PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,503)

Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer in Cell Culture and Nude Mice Models via the E2F Pathway

Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid progression and low survival rates. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this disease. Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli peppers, displays anti-proliferative activity in prostate and epidermoid cancer in vitro. However, the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin has not been...

Do Decapod Crustaceans Have Nociceptors for Extreme pH?

Background Nociception is the physiological detection of noxious stimuli. Because of its obvious importance, nociception is expected to be widespread across animal taxa and to trigger robust behaviours reliably. Nociception in invertebrates, such as crustaceans, is poorly studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Three decapod crustacean species were tested for nociceptive...

Evaluation of the Psoriasis Transcriptome across Different Studies by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA)

Background Our objective was to develop a consistent molecular definition of psoriasis. There have been several published microarray studies of psoriasis, and we compared disease-related genes identified across these different studies of psoriasis with our own in order to establish a consensus. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a psoriasis transcriptome from a group of 15...

Drosophila SAF-B Links the Nuclear Matrix, Chromosomes, and Transcriptional Activity

Induction of gene expression is correlated with alterations in nuclear organization, including proximity to other active genes, to the nuclear cortex, and to cytologically distinct domains of the nucleus. Chromosomes are tethered to the insoluble nuclear scaffold/matrix through interaction with Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Region (SAR/MAR) binding proteins. Identification and...

Murine Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation Induces Type I Interferon Responses from Endolysosomal Compartments

Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are among the first-line sentinels for immune detection and responsiveness to pathogens. The TLR2 subfamily of TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR6) form heterodimers with each other and are thus able to recognize a broad range of components from several microbes such as yeast, Gram-positive bacteria and protozoa. Until now, TLR2 activation by bacterial...

Fidelity of Target Site Duplication and Sequence Preference during Integration of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus

Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) is a new human retrovirus associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. The causal relationship of XMRV infection to human disease and the mechanism of pathogenicity have not been established. During retrovirus replication, integration of the cDNA copy of the viral RNA genome into the host cell chromosome...

Postural Adaptation of the Spatial Reference Frames to Microgravity: Back to the Egocentric Reference Frame

Background In order to test how gravitational information would affect the choice of stable reference frame used to control posture and voluntary movement, we have analysed the forearm stabilisation during sit to stand movement under microgravity condition obtained during parabolic flights. In this study, we hypothesised that in response to the transient loss of graviceptive...

Phosphorylation of AATYK1 by Cdk5 Suppresses Its Tyrosine Phosphorylation

Apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase 1 (AATYK1), a novel serine/threonine kinase that is highly expressed in the brain, is involved in neurite extension and apoptosis of cerebellar granule neurons; however, its precise function remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the interaction of AATYK1A with Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5)/p35, a proline-directed protein kinase...

Optimized Expression of Full-Length IgG1 Antibody in a Common E. coli Strain

Multi-polypeptide proteins such as antibodies are difficult to express in prokaryotic systems such as E. coli due to the complexity of protein folding plus secretion. Thus far, proprietary strains or fermenter cultures have been required for appreciable yields. Previous studies have shown that expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli can be enhanced by the reduction of...

Clinical Reasoning in the Real World Is Mediated by Bounded Rationality: Implications for Diagnostic Clinical Practice Guidelines

Background Little is known about the reasoning mechanisms used by physicians in decision-making and how this compares to diagnostic clinical practice guidelines. We explored the clinical reasoning process in a real life environment. Method This is a qualitative study evaluating transcriptions of sixteen physicians' reasoning during appointments with patients, clinical discussions...

LIM and SH3 Protein -1 Modulates CXCR2-Mediated Cell Migration

Background The chemokine receptor CXCR2 plays a pivotal role in migration of neutrophils, macrophages and endothelial cells, modulating several biological responses such as angiogenesis, wound healing and acute inflammation. CXCR2 is also involved in pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, sepsis and atherosclerosis. The ability of CXCR2 to associate with a variety of proteins...

Selective Estrogen Receptor Down-Regulator and Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Differentially Regulate Lactotroph Proliferation

Background We recently reported that estrogen receptor α (ERα), even in absence of estrogen (E2), plays a critical role in lactotroph homeostasis. The anti-estrogen ICI 182780 (ICI), but not tamoxifen or raloxifene, rapidly promoted the degradation of ERα, and inhibited cell proliferation. However, all three ER antagonists suppressed PRL release, suggesting that receptor...

Comparative Genomics of Flowering Time Pathways Using Brachypodium distachyon as a Model for the Temperate Grasses

Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is a model for the temperate grasses which include important cereals such as barley, wheat and oats. Comparison of the Brachypodium genome (accession Bd21) with those of the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana and the tropical cereal rice (Oryza sativa) provides an opportunity to compare and contrast genetic pathways controlling important...

Using a Mathematical Model to Analyze the Role of Probiotics and Inflammation in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Background Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe disease of the gastrointestinal tract of pre-term babies and is thought to be related to the physiological immaturity of the intestine and altered levels of normal flora in the gut. Understanding the factors that contribute to the pathology of NEC may lead to the development of treatment strategies aimed at re-establishing...

Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors Increase Herceptin Transport and Treatment Efficacy in Mouse Metastatic Brain Tumor Models

Background Chemotherapeutic drugs and newly developed therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are adequately delivered to most solid and systemic tumors. However, drug delivery into primary brain tumors and metastases is impeded by the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB), significantly limiting drug use in brain cancer treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effect of...

Laminin and Fibronectin Treatment Leads to Generation of Dendritic Cells with Superior Endocytic Capacity

Background Sampling the microenvironment at sites of microbial exposure by dendritic cells (DC) and their subsequent interaction with T cells in the paracortical area of lymph nodes are key events for initiating immune responses. Most of our knowledge of such events in human is based on in vitro studies performed in the absence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. ECM in...

A Local Role for the Small Ribosomal Subunit Primary Binder rpS5 in Final 18S rRNA Processing in Yeast

In vivo depletion of the yeast small ribosomal subunit (SSU) protein S5 (rpS5) leads to nuclear degradation of nascent SSUs and to a perturbed global assembly state of the SSU head domain. Here, we report that rpS5 plays an additional local role at the head/platform interface in efficient SSU maturation. We find that yeast small ribosomal subunits which incorporated an rpS5...

Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis Identifies Up-Regulation of TGFBI and SOX4 in Human Glioblastoma

Background A comprehensive network-based understanding of molecular pathways abnormally altered in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is essential for developing effective therapeutic approaches for this deadly disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Applying a next generation sequencing technology, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS), we identified a total of 4535 genes...

Inactivation of DNA-Binding Response Regulator Sak189 Abrogates β-Antigen Expression and Affects Virulence of Streptococcus agalactiae

Background Streptococcus agalactiae is able to colonize numerous tissues employing different mechanisms of gene regulation, particularly via two-component regulatory systems. These systems sense the environmental stimuli and regulate expression of the genes including virulence genes. Recently, the novel two-component regulatory system Sak188/Sak189 was identified. In S...

Dissociating the Neural Correlates of Intra-Item and Inter-Item Working-Memory Binding

Background Integration of information streams into a unitary representation is an important task of our cognitive system. Within working memory, the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has been conceptually linked to the maintenance of bound representations. In a previous fMRI study, we have shown that the MTL is indeed more active during working-memory maintenance of spatial associations...

Glandular Epithelium as a Possible Source of a Fertility Signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens

The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to...

Assessment of the N-PCR Assay in Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis: Detection of M.tuberculosis in Pleural Fluid and Sputum Collected in Tandem

Background The nonspecific clinical presentation and paucibacillary nature of tuberculous pleuritis remains a challenge for diagnosis. Diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion depends on the demonstration of the presence of tubercle bacilli in the sputum, pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimen, or demonstration of granuloma in pleura by histological examination. We examined...

Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Rotavirus Molecular Signatures Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

Human enteric virus infections range from gastroenteritis to life threatening diseases such as myocarditis and aseptic meningitis. Rotavirus is one of the most common enteric agents and mortality associated with infection can be very significant in developing countries. Most enteric viruses produce diseases that are not distinct from other pathogens, and current diagnostics is...

Comparative Genome Analysis Provides Insights into the Evolution and Adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum

A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem...

Improved Microarray-Based Decision Support with Graph Encoded Interactome Data

In the past, microarray studies have been criticized due to noise and the limited overlap between gene signatures. Prior biological knowledge should therefore be incorporated as side information in models based on gene expression data to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis in cancer. As prior knowledge, we investigated interaction and pathway information from the...