PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 192,551)

Effective Long-Distance Pollen Dispersal in Centaurea jacea

Background Agri-environment schemes play an increasingly important role for the conservation of rare plants in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about their effects on gene flow via pollen dispersal between populations of these species. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 2-year experiment, we observed effective pollen dispersal from source...

Over Expression of Plk1 Does Not Induce Cell Division in Rat Cardiac Myocytes In Vitro

Background Mammalian cardiac myocytes withdraw from the cell cycle during post-natal development, resulting in a non-proliferating, fully differentiated adult phenotype that is unable to repair damage to the myocardium, such as occurs following a myocardial infarction. We and others previously have shown that forced expression of certain cell cycle molecules in adult cardiac...

Detrimental Effects of Microgravity on Mouse Preimplantation Development In Vitro

Sustaining life beyond Earth either on space stations or on other planets will require a clear understanding of how the space environment affects key phases of mammalian reproduction. However, because of the difficulty of doing such experiments in mammals, most studies of reproduction in space have been carried out with other taxa, such as sea urchins, fish, amphibians or birds...

Eumycetozoa = Amoebozoa?: SSUrDNA Phylogeny of Protosteloid Slime Molds and Its Significance for the Amoebozoan Supergroup

Amoebae that make fruiting bodies consisting of a stalk and spores and classified as closely related to the myxogastrids have classically been placed in the taxon Eumycetozoa. Traditionally, there are three groups comprising Eumycetozoa: myxogastrids, dictyostelids, and the so-called protostelids. Dictyostelids and myxogastrids both make multicellular fruiting bodies that may...

NMDA Receptor Hypofunction Leads to Generalized and Persistent Aberrant γ Oscillations Independent of Hyperlocomotion and the State of Consciousness

Background The psychotomimetics ketamine and MK-801, non-competitive NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonists, induce cognitive impairment and aggravate schizophrenia symptoms. In conscious rats, they produce an abnormal behavior associated with a peculiar brain state characterized by increased synchronization in ongoing γ (30–80 Hz) oscillations in the frontoparietal (sensorimotor...

Stage Dependent Aberrant Regulation of Cytokine-STAT Signaling in Murine Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that involves multiple interacting cell types driven by numerous cytokines and autoimmune epitopes. Although the initiating events leading to SLE pathology are not understood, there is a growing realization that dysregulated cytokine action on immune cells plays an important role in promoting...

Butyrate-Induced Transcriptional Changes in Human Colonic Mucosa

Background Fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon results in the production of short chain fatty acids (mainly propionate, butyrate and acetate). Butyrate modulates a wide range of processes, but its mechanism of action is mostly unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of butyrate on the transcriptional regulation of human colonic mucosa in vivo. Methodology...

The CCR4-NOT Complex Physically and Functionally Interacts with TRAMP and the Nuclear Exosome

Background Ccr4-Not is a highly conserved multi-protein complex consisting in yeast of 9 subunits, including Not5 and the major yeast deadenylase Ccr4. It has been connected functionally in the nucleus to transcription by RNA polymerase II and in the cytoplasm to mRNA degradation. However, there has been no evidence so far that this complex is important for RNA degradation in the...

Predation on Multiple Trophic Levels Shapes the Evolution of Pathogen Virulence

The pathogen virulence is traditionally thought to co-evolve as a result of reciprocal selection with its host organism. In natural communities, pathogens and hosts are typically embedded within a web of interactions with other species, which could affect indirectly the pathogen virulence and host immunity through trade-offs. Here we show that selection by predation can affect...

Effects of S1 Cleavage on the Structure, Surface Export, and Signaling Activity of Human Notch1 and Notch2

Background Notch receptors are normally cleaved during maturation by a furin-like protease at an extracellular site termed S1, creating a heterodimer of non-covalently associated subunits. The S1 site lies within a key negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor, which contains three highly conserved Lin12/Notch repeats and a heterodimerization domain (HD) that interact to...

Host, Weather and Virological Factors Drive Norovirus Epidemiology: Time-Series Analysis of Laboratory Surveillance Data in England and Wales

Norovirus, the most commonly identified cause of both sporadic cases and outbreaks of infectious diarrhoea in developed countries, exhibits a complex epidemiology and has a strong wintertime seasonality. Viral populations are dynamic and evolve under positive selection pressure. Methods Time series-adapted Poisson regression models were fitted to daily counts of laboratory...

Evaluation of Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in the Diagnosis of Recent Tuberculosis Infection in Health Care Workers

Background Health care workers (HCWs) are a group at risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The aims of this study were to determine IFN-γ response by QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In Tube (QFN-G-IT) and T-SPOT.TB in HCWs, comparing the results with tuberculin skin test (TST); and to analyze the capacity of IFN-γ tests to detect recent versus remote LTBI with a prolonged stimulation...

Identification of Keratinocyte Growth Factor as a Target of microRNA-155 in Lung Fibroblasts: Implication in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions

Background Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are critical in regulating many aspects of vertebrate embryo development, and for the maintenance of homeostatic equilibrium in adult tissues. The interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme are believed to be mediated by paracrine signals such as cytokines and extracellular matrix components secreted from fibroblasts that affect...

The Role of relA and spoT in Yersinia pestis KIM5+ Pathogenicity

The ppGpp molecule is part of a highly conserved regulatory system for mediating the growth response to various environmental conditions. This mechanism may represent a common strategy whereby pathogens such as Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, regulate the virulence gene programs required for invasion, survival and persistence within host cells to match the...

Highly Efficient Differentiation and Enrichment of Spinal Motor Neurons Derived from Human and Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells

Background There are no cures or efficacious treatments for severe motor neuron diseases. It is extremely difficult to obtain naïve spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human tissues for research due to both technical and ethical reasons. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are alternative sources. Several methods for MN differentiation have been reported. However, efficient...

Transgenic CHD1L Expression in Mouse Induces Spontaneous Tumors

Background Amplification of 1q21 is the most frequent genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which was detected in 58–78% of primary HCC cases by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Using chromosome microdissection/hybrid selection approach we recently isolated a candidate oncogene CHD1L from 1q21 region. Our previous study has demonstrated that CHD1L had...

In Vivo Analysis of the Notch Receptor S1 Cleavage

A ligand-independent cleavage (S1) in the extracellular domain of the mammalian Notch receptor results in what is considered to be the canonical heterodimeric form of Notch on the cell surface. The in vivo consequences and significance of this cleavage on Drosophila Notch signaling remain unclear and contradictory. We determined the cleavage site in Drosophila and examined its in...

Species Invasion History Influences Community Evolution in a Tri-Trophic Food Web Model

Background Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the importance of invasion history for evolutionary formation of community. However, only few theoretical studies on community evolution have focused on such views. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a tri-trophic food web model to analyze the coevolutionary effects of ecological invasions by a mutant and by a...

Endothelial Dysfunction and Specific Inflammation in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

Background Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. What moderate chronic hypoventilation adds to obesity on systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. Question To compare inflammatory status and endothelial function in OHS versus eucapnic obese patients. Methodology 14 OHS and 39 eucapnic obese patients...

Quorum Sensing Regulation of the Two hcp Alleles in Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains

Background The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has emerged as a protein secretion system important to several Gram-negative bacterial species. One of the common components of the system is Hcp, initially described as a hemolysin co-regulated protein in a serotype O17 strain of Vibrio cholerae. Homologs to V. cholerae hcp genes have been found in all characterized type VI...

Expression of Stem Cell Markers in the Human Fetal Kidney

In the human fetal kidney (HFK) self-renewing stem cells residing in the metanephric mesenchyme (MM)/blastema are induced to form all cell types of the nephron till 34th week of gestation. Definition of useful markers is crucial for the identification of HFK stem cells. Because wilms' tumor, a pediatric renal cancer, initiates from retention of renal stem cells, we hypothesized...

Practical, Microfabrication-Free Device for Single-Cell Isolation

Microfabricated devices have great potential in cell-level studies, but are not easily accessible for the broad biology community. This paper introduces the Microscale Oil-Covered Cell Array (MOCCA) as a low-cost device for high throughput single-cell analysis that can be easily produced by researchers without microengineering knowledge. Instead of using microfabricated...

Visualization of Shared Genomic Regions and Meiotic Recombination in High-Density SNP Data

Background A fundamental goal of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is to determine the sharing of alleles between individuals across genomic loci. Such analyses have diverse applications in defining the relatedness of individuals (including unexpected relationships in nominally unrelated individuals, or consanguinity within pedigrees), analyzing meiotic crossovers...

In Vivo Transfer of Intracellular Labels from Locally Implanted Bone Marrow Stromal Cells to Resident Tissue Macrophages

Intracellular labels such as dextran coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) are frequently used to study the fate of transplanted cells by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging or fluorescent microscopy. Bystander uptake of labeled cells by resident tissue macrophages (TM) can confound the interpretation...

Chemoattractant Signaling between Tumor Cells and Macrophages Regulates Cancer Cell Migration, Metastasis and Neovascularization

Tumor-associated macrophages are known to influence cancer progression by modulation of immune function, angiogenesis, and cell metastasis, however, little is known about the chemokine signaling networks that regulate this process. Utilizing CT26 colon cancer cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages as a model cellular system, we demonstrate that treatment of CT26 cells with RAW 264.7...