PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,403)

Different Thymosin Beta 4 Immunoreactivity in Foetal and Adult Gastrointestinal Tract

Background Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a member of beta-thymosins, a family of peptides that play essential roles in many cellular functions. A recent study from our group suggested a role for Tβ4 in the development of human salivary glands. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of Tβ4 in the human gut during development, and in the adult. Methodology/Principal...

Sex Determining Region Y-Box 2 (SOX2) Is a Potential Cell-Lineage Gene Highly Expressed in the Pathogenesis of Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Lung

Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the majority (85%) of lung cancers and is comprised mainly of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). The sequential pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinomas and SCCs occurs through dissimilar phases as the former tumors typically arise in the lung periphery whereas the latter normally arise near the central airway...

Insertion of Tetracysteine Motifs into Dopamine Transporter Extracellular Domains

The neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT) is a major determinant of extracellular dopamine (DA) levels and is the primary target for a variety of addictive and therapeutic psychoactive drugs. DAT is acutely regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation and amphetamine exposure, both of which modulate DAT surface expression by endocytic trafficking. In order to use live imaging...

Functional Overlap between eIF4G Isoforms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Initiation factor eIF4G is a key regulator of eukaryotic protein synthesis, recognizing proteins bound at both ends of an mRNA to help recruit messages to the small (40S) ribosomal subunit. Notably, the genomes of a wide variety of eukaryotes encode multiple distinct variants of eIF4G. We found that deletion of eIF4G1, but not eIF4G2, impairs growth and global translation...

Same-Sex Gaze Attraction Influences Mate-Choice Copying in Humans

Mate-choice copying occurs when animals rely on the mating choices of others to inform their own mating decisions. The proximate mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying remain unknown. To address this question, we tracked the gaze of men and women as they viewed a series of photographs in which a potential mate was pictured beside an opposite-sex partner; the participants then...

Individual Variation in Pheromone Response Correlates with Reproductive Traits and Brain Gene Expression in Worker Honey Bees

Background Variation in individual behavior within social groups can affect the fitness of the group as well as the individual, and can be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the molecular factors associated with individual variation in social behavior remain relatively unexplored. We used honey bees (Apis mellifera) as a model to examine...

Maternal Investment Influences Expression of Resource Polymorphism in Amphibians: Implications for the Evolution of Novel Resource-Use Phenotypes

Maternal effects—where an individual's phenotype is influenced by the phenotype or environment of its mother—are taxonomically and ecologically widespread. Yet, their role in the origin of novel, complex traits remains unclear. Here we investigate the role of maternal effects in influencing the induction of a novel resource-use phenotype. Spadefoot toad tadpoles, Spea...

Negative Feedback Regulation of Wnt4 Signaling by EAF1 and EAF2/U19

Previous studies indicated that EAF (ELL-associated factor) family members, EAF1 and EAF2/U19, play a role in cancer and embryogenesis. For example, EAF2/U19 may serve as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. At the same time, EAF2/U19 is a downstream factor in the non-canonical Wnt 4 signaling pathway required for eye development in Xenopus laevis, and along with EAF1...

Intravaginal Practices, Vaginal Infections and HIV Acquisition: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background Intravaginal practices are commonly used by women to manage their vaginal health and sexual life. These practices could, however, affect intravaginal mucosal integrity. The objectives of this study were to examine evidence for associations between: intravaginal practices and acquisition of HIV infection; intravaginal practices and vaginal infections; and vaginal...

Is the Relationship between Body Size and Trophic Niche Position Time-Invariant in a Predatory Fish? First Stable Isotope Evidence

Characterizing relationships between individual body size and trophic niche position is essential for understanding how population and food-web dynamics are mediated by size-dependent trophic interactions. However, whether (and how) intraspecific size-trophic relationships (i.e., trophic ontogeny pattern at the population level) vary with time remains poorly understood. Using...

Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Murine Embryonic and Postnatal Cortical Neural Progenitors

Background The central nervous system (CNS) develops from a heterogeneous pool of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPC), the underlying differences among which are poorly understood. The study of NSPC would be greatly facilitated by the identification of additional proteins that mediate their function and that would distinguish amongst different progenitor populations...

Comparison of Breast Cancer to Healthy Control Tissue Discovers Novel Markers with Potential for Prognosis and Early Detection

This study was initiated to identify biomarkers with potential value for the early detection of poor-outcome breast cancer. Two sets of well-characterized tissues were utilized: one from breast cancer patients with favorable vs. poor outcome and the other from healthy women undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Over 46 differentially expressed genes were identified from a large list...

Frontal White Matter Volume Is Associated with Brain Enlargement and Higher Structural Connectivity in Anthropoid Primates

Previous research has indicated the importance of the frontal lobe and its ‘executive’ connections to other brain structures as crucial in explaining primate neocortical adaptations. However, a representative sample of volumetric measurements of frontal connective tissue (white matter) has not been available. In this study, we present new volumetric measurements of white and grey...

Microsatellite Typing of Clinical and Environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii Isolates from Cuba Shows Multiple Genetic Lineages

Background Human cryptococcal infections have been associated with bird droppings as a likely source of infection. Studies toward the local and global epidemiology of Cryptococcus spp. have been hampered by the lack of rapid, discriminatory, and exchangeable molecular typing methods. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected nine microsatellite markers for high-resolution...

The Induction of Colitis and Ileitis in Mice Is Associated with Marked Increases in Intestinal Concentrations of Stimulants of TLRs 2, 4, and 5

Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) appear to be modulated by the interaction of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) derived from intestinal bacteria with their respective innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We aimed to establish if intestinal concentrations of proinflammatory bacterial ligands of TLR2, TLR4, or TLR5 may be altered...

High Prevalence of Both Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Zaire ebolavirus among Rural Populations in Gabon

To better understand Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) circulation and transmission to humans, we conducted a large serological survey of rural populations in Gabon, a country characterized by both epidemic and non epidemic regions. The survey lasted three years and covered 4,349 individuals from 220 randomly selected villages, representing 10.7% of all villages in Gabon. Using a...

Role of the gerP Operon in Germination and Outgrowth of Bacillus anthracis Spores

Germination of Bacillus anthracis spores occurs when nutrients such as amino acids or purine nucleosides stimulate specific germinant receptors located in the spore inner membrane. The gerPABCDEF operon has been suggested to play a role in facilitating the interaction between germinants and their receptors in spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. B. anthracis mutants...

High Nucleosome Occupancy Is Encoded at Human Regulatory Sequences

Active eukaryotic regulatory sites are characterized by open chromatin, and yeast promoters and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) typically have low intrinsic nucleosome occupancy. Here, we show that in contrast to yeast, DNA at human promoters, enhancers, and TFBSs generally encodes high intrinsic nucleosome occupancy. In most cases we examined, these elements also have...

Membrane Protein Biogenesis in Ffh- or FtsY-Depleted Escherichia coli

Background The Escherichia coli version of the mammalian signal recognition particle (SRP) system is required for biogenesis of membrane proteins and contains two essential proteins: the SRP subunit Ffh and the SRP-receptor FtsY. Scattered in vivo studies have raised the possibility that expression of membrane proteins is inhibited in cells depleted of FtsY, whereas Ffh-depletion...

Visual Search for Human Gaze Direction by a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

Background Humans detect faces with direct gazes among those with averted gazes more efficiently than they detect faces with averted gazes among those with direct gazes. We examined whether this “stare-in-the-crowd” effect occurs in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), whose eye morphology differs from that of humans (i.e., low-contrast eyes, dark sclera). Methodology/Principal...

Telomere Shortening Sensitizes Cancer Cells to Selected Cytotoxic Agents: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and Putative Mechanisms

Background Telomere/telomerase system has been recently recognized as an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Telomerase inhibition results in tumor regression and increased sensitivity to various cytotoxic drugs. However, it has not been fully established yet whether the mediator of these effects is telomerase inhibition per se or telomere shortening resulting from...

Sensory Regulation of Neuroligins and Neurexin I in the Honeybee Brain

Background Neurexins and neuroligins, which have recently been associated with neurological disorders such as autism in humans, are highly conserved adhesive proteins found on synaptic membranes of neurons. These binding partners produce a trans-synaptic bridge that facilitates maturation and specification of synapses. It is believed that there exists an optimal spatio-temporal...

Phenylbutyric Acid Rescues Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Suppression of APP Proteolysis and Prevents Apoptosis in Neuronal Cells

Background The familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have an identical pathology with a severe disparity in the time of onset [1]. The pathological similarity suggests that epigenetic processes may phenocopy the Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations within sporadic AD. Numerous groups have demonstrated that FAD mutations in presenilin result in ‘loss of...

Causal Relationship of Susceptibility Genes to Ischemic Stroke: Comparison to Ischemic Heart Disease and Biochemical Determinants

Interrelationships between genetic and biochemical factors underlying ischemic stroke and ischemic heart disease are poorly understood. We: 1) undertook the most comprehensive meta-analysis of genetic polymorphisms in ischemic stroke to date; 2) compared genetic determinants of ischemic stroke with those of ischemic heart disease, and 3) compared effect sizes of gene-stroke...

ENU Mutagenesis Reveals a Novel Phenotype of Reduced Limb Strength in Mice Lacking Fibrillin 2

Background Fibrillins 1 (FBN1) and 2 (FBN2) are components of microfibrils, microfilaments that are present in many connective tissues, either alone or in association with elastin. Marfan's syndrome and congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) result from dominant mutations in the genes FBN1 and FBN2 respectively. Patients with both conditions often present with specific...