PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 186,248)

Coevolution of Male and Female Genital Morphology in Waterfowl

Most birds have simple genitalia; males lack external genitalia and females have simple vaginas. However, male waterfowl have a phallus whose length (1.5–>40 cm) and morphological elaborations vary among species and are positively correlated with the frequency of forced extra-pair copulations among waterfowl species. Here we report morphological complexity in female genital ...

Identification of the Endogenous Key Substrates of the Human Organic Cation Transporter OCT2 and Their Implication in Function of Dopaminergic Neurons

BackgroundThe etiology of neurodegenerative disorders, such as the accelerated loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease, is unclear. Current hypotheses suggest an abnormal function of the neuronal sodium-dependent dopamine transporter DAT to contribute to cell death in the dopaminergic system, but it has not been investigated whether sodium-independent amine transporters ...

Enriched Monolayer Precursor Cell Cultures from Micro-Dissected Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus Yield Functional Granule Cell-Like Neurons

BackgroundStem cell cultures are key tools of basic and applied research in Regenerative Medicine. In the adult mammalian brain, lifelong neurogenesis originating from local precursor cells occurs in the neurogenic regions of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Despite widespread interest in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the use of mouse models to study it, no protocol existed for ...

Self-Reactivities to the Non-Erythroid Alpha Spectrin Correlate with Cerebral Malaria in Gabonese Children

BackgroundHypergammaglobulinemia and polyclonal B-cell activation commonly occur in Plasmodium sp. infections. Some of the antibodies produced recognize self-components and are correlated with disease severity in P. falciparum malaria. However, it is not known whether some self-reactive antibodies produced during P. falciparum infection contribute to the events leading to cerebral ...

FAK-Mediated Mechanotransduction in Skeletal Regeneration

The majority of cells are equipped to detect and decipher physical stimuli, and then react to these stimuli in a cell type-specific manner. Ultimately, these cellular behaviors are synchronized to produce a tissue response, but how this is achieved remains enigmatic. Here, we investigated the genetic basis for mechanotransduction using the bone marrow as a model system. We found ...

Diversity of Raft-Like Domains in Late Endosomes

BackgroundLate endosomes, the last sorting station in the endocytic pathway before lysosomes, are pleiomorphic organelles composed of tubular elements as well as vesicular regions with a characteristic multivesicular appearance, which play a crucial role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we have investigated whether, in addition to these morphologically distinguishable regions, ...

Extracellular Sulfatases, Elements of the Wnt Signaling Pathway, Positively Regulate Growth and Tumorigenicity of Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells

BackgroundHeparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are control elements in Wnt signaling, which bind extracellularly to Wnt ligands and regulate their ability to interact with signal transduction receptors on the cell surface. Sulf-1 and Sulf-2 are novel extracellular sulfatases that act on internal glucosamine-6-sulfate (6S) modifications within HSPGs and thereby modulate HSPG ...

Modulation of CD4+ T Cell-Dependent Specific Cytotoxic CD8+ T Cells Differentiation and Proliferation by the Timing of Increase in the Pathogen Load

BackgroundFollowing infection with viruses, bacteria or protozoan parasites, naïve antigen-specific CD8+ T cells undergo a process of differentiation and proliferation to generate effector cells. Recent evidences suggest that the timing of generation of specific effector CD8+ T cells varies widely according to different pathogens. We hypothesized that the timing of increase in the ...

The Origin of Phenotypic Heterogeneity in a Clonal Cell Population In Vitro

BackgroundThe spontaneous emergence of phenotypic heterogeneity in clonal populations of mammalian cells in vitro is a rule rather than an exception. We consider two simple, mutually non-exclusive models that explain the generation of diverse cell types in a homogeneous population. In the first model, the phenotypic switch is the consequence of extrinsic factors. Initially ...

Magnetoreception System in Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) undergo iron biomineralization, providing the basis for magnetoreception. We showed earlier the presence of superparamagnetic magnetite in iron granules formed in honeybees, and subscribed to the notion that external magnetic fields may cause expansion or contraction of the superparamagnetic particles in an orientation-specific manner, relaying the signal ...

Searching for Tissue-Specific Expression Pattern-Linked Nucleotides of UGT1A Isoforms

UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A isoforms belong to a superfamily of microsomal enzymes responsible for glucuronidation of numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. The nine functional UGT1A isoforms are encoded by a single UGT1A gene locus with multiple first exons. The expression of the UGT1A transcripts was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in 23 normal human tissues. The ...

Dynamic Social Adaptation of Motion-Related Neurons in Primate Parietal Cortex

Social brain function, which allows us to adapt our behavior to social context, is poorly understood at the single-cell level due largely to technical limitations. But the questions involved are vital: How do neurons recognize and modulate their activity in response to social context? To probe the mechanisms involved, we developed a novel recording technique, called ...

Tbx2 and Tbx3 Regulate the Dynamics of Cell Proliferation during Heart Remodeling

BackgroundThe heart forms from a linear tube that is subject to complex remodeling during embryonic development. Hallmarks of this remodeling are the looping of the heart tube and the regionalization into chamber and non-chamber myocardium. Cardiomyocytes in the future chamber myocardium acquire different cellular and physiological characteristics through activation of a ...

Dipstick for Rapid Diagnosis of Shigella flexneri 2a in Stool

BackgroundShigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an acute bloody diarrhoea, is a major public health burden in developing countries. In the absence of prompt and appropriate treatment, the infection is often fatal, particularly in young malnourished children. Here, we describe a new diagnostic test for rapid detection, in stool, at the bedside of patients, of Shigella flexneri 2a, the ...

Increased Neural Activity of a Mushroom Body Neuron Subtype in the Brains of Forager Honeybees

Honeybees organize a sophisticated society, and the workers transmit information about the location of food sources using a symbolic dance, known as ‘dance communication’. Recent studies indicate that workers integrate sensory information during foraging flight for dance communication. The neural mechanisms that account for this remarkable ability are, however, unknown. In the ...

Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Guinea-Bissau: A Sexually Transmitted Genotype 2 with Parenteral Amplification?

BackgroundSub-Saharan Africa is the continent with the highest prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Genotype 2 HCV is thought to have originated from West Africa several hundred years ago. Mechanisms of transmission remain poorly understood.Methodology/Principal FindingsTo delineate mechanisms for HCV transmission in West Africa, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of ...

Neurosphere-Derived Cells Exert a Neuroprotective Action by Changing the Ischemic Microenvironment

BackgroundNeurosphere-derived cells (NC), containing neural stem cells, various progenitors and more differentiated cells, were obtained from newborn C57/BL6 mice and infused in a murine model of focal ischemia with reperfusion to investigate if: 1) they decreased ischemic injury and restored brain function; 2) they induced changes in the environment in which they are infused; 3) ...

Evolution of Axis Specification Mechanisms in Jawed Vertebrates: Insights from a Chondrichthyan

The genetic mechanisms that control the establishment of early polarities and their link with embryonic axis specification and patterning seem to substantially diverge across vertebrates. In amphibians and teleosts, the establishment of an early dorso-ventral polarity determines both the site of axis formation and its rostro-caudal orientation. In contrast, amniotes retain a ...

Mechanisms of TSC-mediated Control of Synapse Assembly and Axon Guidance

Tuberous sclerosis complex is a dominant genetic disorder produced by mutations in either of two tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2; it is characterized by hamartomatous tumors, and is associated with severe neurological and behavioral disturbances. Mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 deregulate a conserved growth control pathway that includes Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) and ...

Sleep Enforces the Temporal Order in Memory

Background Temporal sequence represents the main principle underlying episodic memory. The storage of temporal sequence information is thought to involve hippocampus-dependent memory systems, preserving temporal structure possibly via chaining of sequence elements in heteroassociative networks. Converging evidence indicates that sleep enhances the consolidation of recently acquired ...

Established Risk Factors Account for Most of the Racial Differences in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality

BackgroundCardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality varies across racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., and the extent that known risk factors can explain the differences has not been extensively explored.MethodsWe examined the risk of dying from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and other heart disease (OHD) among 139,406 African-American (AA), Native Hawaiian (NH), Japanese-American ...

Model Structure of Human APOBEC3G

BackgroundAPOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) has antiretroviral activity associated with the hypermutation of viral DNA through cytosine deamination. APOBEC3G has two cytosine deaminase (CDA) domains; the catalytically inactive amino-terminal domain of APOBEC3G (N-CDA) carries the Vif interaction domain. There is no 3-D structure of ...

Divergent Evolution among Teleost V1r Receptor Genes

The survival of vertebrate species is dependent on the ability of individuals to adequately interact with each other, a function often mediated by the olfactory system. Diverse olfactory receptor repertoires are used by this system to recognize chemicals. Among these receptors, the V1rs, encoded by a very large gene family in most mammals, are able to detect pheromones. Teleosts, ...

A Novel Approach for Determining Cancer Genomic Breakpoints in the Presence of Normal DNA

CDKN2A (encodes p16INK4A and p14ARF) deletion, which results in both Rb and p53 inactivation, is the most common chromosomal anomaly in human cancers. To precisely map the deletion breakpoints is important to understanding the molecular mechanism of genomic rearrangement and may also be useful for clinical applications. However, current methods for determining the breakpoint are ...

ElaD, a Deubiquitinating Protease Expressed by E. coli

BackgroundUbiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubl) are designed to modify polypeptides in eukaryotes. Covalent binding of ubiquitin or Ubls to substrate proteins can be reversed by specific hydrolases. One particular set of cysteine proteases, the CE clan, which targets ubiquitin and Ubls, has homologs in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses.FindingsWe have cloned and analyzed ...