PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,217)

Genetic Variation in VEGF Does Not Contribute Significantly to the Risk of Congenital Cardiovascular Malformation

Several previous studies have investigated the role of common promoter variants in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene in causing congenital cardiovascular malformation (CVM). However, results have been discrepant between studies and no study to date has comprehensively characterised variation throughout the gene. We genotyped 771 CVM cases, of whom 595 had the...

Discovery and Characterization of Novel Vascular and Hematopoietic Genes Downstream of Etsrp in Zebrafish

The transcription factor Etsrp is required for vasculogenesis and primitive myelopoiesis in zebrafish. When ectopically expressed, etsrp is sufficient to induce the expression of many vascular and myeloid genes in zebrafish. The mammalian homolog of etsrp, ER71/Etv2, is also essential for vascular and hematopoietic development. To identify genes downstream of etsrp, gain-of...

MicroRNA-199b-5p Impairs Cancer Stem Cells through Negative Regulation of HES1 in Medulloblastoma

Background Through negative regulation of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) can function in cancers as oncosuppressors, and they can show altered expression in various tumor types. Here we have investigated medulloblastoma tumors (MBs), which arise from an early impairment of developmental processes in the cerebellum, where Notch signaling is involved in many cell-fate...

High-Throughput Proteomics Detection of Novel Splice Isoforms in Human Platelets

Alternative splicing (AS) is an intrinsic regulatory mechanism of all metazoans. Recent findings suggest that 100% of multiexonic human genes give rise to splice isoforms. AS can be specific to tissue type, environment or developmentally regulated. Splice variants have also been implicated in various diseases including cancer. Detection of these variants will enhance our...

Reducing Glycosphingolipid Content in Adipose Tissue of Obese Mice Restores Insulin Sensitivity, Adipogenesis and Reduces Inflammation

Adipose tissue is a critical mediator in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control. Here we studied the effects of AMP-DNM on adipose tissue function and inflammation in detail to provide an explanation for the...

Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells Activate Alveolar Macrophages and Mitigate P. Aeruginosa Infection

Although alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII) perform substantial roles in the maintenance of alveolar integrity, the extent of their contributions to immune defense is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that AECII activates alveolar macrophages (AM) functions, such as phagocytosis using a conditioned medium from AECII infected by P. aeruginosa. AECII-derived chemokine...

Age-Related Cellular Copper Dynamics in the Fungal Ageing Model Podospora anserina and in Ageing Human Fibroblasts

In previous investigations an impact of cellular copper homeostasis on ageing of the ascomycete Podospora anserina has been demonstrated. Here we provide new data indicating that mitochondria play a major role in this process. Determination of copper in the cytosolic fraction using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis and eGfp reporter gene studies indicate...

The Oncogenic EWS-FLI1 Protein Binds In Vivo GGAA Microsatellite Sequences with Potential Transcriptional Activation Function

The fusion between EWS and ETS family members is a key oncogenic event in Ewing tumors and important EWS-FLI1 target genes have been identified. However, until now, the search for EWS-FLI1 targets has been limited to promoter regions and no genome-wide comprehensive analysis of in vivo EWS-FLI1 binding sites has been undertaken. Using a ChIP-Seq approach to investigate EWS-FLI1...

Heparanase Regulates Levels of Syndecan-1 in the Nucleus

Syndecan-1 is a transmembrane heparan sulfate-bearing proteoglycan known to regulate multiple biological functions at the cell surface and within the extracellular matrix. Its functional activity can be modulated by heparanase, an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains and whose expression has been associated with an aggressive phenotype in many cancers. In addition to...

Enzymatic Primer-Extension with Glycerol-Nucleoside Triphosphates on DNA Templates

Background Glycerol nucleic acid (GNA) has an acyclic phosphoglycerol backbone repeat-unit, but forms stable duplexes based on Watson-Crick base-pairing. Because of its structural simplicity, GNA is of particular interest with respect to the possibility of evolving functional polymers by in vitro selection. Template-dependent GNA synthesis is essential to any GNA-based selection...

Glucose Amplifies Fatty Acid-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Pancreatic β-Cells via Activation of mTORC1

Background Palmitate is a potent inducer of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in β-cells. In type 2 diabetes, glucose amplifies fatty-acid toxicity for pancreatic β-cells, leading to β-cell dysfunction and death. Why glucose exacerbates β-cell lipotoxicity is largely unknown. Glucose stimulates mTORC1, an important nutrient sensor involved in the regulation of cellular stress...

A Cross-Study Transcriptional Analysis of Parkinson's Disease

The study of Parkinson's disease (PD), like other complex neurodegenerative disorders, is limited by access to brain tissue from patients with a confirmed diagnosis. Alternatively the study of peripheral tissues may offer some insight into the molecular basis of disease susceptibility and progression, but this approach still relies on brain tissue to benchmark relevant molecular...

Ultrastructural Proof of Polyomavirus in Merkel Cell Carcinoma Tumour Cells and Its Absence in Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

Background A new virus called the Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) has recently been found in Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC). MCC is a rare aggressive small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily derived from the skin, morphologically indistinguishable from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). So far the actual presence of the virus in MCC tumour cells on a morphological level has not...

Coordinated Activation of Candidate Proto-Oncogenes and Cancer Testes Antigens via Promoter Demethylation in Head and Neck Cancer and Lung Cancer

Background Epigenetic alterations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of solid tumors, however, proto-oncogenes activated by promoter demethylation have been sporadically reported. We used an integrative method to analyze expression in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and pharmacologically demethylated cell lines to identify aberrantly demethylated and...

Sperm from Hyh Mice Carrying a Point Mutation in αSNAP Have a Defect in Acrosome Reaction

Hydrocephalus with hop gait (hyh) is a recessive inheritable disease that arose spontaneously in a mouse strain. A missense mutation in the Napa gene that results in the substitution of a methionine for isoleucine at position 105 (M105I) of αSNAP has been detected in these animals. αSNAP is a ubiquitous protein that plays a key role in membrane fusion and exocytosis. In this...

Psychological Typhoon Eye in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

Background On May 12, 2008, an earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale jolted Wenchuan, China, leading to 69,227 deaths and 374,643 injured, with 17,923 listed as missing as of Sept. 25, 2008, and shook the whole nation. We assessed the devastating effects on people's post-earthquake concern about safety and health. Methodology/Principal Findings From June 4 to July 15...

A Specialized Odor Memory Buffer in Primary Olfactory Cortex

Background The neural substrates of olfactory working memory are unknown. We addressed the questions of whether olfactory working memory involves a verbal representation of the odor, or a sensory image of the odor, or both, and the location of the neural substrates of these processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity...

A Fast Na+/Ca2+-Based Action Potential in a Marine Diatom

Background Electrical impulses in animals play essential roles in co-ordinating an array of physiological functions including movement, secretion, environmental sensing and development. Underpinning many of these electrical signals is a fast Na+-based action potential that has been fully characterised only in cells associated with the neuromuscular systems of multicellular...

Filling Kinetic Gaps: Dynamic Modeling of Metabolism Where Detailed Kinetic Information Is Lacking

Background Integrative analysis between dynamical modeling of metabolic networks and data obtained from high throughput technology represents a worthy effort toward a holistic understanding of the link among phenotype and dynamical response. Even though the theoretical foundation for modeling metabolic network has been extensively treated elsewhere, the lack of kinetic...

Mutational Meltdown in Primary Endosymbionts: Selection Limits Muller's Ratchet

Background Primary bacterial endosymbionts of insects (p-endosymbionts) are thought to be undergoing the process of Muller's ratchet where they accrue slightly deleterious mutations due to genetic drift in small populations with negligible recombination rates. If this process were to go unchecked over time, theory predicts mutational meltdown and eventual extinction. Although...

Phagocytic Superoxide Specifically Damages an Extracytoplasmic Target to Inhibit or Kill Salmonella

Background The phagocytic oxidative burst is a primary effector of innate immunity that protects against bacterial infection. However, the mechanism by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) kill or inhibit bacteria is not known. It is often assumed that DNA is a primary target of oxidative damage, consistent with known effects of endogenously produced ROS in the bacterial cytoplasm...

Phase Shifting Capacity of the Circadian Pacemaker Determined by the SCN Neuronal Network Organization

Background In mammals, a major circadian pacemaker that drives daily rhythms is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), at the base of the hypothalamus. The SCN receive direct light input via the retino-hypothalamic tract. Light during the early night induces phase delays of circadian rhythms while during the late night it leads to phase advances. The effects of light on the...

Comparison of Gene Expression Profile in Embryonic Mesencephalon and Neuronal Primary Cultures

In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) an important contingent of dopaminergic neurons are localized in the substantia nigra and in the ventral tegmental area of the ventral midbrain. They constitute an anatomically and functionally heterogeneous group of cells involved in a variety of regulatory mechanisms, from locomotion to emotional/motivational behavior. Midbrain...

Robust Food Anticipatory Activity in BMAL1-Deficient Mice

Food availability is a potent environmental cue that directs circadian locomotor activity in rodents. Even though nocturnal rodents prefer to forage at night, daytime food anticipatory activity (FAA) is observed prior to short meals presented at a scheduled time of day. Under this restricted feeding regimen, rodents exhibit two distinct bouts of activity, a nocturnal activity...

PP1γ2 and PPP1R11 Are Parts of a Multimeric Complex in Developing Testicular Germ Cells in which their Steady State Levels Are Reciprocally Related

Mice lacking the protein phosphatase 1 gamma isoforms, PP1γ1 and PP1γ2, are male-sterile due to defective germ cell morphogenesis and apoptosis. However, this deficiency causes no obvious abnormality in other tissues. A biochemical approach was employed to learn how expression versus deficiency of PP1γ2, the predominant PP1 isoform in male germ cells, affects spermatogenesis...