PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,866)

Female Field Crickets Incur Increased Parasitism Risk When Near Preferred Song

Female animals often prefer males with conspicuous traits because these males provide direct or indirect benefits. Conspicuous male traits, however, can attract predators. This not only increases the risk of predation for conspicuous males but also for the females that prefer them. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, males that produce preferred song types provide...

Loss of Jak2 Selectively Suppresses DC-Mediated Innate Immune Response and Protects Mice from Lethal Dose of LPS-Induced Septic Shock

Given the importance of Jak2 in cell signaling, a critical role for Jak2 in immune cells especially dendritic cells (DCs) has long been proposed. The exact function for Jak2 in DCs, however, remained poorly understood as Jak2 deficiency leads to embryonic lethality. Here we established Jak2 deficiency in adult Cre+/+Jak2fl/fl mice by tamoxifen induction. Loss of Jak2...

Increased Iron Stores Correlate with Worse Disease Outcomes in a Mouse Model of Schistosomiasis Infection

Schistosomiasis is a significant parasitic infection creating disease burden throughout many of the world's developing nations. Iron deficiency anemia is also a significant health burden resulting from both nutritional deficit as well as parasitic infection in these countries. In this study we investigated the relationships between the disease outcomes of Schistosoma japonicum...

Modeling the Potential Distribution of Bacillus anthracis under Multiple Climate Change Scenarios for Kazakhstan

Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is a zoonotic disease that persists throughout much of the world in livestock, wildlife, and secondarily infects humans. This is true across much of Central Asia, and particularly the Steppe region, including Kazakhstan. This study employed the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) to model the current and future...

Sedation at Sea of Entangled North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) to Enhance Disentanglement

Background The objective of this study was to enhance removal of fishing gear from right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) at sea that evade disentanglement boat approaches. Titrated intra muscular injections to achieve sedation were undertaken on two free swimming right whales. Methodology/Principal Findings Following initial trials with beached whales, a sedation protocol was...

Atomic Analysis of Protein-Protein Interfaces with Known Inhibitors: The 2P2I Database

Background In the last decade, the inhibition of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) has emerged from both academic and private research as a new way to modulate the activity of proteins. Inhibitors of these original interactions are certainly the next generation of highly innovative drugs that will reach the market in the next decade. However, in silico design of such compounds...

Phospholipase D1 Mediates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling for Glucose Uptake

Background Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is known to play a...

Measurement of Pulmonary Flow Reserve and Pulmonary Index of Microcirculatory Resistance for Detection of Pulmonary Microvascular Obstruction

Background The pulmonary microcirculation is the chief regulatory site for resistance in the pulmonary circuit. Despite pulmonary microvascular dysfunction being implicated in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary vascular conditions, there are currently no techniques for the specific assessment of pulmonary microvascular integrity in humans. Peak hyperemic flow assessment using...

Upregulation of SOCS-3 and PIAS-3 Impairs IL-12-Mediated Interferon-Gamma Response in CD56+ T Cells in HCV-Infected Heroin Users

Background CD56+ T cells are abundant in liver and play an important role in host innate immunity against viral infections, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a common infection among heroin abusers. We thus investigated the in vivo impact of heroin use or heroin use plus HCV infection on the CD56+ T cell frequency and function. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of...

Metabolomic Analyses of Plasma Reveals New Insights into Asphyxia and Resuscitation in Pigs

Background Currently, a limited range of biochemical tests for hypoxia are in clinical use. Early diagnostic and functional biomarkers that mirror cellular metabolism and recovery during resuscitation are lacking. We hypothesized that the quantification of metabolites after hypoxia and resuscitation would enable the detection of markers of hypoxia as well as markers enabling the...

Drosophila Cuticular Hydrocarbons Revisited: Mating Status Alters Cuticular Profiles

Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs), or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA), affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential...

Measuring the Conservation Value of Tropical Primary Forests: The Effect of Occasional Species on Estimates of Biodiversity Uniqueness

Background Developing effective conservation plans for multi-functional landscapes requires an accurate knowledge of the relative conservation value of different land-uses. A growing number of tropical ecologists have evaluated conservation value using the number (or proportion) of species that are unique to primary or old-growth forests. However, estimates of the conservation...

Impact of Genetic Background on Allele Selection in a Highly Mutable Candida albicans Gene, PNG2

In many microbes rapid mutation of highly mutable contingency genes continually replenishes a pool of variant alleles from which the most suitable are selected, assisting in rapid adaptation and evasion of the immune response. In some contingency genes mutability is achieved through DNA repeats within the coding region. The fungal human pathogen Candida albicans has 2600 repeat...

Regulation of Proapoptotic Mammalian ste20–Like Kinase MST2 by the IGF1-Akt Pathway

Background Hippo, a Drosophila serine/threonine kinase, promotes apoptosis and restricts cell growth and proliferation. Its mammalian homolog MST2 has been shown to play similar role and be regulated by Raf-1 via a kinase-independent mechanism and by RASSF family proteins through forming complex with MST2. However, regulation of MST2 by cell survival signal remains largely...

Modification of Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) Properties by a GFP Tag – Implications for Research into Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Background Since the discovery that mutations in the enzyme SOD1 are causative in human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), many strategies have been employed to elucidate the toxic properties of this ubiquitously expressed mutant protein, including the generation of GFP-SOD1 chimaeric proteins for studies in protein localization by direct visualization using fluorescence...

A Recombination Hotspot in a Schizophrenia-Associated Region of GABRB2

Background Schizophrenia is a major disorder with complex genetic mechanisms. Earlier, population genetic studies revealed the occurrence of strong positive selection in the GABRB2 gene encoding the β2 subunit of GABAA receptors, within a segment of 3,551 bp harboring twenty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and containing schizophrenia-associated SNPs and haplotypes...

Genomic Signature and Mutation Trend Analysis of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza A Virus

A novel swine-origin pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus (H1N1pdm, also referred to as S-OIV) was identified as the causative agent of the 21st century's first influenza pandemic, but molecular features conferring its ability of human-to-human transmission has not been identified. Here we compared the protein sequences of 2009 H1N1pdm strains with those causing other pandemics and...

Bentho-Pelagic Divergence of Cichlid Feeding Architecture Was Prodigious and Consistent during Multiple Adaptive Radiations within African Rift-Lakes

Background How particular changes in functional morphology can repeatedly promote ecological diversification is an active area of evolutionary investigation. The African rift-lake cichlids offer a calibrated time series of the most dramatic adaptive radiations of vertebrate trophic morphology yet described, and the replicate nature of these events provides a unique opportunity to...

Genome Sequence of Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 and Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis with Other Cronobacter Species

Background The genus Cronobacter (formerly called Enterobacter sakazakii) is composed of five species; C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis, C. muytjensii, and C. dublinensis. The genus includes opportunistic human pathogens, and the first three species have been associated with neonatal infections. The most severe diseases are caused in neonates and include fatal...

Damage of Guinea Pig Heart and Arteries by a Trioleate-Enriched Diet and of Cultured Cardiomyocytes by Oleic Acid

Background Mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) like oleic acid have been shown to cause apoptosis of cultured endothelial cells by activating protein phosphatase type 2C α and β (PP2C). The question arises whether damage of endothelial or other cells could be observed in intact animals fed with a trioleate-enriched diet. Methodology/Principal Findings Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs...

Identifying Unexpected Therapeutic Targets via Chemical-Protein Interactome

Drug medications inevitably affect not only their intended protein targets but also other proteins as well. In this study we examined the hypothesis that drugs that share the same therapeutic effect also share a common therapeutic mechanism by targeting not only known drug targets, but also by interacting unexpectedly on the same cryptic targets. By constructing and mining an...

Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the...

Shigella Mediated Depletion of Macrophages in a Murine Breast Cancer Model Is Associated with Tumor Regression

A tumor promoting role of macrophages has been described for a transgenic murine breast cancer model. In this model tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent a major component of the leukocytic infiltrate and are associated with tumor progression. Shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen known to specificly induce apotosis in macrophages. To evaluate whether Shigella-induced...

Transcriptional Regulation of VEGF-A by the Unfolded Protein Response Pathway

Background Angiogenesis is crucial to many physiological and pathological processes including development and cancer cell survival. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) is the predominant mediator of angiogenesis in the VEGF family. During development, adverse environmental conditions like nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and increased protein secretion occur. IRE1α, PERK...

Silencing of Ribosomal Protein S9 Elicits a Multitude of Cellular Responses Inhibiting the Growth of Cancer Cells Subsequent to p53 Activation

Background Disruption of the nucleolus often leads to activation of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway through inhibition of MDM2 that is mediated by a limited set of ribosomal proteins including RPL11 and RPL5. The effects of ribosomal protein loss in cultured mammalian cells have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we characterize the cellular stress response caused by...