PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,845)

Initiation of V(D)J Recombination by Dβ-Associated Recombination Signal Sequences: A Critical Control Point in TCRβ Gene Assembly

T cell receptor (TCR) β gene assembly by V(D)J recombination proceeds via successive Dβ-to-Jβ and Vβ-to-DJβ rearrangements. This two-step process is enforced by a constraint, termed beyond (B)12/23, which prohibits direct Vβ-to-Jβ rearrangements. However the B12/23 restriction does not explain the order of TCRβ assembly for which the regulation remains an unresolved issue. The...

Alterations in Genes of the EGFR Signaling Pathway and Their Relationship to EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Sensitivity in Lung Cancer Cell Lines

Background Deregulation of EGFR signaling is common in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and this finding led to the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that are highly effective in a subset of NSCLC. Mutations of EGFR (mEGFR) and copy number gains (CNGs) of EGFR (gEGFR) and HER2 (gHER2) have been reported to predict for TKI response. Mutations in KRAS (mKRAS) are...

Mutual Information for Testing Gene-Environment Interaction

Despite current enthusiasm for investigation of gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions, the essential issue of how to define and detect gene-environment interactions remains unresolved. In this report, we define gene-environment interactions as a stochastic dependence in the context of the effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors on the cause of...

Localisation and Function of the Endocannabinoid System in the Human Ovary

Background Although anandamide (AEA) had been measured in human follicular fluid and is suggested to play a role in ovarian follicle and oocyte maturity, its exact source and role in the human ovary remains unclear. Methods and Findings Immunohistochemical examination of normal human ovaries indicated that the endocannabinoid system was present and widely expressed in the ovarian...

Cadherin-Bound β-Catenin Feeds into the Wnt Pathway upon Adherens Junctions Dissociation: Evidence for an Intersection between β-Catenin Pools

β-catenin is an essential component of two cellular systems: cadherin-based adherens junctions (AJ) and the Wnt signaling pathway. A functional or physical connection between these β-catenin pools has been suggested in previous studies, but not conclusively demonstrated to date. To further examine this intersection, we treated A431 cell colonies with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA...

A Novel Immunological Assay for Hepcidin Quantification in Human Serum

Background Hepcidin is a 25-aminoacid cysteine-rich iron regulating peptide. Increased hepcidin concentrations lead to iron sequestration in macrophages, contributing to the pathogenesis of anaemia of chronic disease whereas decreased hepcidin is observed in iron deficiency and primary iron overload diseases such as hereditary hemochromatosis. Hepcidin quantification in human...

Common Cortical Loci Are Activated during Visuospatial Interpolation and Orientation Discrimination Judgements

There is a wealth of literature on the role of short-range interactions between low-level orientation-tuned filters in the perception of discontinuous contours. However, little is known about how spatial information is integrated across more distant regions of the visual field in the absence of explicit local orientation cues, a process referred to here as visuospatial...

Interaction between O-GlcNAc Modification and Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Prohibitin: Implication for a Novel Binary Switch

Prohibitin (PHB or PHB1) is an evolutionarily conserved, multifunctional protein which is present in various cellular compartments including the plasma membrane. However, mechanisms involved in various functions of PHB are not fully explored yet. Here we report for the first time that PHB interacts with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (O-GlcNAc transferase, OGT) and is...

Brain Correlates of Non-Symbolic Numerosity Estimation in Low and High Mathematical Ability Children

Previous studies have implicated several brain areas as subserving numerical approximation. Most studies have examined brain correlates of adult numerical approximation and have not considered individual differences in mathematical ability. The present study examined non-symbolic numerical approximation in two groups of 10-year-olds: Children with low and high mathematical...

Kestrel-Prey Dynamic in a Mediterranean Region: The Effect of Generalist Predation and Climatic Factors

Background Most hypotheses on population limitation of small mammals and their predators come from studies carried out in northern latitudes, mainly in boreal ecosystems. In such regions, many predators specialize on voles and predator-prey systems are simpler compared to southern ecosystems where predator communities are made up mostly of generalists and predator-prey systems...

Probing Evolutionary Repeatability: Neutral and Double Changes and the Predictability of Evolutionary Adaptation

Background The question of how organisms adapt is among the most fundamental in evolutionary biology. Two recent studies investigated the evolution of Escherichia coli in response to challenge with the antibiotic cefotaxime. Studying five mutations in the β-lactamase gene that together confer significant antibiotic resistance, the authors showed a complex fitness landscape that...

In-Depth Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from New Delhi – Predominance of Drug Resistant Isolates of the ‘Modern’ (TbD1−) Type

Background India has the highest estimated burden of tuberculosis in the world, accounting for 21% of all tuberculosis cases world-wide. However, due to lack of systematic analysis using multiple markers the available information on the genomic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in India is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Thus, 65 M. tuberculosis isolates from New...

Molecular Evolution of Immune Genes in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

Background As pathogens that circumvent the host immune response are favoured by selection, so are host alleles that reduce parasite load. Such evolutionary processes leave their signature on the genes involved. Deciphering modes of selection operating on immune genes might reveal the nature of host-pathogen interactions and factors that govern susceptibility in host populations...

Mass Stranding of Marine Birds Caused by a Surfactant-Producing Red Tide

In November-December 2007 a widespread seabird mortality event occurred in Monterey Bay, California, USA, coincident with a massive red tide caused by the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. Affected birds had a slimy yellow-green material on their feathers, which were saturated with water, and they were severely hypothermic. We determined that foam containing surfactant-like...

Changes in the Treatment Responses to Artesunate-Mefloquine on the Northwestern Border of Thailand during 13 Years of Continuous Deployment

Background Artemisinin combination treatments (ACT) are recommended as first line treatment for falciparum malaria throughout the malaria affected world. We reviewed the efficacy of a 3-day regimen of mefloquine and artesunate regimen (MAS3), over a 13 year period of continuous deployment as first-line treatment in camps for displaced persons and in clinics for migrant population...

Systematic Functional Analysis of Bicaudal-D Serine Phosphorylation and Intragenic Suppression of a Female Sterile Allele of BicD

Protein phosphorylation is involved in posttranslational control of essentially all biological processes. Using mass spectrometry, recent analyses of whole phosphoproteomes led to the identification of numerous new phosphorylation sites. However, the function of most of these sites remained unknown. We chose the Drosophila Bicaudal-D protein to estimate the importance of...

Ancestral Origin of the ATTCT Repeat Expansion in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 10 (SCA10)

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by cerebellar ataxia and seizures. The disease is caused by a large ATTCT repeat expansion in the ATXN10 gene. The first families reported with SCA10 were of Mexican origin, but the disease was soon after described in Brazilian families of mixed Portuguese and Amerindian...

PPI Finder: A Mining Tool for Human Protein-Protein Interactions

Background The exponential increase of published biomedical literature prompts the use of text mining tools to manage the information overload automatically. One of the most common applications is to mine protein-protein interactions (PPIs) from PubMed abstracts. Currently, most tools in mining PPIs from literature are using co-occurrence-based approaches or rule-based approaches...

Spectrally-Resolved Response Properties of the Three Most Advanced FRET Based Fluorescent Protein Voltage Probes

Genetically-encoded optical probes for membrane potential hold the promise of monitoring electrical signaling of electrically active cells such as specific neuronal populations in intact brain tissue. The most advanced class of these probes was generated by molecular fusion of the voltage sensing domain (VSD) of Ci-VSP with a fluorescent protein (FP) pair. We quantitatively...

RTA Promoter Demethylation and Histone Acetylation Regulation of Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Reactivation

Gammaherpesviruses have a common biological characteristic, latency and lytic replication. The balance between these two phases in murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is controlled by the replication and transcription activator (RTA) gene. In this report, we investigated the effect of DNA demethylation and histone acetylation on MHV-68 replication. We showed that distinctive...

Is Altruistic Behavior Associated with Major Depression Onset?

Background Previous cross-sectional study showed altruistic behaviors were harmful on major depression (MD). It is needed to investigate the impact of altruistic behaviors by its contents on the development of MD prospectively. Methodology/Principal Findings The National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) in 1995–1996 and the MIDUS Psychological Experience...

Investigating Differential Dynamics of the MAPK Signaling Cascade Using a Multi-Parametric Global Sensitivity Analysis

Cell growth critically depends on signalling pathways whose regulation is the focus of intense research. Without utilizing a priori knowledge of the relative importance of pathway components, we have applied in silico computational methods to the EGF-induced MAPK cascade. Specifically, we systematically perturbed the entire parameter space, including initial conditions, using a...

Intestinal Epithelial-Derived TAK1 Signaling Is Essential for Cytoprotection against Chemical-Induced Colitis

Background We have previously reported that intestinal epithelium-specific TAK1 deleted mice exhibit severe inflammation and mortality at postnatal day 1 due to TNF-induced epithelial cell death. Although deletion of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) can largely rescue those neonatal phenotypes, mice harboring double deletion of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and intestinal epithelium-specific...

Tomato Lycopene Extract Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced NF-κB Signaling but Worsens Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in NF-κBEGFP Mice

Background The impact of tomato lycopene extract (TLE) on intestinal inflammation is currently unknown. We investigated the effect of TLE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate signaling and experimental colitis. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were fed a diet containing 0.5 and 2% TLE or isoflavone free control (AIN-76). The therapeutic efficacy of TLE diet was assessed...

Integrative Analysis of Epigenetic Modulation in Melanoma Cell Response to Decitabine: Clinical Implications

Decitabine, an epigenetic modifier that reactivates genes otherwise suppressed by DNA promoter methylation, is effective for some, but not all cancer patients, especially those with solid tumors. It is commonly recognized that to overcome resistance and improve outcome, treatment should be guided by tumor biology, which includes genotype, epigenotype, and gene expression profile...