PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,217)

Enhanced Motor Function by Training in Spinal Cord Contused Rats Following Radiation Therapy

Weight-bearing stepping, without supraspinal re-connectivity, can be attained by treadmill training in an animal whose spinal cord has been completely transected at the lower thoracic level. Repair of damaged tissue and of supraspinal connectivity/circuitry following spinal cord injury in rat can be achieved by specific cell elimination with radiation therapy of the lesion site...

The Influence of Radiographic Phenotype and Smoking Status on Peripheral Blood Biomarker Patterns in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by both airway remodeling and parenchymal destruction. The identification of unique biomarker patterns associated with airway dominant versus parenchymal dominant patterns would support the existence of unique phenotypes representing independent biologic processes. A cross-sectional study was performed to...

No Seasonal Accumulation of Resistant P. falciparum when High-Dose Chloroquine Is Used

Background Potentially chloroquine resistant P. falciparum, identified by the 76T haplotype in the chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt 76T), are highly prevalent throughout Africa. In Guinea-Bissau, normal and double dose chloroquine have respective efficacies of 34% and 78% against P.falciparum with pfcrt 76T and approximately three times the normal dose of chloroquine is...

Heterozygous Mutation of Drosophila Opa1 Causes the Development of Multiple Organ Abnormalities in an Age-Dependent and Organ-Specific Manner

Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a ubiquitously expressed dynamin-like GTPase in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It plays important roles in mitochondrial fusion, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP production. Mutations of OPA1 result in autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA). The molecular mechanisms by which link OPA1 mutations and DOA are not fully understood...

Regulation of PERK Signaling and Leukemic Cell Survival by a Novel Cytosolic Isoform of the UPR Regulator GRP78/BiP

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to allow cells to adapt to stress targeting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Induction of ER chaperone GRP78/BiP increases protein folding capacity; as such it represents a major survival arm of UPR. Considering the central importance of the UPR in regulating cell survival and death, evidence is emerging...

Glioblastoma Formation from Cell Population Depleted of Prominin1-Expressing Cells

Prominin1 (Prom1, also known as CD133 in human) has been widely used as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSCs), which self-renew and are tumorigenic, in malignant tumors including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, there is other evidence showing that Prom1-negative cancer cells also form tumors in vivo. Thus it remains controversial whether Prom1 is a bona fide marker for...

Explaining Dog Wolf Differences in Utilizing Human Pointing Gestures: Selection for Synergistic Shifts in the Development of Some Social Skills

Background The comparison of human related communication skills of socialized canids may help to understand the evolution and the epigenesis of gesture comprehension in humans. To reconcile previously contradicting views on the origin of dogs' outstanding performance in utilizing human gestures, we suggest that dog-wolf differences should be studied in a more complex way...

Utilization of Genomic Signatures to Identify Phenotype-Specific Drugs

Genetic and genomic studies highlight the substantial complexity and heterogeneity of human cancers and emphasize the general lack of therapeutics that can match this complexity. With the goal of expanding opportunities for drug discovery, we describe an approach that makes use of a phenotype-based screen combined with the use of multiple cancer cell lines. In particular, we have...

Shiga Toxin Receptor Gb3Cer/CD77: Tumor-Association and Promising Therapeutic Target in Pancreas and Colon Cancer

Background Despite progress in adjuvant chemotherapy in the recent decades, pancreatic and colon cancers remain common causes of death worldwide. Bacterial toxins, which specifically bind to cell surface-exposed glycosphingolipids, are a potential novel therapy. We determined the expression of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer/CD77), the Shiga toxin receptor, in human pancreatic and...

Food Searching Strategy of Amoeboid Cells by Starvation Induced Run Length Extension

Food searching strategies of animals are key to their success in heterogeneous environments. The optimal search strategy may include specialized random walks such as Levy walks with heavy power-law tail distributions, or persistent walks with preferred movement in a similar direction. We have investigated the movement of the soil amoebae Dictyostelium searching for food...

Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Monochorionic and Matched Dichorionic Twins

Background Monochorionic (MC) twins are at increased risk for perinatal mortality and serious morbidity due to the presence of placental vascular anastomoses. Cerebral injury can be secondary to haemodynamic and hematological disorders during pregnancy (especially twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) or intrauterine co-twin death) or from postnatal injury associated with...

MicroRNA miR-34 Inhibits Human Pancreatic Cancer Tumor-Initiating Cells

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in cancer initiation and progression via their ability to affect expression of genes and proteins that regulate cell proliferation and/or cell death. Transcription of the three miRNA miR-34 family members was recently found to be directly regulated by p53. Among the target proteins regulated by miR-34 are Notch pathway proteins...

Life Expectancy in a Large Cohort of Type 2 Diabetes Patients Treated in Primary Care (ZODIAC-10)

Background Most longitudinal studies showed increased relative mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus until now. As a result of major changes in treatment regimes over the past years, with more stringent goals for metabolic control and cardiovascular risk management, improvement of life expectancy should be expected. In our study, we aimed to assess present-day...

Targeting Hypoxia in Cancer Cells by Restoring Homeodomain Interacting Protein-Kinase 2 and p53 Activity and Suppressing HIF-1α

Background The tumor suppressor homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) by phosphorylating serine 46 (Ser46) is a crucial regulator of p53 apoptotic function. HIPK2 is also a transcriptional co-repressor of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) restraining tumor angiogenesis and chemoresistance. HIPK2 can be deregulated in tumors by several mechanisms including hypoxia...

The Crystal Structure of the Escherichia coli Autoinducer-2 Processing Protein LsrF

Many bacteria produce and respond to the quorum sensing signal autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium are among the species with the lsr operon, an operon containing AI-2 transport and processing genes that are up regulated in response to AI-2. One of the Lsr proteins, LsrF, has been implicated in processing the phosphorylated form of AI-2. Here, we...

Comprehensive mRNA Expression Profiling Distinguishes Tauopathies and Identifies Shared Molecular Pathways

Background Understanding the aetiologies of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pick's disease (PiD), Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is often hampered by the considerable clinical and molecular overlap between these diseases and normal ageing. The development of high throughput genomic technologies such as...

Powerful Bivariate Genome-Wide Association Analyses Suggest the SOX6 Gene Influencing Both Obesity and Osteoporosis Phenotypes in Males

Background Current genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are normally implemented in a univariate framework and analyze different phenotypes in isolation. This univariate approach ignores the potential genetic correlation between important disease traits. Hence this approach is difficult to detect pleiotropic genes, which may exist for obesity and osteoporosis, two common...

Monitoring Virologic Responses to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults in Kenya: Evaluation of a Low-Cost Viral Load Assay

Background A key advantage of monitoring HIV viral load (VL) in persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the ability to detect virologic failure before clinical deterioration or resistance occurs. Detection of virologic failure will help clarify the need for enhanced adherence counseling or a change to second- line therapy. Low-cost, locally performable alternates to...

Empirical Relationship between Intra-Purine and Intra-Pyrimidine Differences in Conserved Gene Sequences

DNA sequences seen in the normal character-based representation appear to have a formidable mixing of the four nucleotides without any apparent order. Nucleotide frequencies and distributions in the sequences have been studied extensively, since the simple rule given by Chargaff almost a century ago that equates the total number of purines to the pyrimidines in a duplex DNA...

Caspase-2 Mediated Apoptotic and Necrotic Murine Macrophage Cell Death Induced by Rough Brucella abortus

Brucella species are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic brucellosis. Survival and replication inside macrophages is critical for establishment of chronic Brucella infection. Virulent smooth B. abortus strain 2308 inhibits programmed macrophage cell death and replicates inside macrophages. Cattle B. abortus vaccine strain RB51 is an attenuated...

Human Condensin Function Is Essential for Centromeric Chromatin Assembly and Proper Sister Kinetochore Orientation

Condensins I and II in vertebrates are essential ATP-dependent complexes necessary for chromosome condensation in mitosis. Condensins depletion is known to perturb structure and function of centromeres, however the mechanism of this functional link remains elusive. Depletion of condensin activity is now shown to result in a significant loss of loading of CENP-A, the histone H3...

Selective and Irreversible Inhibitors of Mosquito Acetylcholinesterases for Controlling Malaria and Other Mosquito-Borne Diseases

New insecticides are urgently needed because resistance to current insecticides allows resurgence of disease-transmitting mosquitoes while concerns for human toxicity from current compounds are growing. We previously reported the finding of a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance of the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in some insects but not in mammals, birds...

Preparation of Group I Introns for Biochemical Studies and Crystallization Assays by Native Affinity Purification

The study of functional RNAs of various sizes and structures requires efficient methods for their synthesis and purification. Here, 23 group I intron variants ranging in length from 246 to 341 nucleotides—some containing exons—were subjected to a native purification technique previously applied only to shorter RNAs (<160 nucleotides). For the RNAs containing both exons, we...

Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Protein Dynamics Reveal Conserved and Unsuspected Roles in Plant Cell Division

Background In eukaryotes, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures that chromosomes undergoing mitosis do not segregate until they are properly attached to the microtubules of the spindle. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the mechanism underlying this surveillance mechanism in plants, by characterising the orthogolous SAC proteins BUBR1, BUB3 and MAD2 from...

Intestinal Colonization with Enterococcus faecium Does Not Influence Pulmonary Defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Mice

Background Enterococci, and especially multiresistant Enterococcus faecium, are increasingly found colonizing hospitalized patients. This increased prevalence of colonization is not only associated with an increased prevalence of infections caused by enterococci, but also by infections with other nosocomial pathogens. In this study we investigated the causality of this observed...