PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,480)

Vaccination of Mice with Salmonella Expressing VapA: Mucosal and Systemic Th1 Responses Provide Protection against Rhodococcus equi Infection

Conventional vaccines to prevent the pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi have not been successful. We have recently demonstrated that immunization with Salmonella enterica Typhimurium expressing the VapA antigen protects mice against R. equi infection. We now report that oral vaccination of mice with this recombinant strain results in high and persistent fecal levels of antigen...

iNKT Cells Control Mouse Spontaneous Carcinoma Independently of Tumor-Specific Cytotoxic T Cells

Background CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes endowed with innate effector functions that aid in the establishment of adaptive T and B cell immune responses. iNKT cells have been shown to play a spontaneous protective role against experimental tumors. Yet, the interplay between iNKT and tumor-specific T cells in cancer immune surveillance...

A Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Hot Spot Mutation in Dystrophin-Deficient Cavalier King Charles Spaniels Is Amenable to Exon 51 Skipping

Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which afflicts 1 in 3500 boys, is one of the most common genetic disorders of children. This fatal degenerative condition is caused by an absence or deficiency of dystrophin in striated muscle. Most affected patients have inherited or spontaneous deletions in the dystrophin gene that disrupt the reading frame resulting in unstable...

Localisation and Mislocalisation of the Interferon-Inducible Immunity-Related GTPase, Irgm1 (LRG-47) in Mouse Cells

Irgm1 (LRG-47) is an interferon-inducible Golgi membrane associated GTPase of the mouse whose disruption causes susceptibility to many different intracellular pathogens. Irgm1 has been variously interpreted as a regulator of homologous effector GTPases of the IRG family, a regulator of phagosome maturation and as an initiator of autophagy in interferon-induced cells. We find that...

Cdk4 Regulates Recruitment of Quiescent β-Cells and Ductal Epithelial Progenitors to Reconstitute β-Cell Mass

Insulin-producing pancreatic islet β cells (β-cells) are destroyed, severely depleted or functionally impaired in diabetes. Therefore, replacing functional β-cell mass would advance clinical diabetes management. We have previously demonstrated the importance of Cdk4 in regulating β-cell mass. Cdk4-deficient mice display β-cell hypoplasia and develop diabetes, whereas β-cell...

Sequence and Structural Analysis of the Chitinase Insertion Domain Reveals Two Conserved Motifs Involved in Chitin-Binding

Background Chitinases are prevalent in life and are found in species including archaea, bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They break down chitin, which is the second most abundant carbohydrate in nature after cellulose. Hence, they are important for maintaining a balance between carbon and nitrogen trapped as insoluble chitin in biomass. Chitinases are classified into two...

Mathematical Philology: Entropy Information in Refining Classical Texts' Reconstruction, and Early Philologists' Anticipation of Information Theory

Philologists reconstructing ancient texts from variously miscopied manuscripts anticipated information theorists by centuries in conceptualizing information in terms of probability. An example is the editorial principle difficilior lectio potior (DLP): in choosing between otherwise acceptable alternative wordings in different manuscripts, “the more difficult reading [is...

Evolution in Quantum Leaps: Multiple Combinatorial Transfers of HPI and Other Genetic Modules in Enterobacteriaceae

Horizontal gene transfer is a key step in the evolution of Enterobacteriaceae. By acquiring virulence determinants of foreign origin, commensals can evolve into pathogens. In Enterobacteriaceae, horizontal transfer of these virulence determinants is largely dependent on transfer by plasmids, phages, genomic islands (GIs) and genomic modules (GMs). The High Pathogenicity Island...

Failure of Interferon γ to Induce the Anti-Inflammatory Interleukin 18 Binding Protein in Familial Hemophagocytosis

Background Familial hemophagocytosis (FHL) is a rare disease associated with defects in proteins involved in CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity. Hyperactivation of immune cells results in a perilous, Th1-driven cytokine storm. We set out to explore the regulation of cytokines in an FHL patient who was clinically stable on low-dose immunosuppressive therapy after bone marrow transplantation...

Promoter Recognition by a Complex of Spx and the C-Terminal Domain of the RNA Polymerase α Subunit

Background Spx, an ArsC (arsenate reductase) family member, is a global transcriptional regulator of the microbial stress response and is highly conserved amongst Gram-positive bacteria. Bacillus subtilis Spx protein exerts positive and negative control of transcription through its interaction with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) α subunit (αCTD). Spx activates...

Multi-Platform Whole-Genome Microarray Analyses Refine the Epigenetic Signature of Breast Cancer Metastasis with Gene Expression and Copy Number

Background We have previously identified genome-wide DNA methylation changes in a cell line model of breast cancer metastasis. These complex epigenetic changes that we observed, along with concurrent karyotype analyses, have led us to hypothesize that complex genomic alterations in cancer cells (deletions, translocations and ploidy) are superimposed over promoter-specific...

Degraded Carrageenan Causing Colitis in Rats Induces TNF Secretion and ICAM-1 Upregulation in Monocytes through NF-κB Activation

Carrageenan (CGN) is a high molecular weight sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweeds. In rodents, its degraded forms (dCGN) can induce intestinal inflammation associated with macrophage recruitment and activation. The aim of this study was: 1) to analyze the size-dependent effects of dCGN on colon inflammation in vivo, and 2) to correlate these effects with monocyte...

Common Genetic Variants and Risk for HPV Persistence and Progression to Cervical Cancer

HPV infrequently persists and progresses to cervical cancer. We examined host genetic factors hypothesized to play a role in determining which subset of individuals infected with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) have persistent infection and further develop cervical pre-cancer/cancer compared to the majority of infected individuals who will clear infection. We evaluated 7140...

The Identification of Markers of Macrophage Differentiation in PMA-Stimulated THP-1 Cells and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

Differentiated macrophages are the resident tissue phagocytes and sentinel cells of the innate immune response. The phenotype of mature tissue macrophages represents the composite of environmental and differentiation-dependent imprinting. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) are stimuli commonly used to induce macrophage differentiation in...

Patterns of Urban Violent Injury: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis

Objectives Injury related to violent acts is a problem in every society. Although some authors have examined the geography of violent crime, few have focused on the spatio-temporal patterns of violent injury and none have used an ambulance dataset to explore the spatial characteristics of injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the combined spatial and temporal...

Mitochondrial Localization of Vitamin D Receptor in Human Platelets and Differentiated Megakaryocytes

Background Like other steroid hormones, vitamin D elicits both transcriptional events and rapid non genomic effects. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) localization and mechanisms of VDR-triggered non genomic responses are still controversial. Although anticoagulant effects of vitamin D have been reported and VDR signalling has been characterized in monocytes and vascular cells, nothing is...

The p38 MAPK Regulates IL-24 Expression by Stabilization of the 3′ UTR of IL-24 mRNA

Background IL-24 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (mda-7)), a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, possesses the properties of a classical cytokine as well as tumor suppressor effects. The exact role of IL-24 in the immune system has not been defined but studies have indicated a role for IL-24 in inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis. The tumor suppressor effects...

Critical Structural and Functional Roles for the N-Terminal Insertion Sequence in Surfactant Protein B Analogs

Background Surfactant protein B (SP-B; 79 residues) belongs to the saposin protein superfamily, and plays functional roles in lung surfactant. The disulfide cross-linked, N- and C-terminal domains of SP-B have been theoretically predicted to fold as charged, amphipathic helices, suggesting their participation in surfactant activities. Earlier structural studies with Mini-B, a...

Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06

Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical widely used in food and drinks packaging. Associations have previously been reported between urinary BPA concentrations and heart disease, diabetes and liver enzymes in adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003/04. We aimed to estimate associations between urinary BPA...

Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Is Expressed in Peptidergic and Nonpeptidergic Nociceptive Neurons of Mice and Rats

Thiamine monophosphatase (TMPase, also known as Fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase or FRAP) is a classic histochemical marker of small- to medium-diameter dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and has primarily been studied in the rat. Previously, we found that TMPase was molecularly identical to Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) using mice. In addition, PAP was expressed in a...

A Novel TCR Transgenic Model Reveals That Negative Selection Involves an Immediate, Bim-Dependent Pathway and a Delayed, Bim-Independent Pathway

A complete understanding of negative selection has been elusive due to the rapid apoptosis and clearance of thymocytes in vivo. We report a TCR transgenic model in which expression of the TCR during differentiation occurs only after V(D)J-like recombination. TCR expression from this transgene closely mimics expression of the endogenous TCRα locus allowing for development that is...

Identification of Two Critically Deleted Regions within Chromosome Segment 7q35-q36 in EVI1 Deregulated Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

Chromosomal rearrangements involving the EVI1 proto-oncogene are a recurrent finding in myeloid leukemias and are indicative of a poor prognosis. Rearrangements of the EVI1 locus are often associated with monosomy 7 or cytogenetic detectable deletions of part of 7q. As EVI1 overexpression alone is not sufficient to induce leukemia, loss of a 7q tumour suppressor gene might be a...

Two Regulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Play Important Roles in Enterotoxicity by Controlling the Expression of Genes in the Vp-PAI Region

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important pathogen causing food-borne disease worldwide. An 80-kb pathogenicity island (Vp-PAI), which contains two tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin) genes and a set of genes for the type III secretion system (T3SS2), is closely related to the pathogenicity of this bacterium. However, the regulatory mechanisms of Vp-PAI's gene expression are poorly...

Growth Rate Consequences of Coloniality in a Harmful Phytoplankter

Background Allometric studies have shown that individual growth rate is inversely related to body size across a broad spectrum of organisms that vary greatly in size. Fewer studies have documented such patterns within species. No data exist directly documenting the influence of colony size on growth rate for microscopic, colonial organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings To...

Structural and Mutational Analysis of Escherichia coli AlkB Provides Insight into Substrate Specificity and DNA Damage Searching

Background In Escherichia coli, cytotoxic DNA methyl lesions on the N1 position of purines and N3 position of pyrimidines are primarily repaired by the 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) iron(II) dependent dioxygenase, AlkB. AlkB repairs 1-methyladenine (1-meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC) lesions, but it also repairs 1-methylguanine (1-meG) and 3-methylthymine (3-meT) at a much less...