vegetative cells of this strain exhibit elevated resistance to UV ...

Cultural Diversity, Economic Development and Societal Instability

BackgroundSocial scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or α diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or β diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to ...

Neuroadaptations in Human Chronic Alcoholics: Dysregulation of the NF-κB System

BackgroundAlcohol dependence and associated cognitive impairments apparently result from neuroadaptations to chronic alcohol consumption involving changes in expression of multiple genes. Here we investigated whether transcription factors of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB) family, controlling neuronal plasticity and neurodegeneration, are involved in these adaptations in human ...

The Cyclic AMP Cascade Is Altered in the Fragile X Nervous System

Fragile X syndrome (FX), the most common heritable cause of mental retardation and autism, is a developmental disorder characterized by physical, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. FX results from a trinucleotide expansion mutation in the fmr1 gene that reduces levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Although research efforts have focused on FMRP's impact on mGluR ...

Do Haematophagous Bugs Assess Skin Surface Temperature to Detect Blood Vessels?

BackgroundIt is known that some blood-sucking insects have the ability to reach vessels under the host skin with their mouthparts to feed blood from inside them. However, the process by which they locate these vessels remains largely unknown. Less than 5% of the skin is occupied by blood vessels and thus, it is not likely that insects rely on a “random search strategy”, since it ...

Differential Association between HERG and KCNE1 or KCNE2

The small proteins encoded by KCNE1 and KCNE2 have both been proposed as accessory subunits for the HERG channel. Here we report our investigation into the cell biology of the KCNE-HERG interaction. In a co-expression system, KCNE1 was more readily co-precipitated with co-expressed HERG than was KCNE2. When forward protein trafficking was prevented (either by Brefeldin A or ...

Global Patterns of City Size Distributions and Their Fundamental Drivers

Urban areas and their voracious appetites are increasingly dominating the flows of energy and materials around the globe. Understanding the size distribution and dynamics of urban areas is vital if we are to manage their growth and mitigate their negative impacts on global ecosystems. For over 50 years, city size distributions have been assumed to universally follow a power ...

Digital NFATc2 Activation per Cell Transforms Graded T Cell Receptor Activation into an All-or-None IL-2 Expression

The expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a key event in T helper (Th) lymphocyte activation, controlling both, the expansion and differentiation of effector Th cells as well as the activation of regulatory T cells. We demonstrate that the strength of TCR stimulation is translated into the frequency of memory Th cells expressing IL-2 but not into the amount of IL-2 per cell. This ...

Constraint-Based Modeling and Kinetic Analysis of the Smad Dependent TGF-β Signaling Pathway

BackgroundInvestigation of dynamics and regulation of the TGF-β signaling pathway is central to the understanding of complex cellular processes such as growth, apoptosis, and differentiation. In this study, we aim at using systems biology approach to provide dynamic analysis on this pathway.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe proposed a constraint-based modeling method to build a ...

A Visual Pathway Links Brain Structures Active during Magnetic Compass Orientation in Migratory Birds

The magnetic compass of migratory birds has been suggested to be light-dependent. Retinal cryptochrome-expressing neurons and a forebrain region, “Cluster N”, show high neuronal activity when night-migratory songbirds perform magnetic compass orientation. By combining neuronal tracing with behavioral experiments leading to sensory-driven gene expression of the neuronal activity ...

Stochastic Species Turnover and Stable Coexistence in a Species-Rich, Fire-Prone Plant Community

Understanding the mechanisms that maintain diversity is important for managing ecosystems for species persistence. Here we used a long-term data set to understand mechanisms of coexistence at the local and regional scales in the Cape Floristic Region, a global hotspot of plant diversity. We used a dataset comprising 81 monitoring sites, sampled in 1966 and again in 1996, and ...

Evolution of Female Preference for Younger Males

Previous theoretical work has suggested that females should prefer to mate with older males, as older males should have higher fitness than the average fitness of the cohort into which they were born. However, studies in humans and model organisms have shown that as males age, they accumulate deleterious mutations in their germ-line at an ever-increasing rate, thereby reducing the ...

Children's Health Status: Examining the Associations among Income Poverty, Material Hardship, and Parental Factors

BackgroundWe examined a model of multiple mediating pathways of income poverty, material hardship, parenting factors, and child health status to understand how material hardship and parental factors mediate the effects of poverty on child health. We hypothesized that: (a) poverty will be directly associated with material hardship, parental depression, and health status, and ...

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Molecules Reverse Fulminant Hepatic Failure

Modulation of the immune system may be a viable alternative in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and can potentially eliminate the need for donor hepatocytes for cellular therapies. Multipotent bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to inhibit the function of various immune cells by undefined paracrine mediators in vitro. Yet, the ...

Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Sequences in Childhood Encephalomyopathies Reveals New Disease-Associated Variants

BackgroundMitochondrial encephalomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of clinical disorders generally caused due to mutations in either mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or nuclear genes encoding oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We analyzed the mtDNA sequences from a group of 23 pediatric patients with clinical and morphological features of mitochondrial encephalopathies and tried to ...

Causal Inference in Multisensory Perception

Perceptual events derive their significance to an animal from their meaning about the world, that is from the information they carry about their causes. The brain should thus be able to efficiently infer the causes underlying our sensory events. Here we use multisensory cue combination to study causal inference in perception. We formulate an ideal-observer model that infers whether ...

Constitutive Phosphorylation of Aurora-A on Ser51 Induces Its Stabilization and Consequent Overexpression in Cancer

BackgroundThe serine/threonine kinase Aurora-A (Aur-A) is a proto-oncoprotein overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers. Overexpression of Aur-A is thought to be caused by gene amplification or mRNA overexpression. However, recent evidence revealed that the discrepancies between amplification of Aur-A and overexpression rates of Aur-A mRNA were observed in breast cancer, ...

Transcriptional Program Induced by Wnt Protein in Human Fibroblasts Suggests Mechanisms for Cell Cooperativity in Defining Tissue Microenvironments

BackgroundThe Wnt signaling system plays key roles in development, regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, cell polarity, morphogenesis and cancer. Given the multifaceted roles of Wnt signaling in these processes, its transcriptional effects on the stromal cells that make up the scaffold and infrastructure of epithelial tissues are of great interest.Methods and ...

Mammalian MicroRNA Prediction through a Support Vector Machine Model of Sequence and Structure

BackgroundMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small noncoding RNA gene products, on average 22 nt long, found in a wide variety of organisms. They play important regulatory roles by targeting mRNAs for degradation or translational repression. There are 377 known mouse miRNAs and 475 known human miRNAs in the May 2007 release of the miRBase database, the majority of which are ...

Complete Genomic Characterization of a Pathogenic A.II Strain of Francisella tularensis Subspecies tularensis

Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia, which is a highly lethal disease from nature and potentially from a biological weapon. This species contains four recognized subspecies including the North American endemic F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A), whose genetic diversity is correlated with its geographic distribution including a major population ...

Vesicle-Like Biomechanics Governs Important Aspects of Nuclear Geometry in Fission Yeast

It has long been known that during the closed mitosis of many unicellular eukaryotes, including the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), the nuclear envelope remains intact while the nucleus undergoes a remarkable sequence of shape transformations driven by elongation of an intranuclear mitotic spindle whose ends are capped by spindle pole bodies embedded in the nuclear ...

Satellite Tracking Reveals Long Distance Coastal Travel and Homing by Translocated Estuarine Crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus

Crocodilians have a wide distribution, often in remote areas, are cryptic, secretive and are easily disturbed by human presence. Their capacity for large scale movements is poorly known. Here, we report the first study of post-release movement patterns in translocated adult crocodiles, and the first application of satellite telemetry to a crocodilian. Three large male Crocodylus ...