PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 190,299)

Disassembly of Shank and Homer Synaptic Clusters Is Driven by Soluble β-Amyloid1-40 through Divergent NMDAR-Dependent Signalling Pathways

Disruption of the postsynaptic density (PSD), a network of scaffold proteins located in dendritic spines, is thought to be responsible for synaptic dysfunction and loss in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Extending our previous demonstration that derangement of the PSD by soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) involves proteasomal degradation of PSD-95, a protein important for ionotropic ...

Human Telomere Length Correlates to the Size of the Associated Chromosome Arm

The majority of human telomere length studies have focused on the overall length of telomeres within a cell. In fact, very few studies have examined telomere length for individual chromosome arms. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between chromosome arm size and the relative length of the associated telomere. Quantitative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization ...

Alpha-Helical Protein Networks Are Self-Protective and Flaw-Tolerant

Alpha-helix based protein networks as they appear in intermediate filaments in the cell’s cytoskeleton and the nuclear membrane robustly withstand large deformation of up to several hundred percent strain, despite the presence of structural imperfections or flaws. This performance is not achieved by most synthetic materials, which typically fail at much smaller deformation and show ...

Increased Sensitivity to Thermal Pain Following a Single Opiate Dose Is Influenced by the COMT val158met Polymorphism

Increased pain sensitivity after opioid administration (opioid-induced hyperalgesia) and/or repeated painful stimuli is an individually varying and clinically important phenomenon. The functional polymorphism (val158met) of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene regulates the metabolism of dopamine/noradrenaline. Individuals homozygous for the met158 allele have been reported ...

Expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa CupD Fimbrial Genes Is Antagonistically Controlled by RcsB and the EAL-Containing PvrR Response Regulators

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium with a high adaptive potential that allows proliferation in a broad range of hosts or niches. It is also the causative agent of both acute and chronic biofilm-related infections in humans. Three cup gene clusters (cupA-C), involved in the assembly of cell surface fimbriae, have been shown to be involved in biofilm ...

Chlamydia pneumoniae Hides inside Apoptotic Neutrophils to Silently Infect and Propagate in Macrophages

Background Intracellular pathogens have developed elaborate strategies for silent infection of preferred host cells. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common pathogen in acute infections of the respiratory tract (e.g. pneumonia) and associated with chronic lung sequelae in adults and children. Within the lung, alveolar macrophages and polymorph nuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first line ...

Long-Term Potentiation in Isolated Dendritic Spines

Background In brain, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) activation can induce long-lasting changes in synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR) levels. These changes are believed to underlie the expression of several forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP). Such plasticity is generally believed to ...

Individual Differences in Personality Predict How People Look at Faces

Background Determining the ways in which personality traits interact with contextual determinants to shape social behavior remains an important area of empirical investigation. The specific personality trait of neuroticism has been related to characteristic negative emotionality and associated with heightened attention to negative, emotionally arousing environmental signals. ...

Antigen-Presenting Cells Represent Targets for R5 HIV-1 Infection in the First Trimester Pregnancy Uterine Mucosa

Background During the first trimester of pregnancy, HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission is relatively rare despite the permissivity of placental cells to cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection. The placenta interacts directly with maternal uterine cells (decidual cells) but the physiological role of the decidua in the control of HIV-1 transmission and whether decidua could be a source of ...

Mapping Insertions, Deletions and SNPs on Venter's Chromosomes

Background The very recent availability of fully sequenced individual human genomes is a major revolution in biology which is certainly going to provide new insights into genetic diseases and genomic rearrangements. Results We mapped the insertions, deletions and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) that are present in Craig Venter's genome, more precisely on chromosomes 17 to ...

Streptococcus suis, an Important Cause of Adult Bacterial Meningitis in Northern Vietnam

Background Streptococcus suis can cause severe systemic infection in adults exposed to infected pigs or after consumption of undercooked pig products. S. suis is often misdiagnosed, due to lack of awareness and improper testing. Here we report the first fifty cases diagnosed with S. suis infection in northern Viet Nam. Methodology/Principal Findings In 2007, diagnostics for S. suis ...

Natural Triterpenic Diols Promote Apoptosis in Astrocytoma Cells through ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Depolarization and JNK Activation

Background Triterpene alcohols and acids are multifunctional compounds widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom that exhibit a variety of beneficial health properties, being synthetic analogs of oleanolic acid under clinical evaluation as anti-tumoral therapeutic agents. However, the antineoplastic activity of two natural occuring triterpenoid alcohols extracted from olive ...

Cytoplasmic Continuity Revisited: Closure of Septa of the Filamentous Fungus Schizophyllum commune in Response to Environmental Conditions

Background Mycelia of higher fungi consist of interconnected hyphae that are compartmentalized by septa. These septa contain large pores that allow streaming of cytoplasm and even organelles. The cytoplasm of such mycelia is therefore considered to be continuous. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show by laser dissection that septa of Schizophyllum commune can be closed ...

Increased Frequency and Compromised Function of T Regulatory Cells in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) Is Related to a Diminished CD69 and TGFβ Expression

Background Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential in the control of tolerance. Evidence implicates Tregs in human autoimmune conditions. Here we investigated their role in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods/Principal Findings Patients were subdivided as having limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc, n = 20) or diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc, n = 48). Further subdivision was made between early ...

Toll-Like Receptor Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Urinary Tract Infections in Adult Women

Background Although behavioral risk factors are strongly associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) risk, the role of genetics in acquiring this disease is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway genes are associated with susceptibility to UTIs, we conducted a population-based case-control ...

Differential Responses of Human Regulatory T Cells (Treg) and Effector T Cells to Rapamycin

Background The immunosuppressive drug rapamycin (RAPA) promotes the expansion of CD4+ CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells via mechanisms that remain unknown. Here, we studied expansion, IL-2R-γ chain signaling, survival pathways and resistance to apoptosis in human Treg responding to RAPA. Methodology/Principal Findings CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25neg T cells were isolated from PBMC of ...

Cholinergic Pairing with Visual Activation Results in Long-Term Enhancement of Visual Evoked Potentials

Acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to learning processes by modulating cortical plasticity in terms of intensity of neuronal activity and selectivity properties of cortical neurons. However, it is not known if ACh induces long term effects within the primary visual cortex (V1) that could sustain visual learning mechanisms. In the present study we analyzed visual evoked potentials ...

Induction of Antibody Responses to African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) in Ponies after Vaccination with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)

Background African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious disease in equids, with mortality rates that can exceed 90% in susceptible horse populations. AHSV vaccines play a crucial role in the control of the disease; however, there are concerns over the use of polyvalent live attenuated vaccines particularly in areas where AHSV is not endemic. Therefore, it ...

Motor Learning Characterized by Changing Lévy Distributions

The probability distributions for changes in transverse plane fingertip speed are Lévy distributed in human pole balancing. Six subjects learned to balance a pole on their index finger over three sessions while sitting and standing. The Lévy or decay exponent decreased as a function of learning, showing reduced decay in the probability for large speed steps and was significantly ...

Linking HIV-Infected TB Patients to Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis and Antiretroviral Treatment in India

Background HIV-infected persons suffering from tuberculosis experience high mortality. No programmatic studies from India have documented the delivery of mortality-reducing interventions, such as cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) and antiretroviral treatment (ART). To guide TB-HIV policy in India we studied the effectiveness of delivering CPT and ART to HIV-infected ...

Genotyping and Phylogenetic Analysis of Yersinia pestis by MLVA: Insights into the Worldwide Expansion of Central Asia Plague Foci

Background The species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical) non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides) including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the ...

Non Mycobacterial Virulence Genes in the Genome of the Emerging Pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus

Mycobacterium abscessus is an emerging rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) causing a pseudotuberculous lung disease to which patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are particularly susceptible. We report here its complete genome sequence. The genome of M. abscessus (CIP 104536T) consists of a 5,067,172-bp circular chromosome including 4920 predicted coding sequences (CDS), an 81-kb ...

Immune Regulatory Neural Stem/Precursor Cells Protect from Central Nervous System Autoimmunity by Restraining Dendritic Cell Function

Background The systemic injection of neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) provides remarkable amelioration of the clinico-pathological features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This is dependent on the capacity of transplanted NPCs to engage concurrent mechanisms of action within specific microenvironments in vivo. Among a wide range of therapeutic actions ...

Tissue-Specific B-Cell Dysfunction and Generalized Memory B-Cell Loss during Acute SIV Infection

Background Primary HIV-infected patients display severe and irreversible damage to different blood B-cell subsets which is not restored by highly efficient anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Because longitudinal investigations of primary HIV-infection is limited by the availability of lymphoid organs, we studied the tissue-specific B-cell dysfunctions in acutely simian ...

Plk1-Dependent Recruitment of γ-Tubulin Complexes to Mitotic Centrosomes Involves Multiple PCM Components

The nucleation of microtubules requires protein complexes containing γ-tubulin, which are present in the cytoplasm and associate with the centrosome and with the mitotic spindle. We have previously shown that these interactions require the γ-tubulin targeting factor GCP-WD/NEDD1, which has an essential role in spindle formation. The recruitment of additional γ-tubulin to the ...