PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,851)

Changes in Poultry Handling Behavior and Poultry Mortality Reporting among Rural Cambodians in Areas Affected by HPAI/H5N1

Background Since 2004, 21 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks in domestic poultry and eight human cases have been confirmed in Cambodia. As a result, a large number of avian influenza education campaigns have been ongoing in provinces in which H5N1outbreaks have occurred in humans and/or domestic poultry. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were collected from 1,252...

Sin Nombre Virus and Rodent Species Diversity: A Test of the Dilution and Amplification Hypotheses

Background Species diversity is proposed to greatly impact the prevalence of pathogens. Two predominant hypotheses, the “Dilution Effect” and the “Amplification Effect”, predict divergent outcomes with respect to the impact of species diversity. The Dilution Effect predicts that pathogen prevalence will be negatively correlated with increased species diversity, while the...

Derivation and Characterization of Hepatic Progenitor Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

The derivation of hepatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (hES) cells is of value both in the study of early human liver organogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for hepatocyte transplantation therapy. Here, we report for the first time the generation of hepatic progenitor cells derived from hES cells. Hepatic endoderm cells were...

Does the Clock Make the Poison? Circadian Variation in Response to Pesticides

Background Circadian clocks govern daily physiological and molecular rhythms, and putative rhythms in expression of xenobiotic metabolizing (XM) genes have been described in both insects and mammals. Such rhythms could have important consequences for outcomes of chemical exposures at different times of day. To determine whether reported XM gene expression rhythms result in...

HIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors among Individuals Aged 13-34 Years in Rural Western Kenya

Objectives To estimate HIV prevalence and characterize risk factors among young adults in Asembo, rural western Kenya. Design Community-based cross-sectional survey. Methods From a demographic surveillance system, we selected a random sample of residents aged 13-34 years, who were contacted at home and invited to a nearby mobile study site. Consent procedures for non-emancipated...

Host Responses to Intestinal Microbial Antigens in Gluten-Sensitive Mice

Background and Aims Excessive uptake of commensal bacterial antigens through a permeable intestinal barrier may influence host responses to specific antigen in a genetically predisposed host. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal barrier dysfunction induced by indomethacin treatment affects the host response to intestinal microbiota in gluten-sensitized HLA...

A Novel Putative miRNA Target Enhancer Signal

It is known that miRNA target sites are very short and the effect of miRNA-target site interaction alone appears as being unspecific. Recent experiments suggest further context signals involved in miRNA target site recognition and regulation. Here, we present a novel GC-rich RNA motif downstream of experimentally supported miRNA target sites in human mRNAs with no similarity to...

Gene Remodeling in Type 2 Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Its Phenotypic Rescue with SERCA2a

Background/Aim Diabetes-associated myocardial dysfunction results in altered gene expression in the heart. We aimed to investigate the changes in gene expression profiles accompanying diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy and its phenotypic rescue by restoration of SERCA2a expression. Methods/Results Using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat model of type 2 diabetes and the...

Activation of NF-kB Pathway by Virus Infection Requires Rb Expression

The retinoblastoma protein Rb is a tumor suppressor involved in cell cycle control, differentiation, and inhibition of oncogenic transformation. Besides these roles, additional functions in the control of immune response have been suggested. In the present study we investigated the consequences of loss of Rb in viral infection. Here we show that virus replication is increased by...

Vascular Smooth Muscle Modulates Endothelial Control of Vasoreactivity via Reactive Oxygen Species Production through Myoendothelial Communications

Background Endothelial control of vascular smooth muscle plays a major role in the resulting vasoreactivity implicated in physiological or pathological circulatory processes. However, a comprehensive understanding of endothelial (EC)/smooth muscle cells (SMC) crosstalk is far from complete. Here, we have examined the role of gap junctions and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this...

Identification of Essential Sequences for Cellular Localization in BRMS1 Metastasis Suppressor

Background Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) reduces the number and the size of secondary tumours in a mouse model without affecting the growth of the primary foci upon its re-expression. Knockdown of BRMS1 expression associates with metastasis. The molecular details on BRMS1 mechanism of action include its ability to function as a transcriptional co-repressor and...

The Small Molecule Inhibitor QLT0267 Radiosensitizes Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of the Head and Neck

Background The constant increase of cancer cell resistance to radio- and chemotherapy hampers improvement of patient survival and requires novel targeting approaches. Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK) has been postulated as potent druggable cancer target. On the basis of our previous findings clearly showing that ILK transduces antisurvival signals in cells exposed to ionizing...

Melanism in Peromyscus Is Caused by Independent Mutations in Agouti

Identifying the molecular basis of phenotypes that have evolved independently can provide insight into the ways genetic and developmental constraints influence the maintenance of phenotypic diversity. Melanic (darkly pigmented) phenotypes in mammals provide a potent system in which to study the genetic basis of naturally occurring mutant phenotypes because melanism occurs in many...

Hippocampal Volume Reduction in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO2 sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury. We assessed total volume and...

Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Full-Length VP3 Genes of Eastern Mediterranean Bluetongue Virus Isolates

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the ‘type’ species of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The BTV genome is composed of ten linear segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), each of which codes for one of ten distinct viral proteins. Previous phylogenetic comparisons have evaluated variations in genome segment 3 (Seg-3) nucleotide sequence as way to identify the...

Manipulation of Signaling Thresholds in “Engineered Stem Cell Niches” Identifies Design Criteria for Pluripotent Stem Cell Screens

In vivo, stem cell fate is regulated by local microenvironmental parameters. Governing parameters in this stem cell niche include soluble factors, extra-cellular matrix, and cell-cell interactions. The complexity of this in vivo niche limits analyses into how individual niche parameters regulate stem cell fate. Herein we use mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) and micro-contact...

Possible Brucellosis in an Early Hominin Skeleton from Sterkfontein, South Africa

We report on the paleopathological analysis of the partial skeleton of the late Pliocene hominin species Australopithecus africanus Stw 431 from Sterkfontein, South Africa. A previous study noted the presence of lesions on vertebral bodies diagnosed as spondylosis deformans due to trauma. Instead, we suggest that these lesions are pathological changes due to the initial phases of...

Comparison of Peptide Array Substrate Phosphorylation of c-Raf and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 8

Kinases are pivotal regulators of cellular physiology. The human genome contains more than 500 putative kinases, which exert their action via the phosphorylation of specific substrates. The determinants of this specificity are still only partly understood and as a consequence it is difficult to predict kinase substrate preferences from the primary structure, hampering the...

Circular Polymerase Extension Cloning of Complex Gene Libraries and Pathways

High-throughput genomics and the emerging field of synthetic biology demand ever more convenient, economical, and efficient technologies to assemble and clone genes, gene libraries and synthetic pathways. Here, we describe the development of a novel and extremely simple cloning method, circular polymerase extension cloning (CPEC). This method uses a single polymerase to assemble...

AGO1 Homeostasis Involves Differential Production of 21-nt and 22-nt miR168 Species by MIR168a and MIR168b

Background AGO1 associates with microRNAs (miRNAs) and regulates mRNAs through cleavage and translational repression. AGO1 homeostasis entails DCL1-dependent production of miR168 from MIR168a and MIR168b transcripts, post-transcriptional stabilization of miR168 by AGO1, and AGO1-catalyzed miR168-guided cleavage of AGO1 mRNA. Principal Findings This study reveals that MIR168a is...

New Antibiotic Molecules: Bypassing the Membrane Barrier of Gram Negative Bacteria Increases the Activity of Peptide Deformylase Inhibitors

Background Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a major concern in hospitals worldwide and urgently require the development of new antibacterial molecules. Peptide deformylase is an intracellular target now well-recognized for the design of new antibiotics. The bacterial susceptibility to such a cytoplasmic target primarily depends on the capacity of the compound to...

Construction and Application of an Inducible System for Homogenous Expression Levels in Bulk Cell Lines

Stringently controlled conditional expressing systems are crucial for the functional characterization of genes. Currently, screening of multiple clones to identify the tightly controlled ones is necessary but time-consuming. Here, we describe a system fusing Tet (tetracycline)-inducible elements, BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) and Gateway technology together to allow tight...

Mining Biological Pathways Using WikiPathways Web Services

WikiPathways is a platform for creating, updating, and sharing biological pathways [1]. Pathways can be edited and downloaded using the wiki-style website. Here we present a SOAP web service that provides programmatic access to WikiPathways that is complementary to the website. We describe the functionality that this web service offers and discuss several use cases in detail...

Reading between Eye Saccades

Background Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye...

A Novel Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Rapid Confirmation of Medium- and Very Long-Chain acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Newborns

Background Newborn screening for medium- and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD and VLCAD, respectively) deficiency, using acylcarnitine profiling with tandem mass spectrometry, has increased the number of patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders due to the identification of additional milder, and so far silent, phenotypes. However, especially for VLCADD, the...