PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,395)

Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Myosin and Actin as Promising Saliva Biomarkers for Distinguishing Pre-Malignant and Malignant Oral Lesions

Background Oral cancer survival rates increase significantly when it is detected and treated early. Unfortunately, clinicians now lack tests which easily and reliably distinguish pre-malignant oral lesions from those already transitioned to malignancy. A test for proteins, ones found in non-invasively-collected whole saliva and whose abundances distinguish these lesion types...

Genetic Control of Lithium Sensitivity and Regulation of Inositol Biosynthetic Genes

Lithium (Li+) is a common treatment for bipolar mood disorder, a major psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of more than 1%. Risk of bipolar disorder is heavily influenced by genetic predisposition, but is a complex genetic trait and, to date, genetic studies have provided little insight into its molecular origins. An alternative approach is to investigate the genetics...

New World Hantaviruses Activate IFNλ Production in Type I IFN-Deficient Vero E6 Cells

Background Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus...

Blockade of TRPM7 Channel Activity and Cell Death by Inhibitors of 5-Lipoxygenase

TRPM7 is a ubiquitous divalent-selective ion channel with its own kinase domain. Recent studies have shown that suppression of TRPM7 protein expression by RNA interference increases resistance to ischemia-induced neuronal cell death in vivo and in vitro, making the channel a potentially attractive pharmacological target for molecular intervention. Here, we report the...

Cholesterol Induces Specific Spatial and Orientational Order in Cholesterol/Phospholipid Membranes

Background In lipid bilayers, cholesterol facilitates the formation of the liquid-ordered phase and enables the formation of laterally ordered structures such as lipid rafts. While these domains have an important role in a variety of cellular processes, the precise atomic-level mechanisms responsible for cholesterol's specific ordering and packing capability have remained...

Structural and Functional Study of Yer067w, a New Protein Involved in Yeast Metabolism Control and Drug Resistance

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably the best studied eukaryotic genome, and yet, it contains approximately 1000 genes that are still relatively uncharacterized. As the majority of these ORFs have no homologs with characterized sequence or protein structure, traditional sequence-based approaches cannot be applied to deduce their biological function. Here, we...

The Phosphatomes of the Multicellular Myxobacteria Myxococcus xanthus and Sorangium cellulosum in Comparison with Other Prokaryotic Genomes

Background Analysis of the complete genomes from the multicellular myxobacteria Myxococcus xanthus and Sorangium cellulosum identified the highest number of eukaryotic-like protein kinases (ELKs) compared to all other genomes analyzed. High numbers of protein phosphatases (PPs) could therefore be anticipated, as reversible protein phosphorylation is a major regulation mechanism...

Micronutrient Fortification to Improve Growth and Health of Maternally HIV-Unexposed and Exposed Zambian Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Background The period of complementary feeding, starting around 6 months of age, is a time of high risk for growth faltering and morbidity. Low micronutrient density of locally available foods is a common problem in low income countries. Children of HIV-infected women are especially vulnerable. Although antiretroviral prophylaxis can reduce breast milk HIV transmission in early...

Variability in the Incidence of miRNAs and Genes in Fragile Sites and the Role of Repeats and CpG Islands in the Distribution of Genetic Material

Background Chromosomal fragile sites are heritable specific loci especially prone to breakage. Some of them are associated with human genetic disorders and several studies have demonstrated their importance in genome instability in cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs responsible of post-transcriptional gene regulation and their involvement in several diseases...

BMP-2/6 Heterodimer Is More Effective than BMP-2 or BMP-6 Homodimers as Inductor of Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Background Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathways are involved in differentiation of stem cells into diverse cell types, and thus BMPs can be used as main guidance molecules for in vitro differentiation of human stem cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analyzed the ability for inducing differentiation of the heterodimer BMP-2/BMP-6 (BMP-2/6) compared to the...

The Anopheles gambiae Oxidation Resistance 1 (OXR1) Gene Regulates Expression of Enzymes That Detoxify Reactive Oxygen Species

Background OXR1 is an ancient gene, present in all eukaryotes examined so far that confers protection from oxidative stress by an unknown mechanism. The most highly conserved region of the gene is the carboxyl-terminal TLDc domain, which has been shown to be sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Methodology/Principal Findings OXR1 has a complex genomic structure in the mosquito...

Hydrophilicity Matching – A Potential Prerequisite for the Formation of Protein-Protein Complexes in the Cell

A binding event between two proteins typically consists of a diffusional search of binding partners for one another, followed by a specific recognition of the compatible binding sites resulting in the formation of the complex. However, it is unclear how binding partners find each other in the context of the crowded, constantly fluctuating, and interaction-rich cellular...

Pattern Recognition Analysis of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Brain Tissue Extracts from Rats Anesthetized with Propofol or Isoflurane

Background General anesthesia is routinely used as a surgical procedure and its safety has been endorsed by clinical outcomes; however, its effects at the molecular level have not been elucidated. General anesthetics influence glucose metabolism in the brain. However, the effects of anesthetics on brain metabolites other than those related to glucose have not been well...

Local Adaptation of Aboveground Herbivores towards Plant Phenotypes Induced by Soil Biota

Background Soil biota may trigger strong physiological responses in plants and consequently induce distinct phenotypes. Plant phenotype, in turn, has a strong impact on herbivore performance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that aboveground herbivores are able to adapt to plant phenotypes induced by soil biota. Methodology and Principal Findings We bred spider mites for 15...

Molecular Cloning and Gene Expression Analysis of the Leptin Receptor in the Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

Background Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with multiple functions that regulates energy homeostasis and reproductive functions. Increased knowledge of leptin receptor function will enhance our understanding of the physiological roles of leptin in animals. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, a full-length leptin receptor (lepr) cDNA, consisting of 1,353...

Human Adipose Derived Stromal Cells Heal Critical Size Mouse Calvarial Defects

Background Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) represent a multipotent cell stromal cell type with proven capacity to differentiate along an osteogenic lineage. This suggests that they may be used to heal defects of the craniofacial or appendicular skeleton. We sought to substantiate the use of undifferentiated hASCs in the regeneration of a non-healing mouse skeletal...

Low-Level Vibrations Retain Bone Marrow's Osteogenic Potential and Augment Recovery of Trabecular Bone during Reambulation

Mechanical disuse will bias bone marrow stromal cells towards adipogenesis, ultimately compromising the regenerative capacity of the stem cell pool and impeding the rapid and full recovery of bone morphology. Here, it was tested whether brief daily exposure to high-frequency, low-magnitude vibrations can preserve the marrow environment during disuse and enhance the initiation of...

HLA-Associated Immune Pressure on Gag Protein in CRF01_AE-Infected Individuals and Its Association with Plasma Viral Load

Background The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response is one of the major factors determining the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There are few population-based analyses of the amino acid variations associated with the host HLA type and their clinical relevance for the Asian population. Here, we identified...

Quantifying Spatial Disparities in Neonatal Mortality Using a Structured Additive Regression Model

Background Neonatal mortality contributes a large proportion towards early childhood mortality in developing countries, with considerable geographical variation at small areas within countries. Methods A geo-additive logistic regression model is proposed for quantifying small-scale geographical variation in neonatal mortality, and to estimate risk factors of neonatal mortality...

Vocal Accuracy and Neural Plasticity Following Micromelody-Discrimination Training

Background Recent behavioral studies report correlational evidence to suggest that non-musicians with good pitch discrimination sing more accurately than those with poorer auditory skills. However, other studies have reported a dissociation between perceptual and vocal production skills. In order to elucidate the relationship between auditory discrimination skills and vocal...

MSH2/MSH6 Complex Promotes Error-Free Repair of AID-Induced dU:G Mispairs as well as Error-Prone Hypermutation of A:T Sites

Mismatch repair of AID-generated dU:G mispairs is critical for class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B cells. The generation of a previously unavailable Msh2−/−Msh6−/− mouse has for the first time allowed us to examine the impact of the complete loss of MutSα on lymphomagenesis, CSR and SHM. The onset of T cell lymphomas and the survival of Msh2...

Verbal Autopsy: Reliability and Validity Estimates for Causes of Death in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran

Background Verbal autopsy (VA) is one method to obtain valid estimates of causes of death in the absence of valid medical records. We tested the reliability and validity of a VA questionnaire developed for a cohort study in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran. Method A modified version of the WHO adult verbal autopsy was used to assess the cause of death in the first 219...

The Re-Emergence of H1N1 Influenza Virus in 1977: A Cautionary Tale for Estimating Divergence Times Using Biologically Unrealistic Sampling Dates

In 1977, H1N1 influenza A virus reappeared after a 20-year absence. Genetic analysis indicated that this strain was missing decades of nucleotide sequence evolution, suggesting an accidental release of a frozen laboratory strain into the general population. Recently, this strain and its descendants were included in an analysis attempting to date the origin of pandemic influenza...

Sheep Movement Networks and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

Background and Methodology Various approaches have been used to investigate how properties of farm contact networks impact on the transmission of infectious diseases. The potential for transmission of an infection through a contact network can be evaluated in terms of the basic reproduction number, R0. The magnitude of R0 is related to the mean contact rate of a host, in this...

Variable Mutation Rates as an Adaptive Strategy in Replicator Populations

For evolving populations of replicators, there is much evidence that the effect of mutations on fitness depends on the degree of adaptation to the selective pressures at play. In optimized populations, most mutations have deleterious effects, such that low mutation rates are favoured. In contrast to this, in populations thriving in changing environments a larger fraction of...