PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,406)

Iodine Atoms: A New Molecular Feature for the Design of Potent Transthyretin Fibrillogenesis Inhibitors

The thyroid hormone and retinol transporter protein known as transthyretin (TTR) is in the origin of one of the 20 or so known amyloid diseases. TTR self assembles as a homotetramer leaving a central hydrophobic channel with two symmetrical binding sites. The aggregation pathway of TTR into amiloid fibrils is not yet well characterized but in vitro binding of thyroid hormones and...

Using Pathway Signatures as Means of Identifying Similarities among Microarray Experiments

Widespread use of microarrays has generated large amounts of data, the interrogation of the public microarray repositories, identifying similarities between microarray experiments is now one of the major challenges. Approaches using defined group of genes, such as pathways and cellular networks (pathway analysis), have been proposed to improve the interpretation of microarray...

Temporal Dynamics of Interferon Gamma Responses in Children Evaluated for Tuberculosis

Background Development of T-cells based-Interferon gamma (IFNγ) assays has offered new possibilities for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active disease in adults. Few studies have been performed in children, none in France. With reference to the published data on childhood TB epidemiology in the Paris and Ile de France Region, we considered it important...

Ancestral Vascular Lumen Formation via Basal Cell Surfaces

The cardiovascular system of bilaterians developed from a common ancestor. However, no endothelial cells exist in invertebrates demonstrating that primitive cardiovascular tubes do not require this vertebrate-specific cell type in order to form. This raises the question of how cardiovascular tubes form in invertebrates? Here we discovered that in the invertebrate cephalochordate...

Dilated Cardiomyopathy with Increased SR Ca2+ Loading Preceded by a Hypercontractile State and Diastolic Failure in the α1CTG Mouse

Mice over-expressing the α1−subunit (pore) of the L-type Ca2+ channel (α1CTG) by 4months (mo) of age exhibit an enlarged heart, hypertrophied myocytes, increased Ca2+ current and Ca2+ transient amplitude, but a normal SR Ca2+ load. With advancing age (8–11 mo), some mice demonstrate advanced hypertrophy but are not in congestive heart failure (NFTG), while others evolve to frank...

Valproate, a Mood Stabilizer, Induces WFS1 Expression and Modulates Its Interaction with ER Stress Protein GRP94

Background Valproate is a standard treatment for bipolar disorder and a first-line mood stabilizer. The molecular mechanisms underlying its actions in bipolar disorder are unclear. It has been suggested that the action of valproate is linked to changes in gene expression and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response proteins. Principal Findings Here we show that...

Protein Palmitoylation Regulates Osteoblast Differentiation through BMP-Induced Osterix Expression

Osteoporosis is one of the most common diseases and can be treated by either anti-resorption drugs, anabolic drugs, or both. To search for anabolic drug targets for osteoporosis therapy, it is crucial to understand the biology of bone forming cells, osteoblasts, in terms of their proliferation, differentiation, and function. Here we found that protein palmitoylation participates...

Strong Eukaryotic IRESs Have Weak Secondary Structure

Background The objective of this work was to investigate the hypothesis that eukaryotic Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRES) lack secondary structure and to examine the generality of the hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings IRESs of the yeast and the fruit fly are located in the 5′UTR immediately upstream of the initiation codon. The minimum folding energy (MFE) of 60 nt...

IL2RA/CD25 Gene Polymorphisms: Uneven Association with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Type 1 Diabetes (T1D)

Background IL-2 receptor (IL2R) alpha is the specific component of the high affinity IL2R system involved in the immune response and in the control of autoimmunity. Methods and Results Here we perform a replication and fine mapping of the IL2RA gene region analyzing 3 SNPs previously associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 5 SNPs associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a...

Differential Expression of A-Type and B-Type Lamins during Hair Cycling

Multiple genetic disorders caused by mutations that affect the proteins lamin A and C show strong skin phenotypes. These disorders include the premature aging disorders Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and mandibuloacral dysplasia, as well as restrictive dermopathy. Prior studies have shown that the lamin A/C and B proteins are expressed in skin, but little is known about...

Population Dynamics Constrain the Cooperative Evolution of Cross-Feeding

Cross-feeding is the exchange of nutrients among species of microbes. It has two potential evolutionary origins, one as an exchange of metabolic wastes or byproducts among species, the other as a form of cooperation known as reciprocal altruism. This paper explores the conditions favoring the origin of cooperative cross-feeding between two species. There is an extensive...

Effective Treatment of Respiratory Alphaherpesvirus Infection Using RNA Interference

Background Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae, is spread via nasal secretions and causes respiratory disease, neurological disorders and abortions. The virus is a significant equine pathogen, but current EHV-1 vaccines are only partially protective and effective metaphylactic and therapeutic agents are not available. Small interfering RNAs...

Increase of Universality in Human Brain during Mental Imagery from Visual Perception

Background Different complex systems behave in a similar way near their critical points of phase transitions which leads to an emergence of a universal scaling behaviour. Universality indirectly implies a long-range correlation between constituent subsystems. As the distributed correlated processing is a hallmark of higher complex cognition, I investigated a measure of...

Transmission in Heteronymous Spinal Pathways Is Modified after Stroke and Related to Motor Incoordination

Changes in reflex spinal pathways after stroke have been shown to affect motor activity in agonist and antagonist muscles acting at the same joint. However, only a few studies have evaluated the heteronymous reflex pathways modulating motoneuronal activity at different joints. This study investigates whether there are changes in the spinal facilitatory and inhibitory pathways...

Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests

Background The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated ingestive...

Toll-Like Receptor 3 Signaling on Macrophages Is Required for Survival Following Coxsackievirus B4 Infection

Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) has been proposed to play a central role in the early recognition of viruses by sensing double stranded RNA, a common intermediate of viral replication. However, several reports have demonstrated that TLR3 signaling is either dispensable or even harmful following infection with certain viruses. Here, we asked whether TLR3 plays a role in the response...

Retrieval of Missing Spliced Leader in Dinoflagellates

Spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing has recently been shown to be a common mRNA processing mechanism in dinoflagellates, in which a short (22-nt) sequence, DCCGUAGCCAUUUUGGCUCAAG (D = U, A, or G), is transplanted from the 5′-end of a small non-coding RNA (SL RNA) to the 5′ end of mRNA molecules. The widespread existence of the mechanism in dinoflagellates has been demonstrated by...

Localized Populations of CD8low/− MHC Class I Tetramer+ SIV-Specific T Cells in Lymphoid Follicles and Genital Epithelium

CD8 T cells play an important role in controlling viral infections. We investigated the in situ localization of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific T cells in lymph and genital tissues from SIV-infected macaques using MHC-class I tetramers. The majority of tetramer-binding cells localized in T cell zones and were CD8+. Curiously, small subpopulations of tetramer-binding...

Effect of a Standardised Dietary Restriction Protocol on Multiple Laboratory Strains of Drosophila melanogaster

Background Outcomes of lifespan studies in model organisms are particularly susceptible to variations in technical procedures. This is especially true of dietary restriction, which is implemented in many different ways among laboratories. Principal Findings In this study, we have examined the effect of laboratory stock maintenance, genotype differences and microbial infection on...

An Unusual Helix Turn Helix Motif in the Catalytic Core of HIV-1 Integrase Binds Viral DNA and LEDGF

Background Integrase (IN) of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) catalyzes the integration of viral DNA into host cellular DNA. We identified a bi-helix motif (residues 149–186) in the crystal structure of the catalytic core (CC) of the IN-Phe185Lys variant that consists of the α4 and α5 helices connected by a 3 to 5-residue turn. The motif is embedded in a large...

Critical Evaluation of Branch Polarity and Apical Dominance as Dictators of Colony Astogeny in a Branching Coral

The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three...

Nevirapine Resistance and Breast-Milk HIV Transmission: Effects of Single and Extended-Dose Nevirapine Prophylaxis in Subtype C HIV-Infected Infants

Background Daily nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis to HIV-exposed infants significantly reduces breast-milk HIV transmission. We assessed NVP-resistance in Indian infants enrolled in the “six-week extended-dose nevirapine” (SWEN) trial who received single-dose NVP (SD-NVP) or SWEN for prevention of breast-milk HIV transmission but who also acquired subtype C HIV infection during the...

Aging Impairs Recipient T Cell Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in Response to Transplantation

Background As increasing numbers of older people are listed for solid organ transplantation, there is an urgent need to better understand how aging modifies alloimmune responses. Here, we investigated whether aging impairs the ability of donor dendritic cells or recipient immunity to prime alloimmune responses to organ transplantation. Principal Findings Using murine experimental...

Nematode Homologue of PQBP1, a Mental Retardation Causative Gene, Is Involved in Lipid Metabolism

Background PQBP1 is a causative gene for X-linked mental retardation (MR) whose patients frequently show lean body. C. elegans has a strictly conserved homologue gene of PQBP1, T21D12.3. Methodology and Principal Findings We generated Venus-transgenic and T21D12.3-mutant nematodes to analyze developmental expression patterns and in vivo functions of the nematode PQBP1 homologue...

NOTCH2 Is Neither Rearranged nor Mutated in t(1;19) Positive Oligodendrogliomas

The combined deletion of 1p and 19q chromosomal arms is frequent in oligodendrogliomas (OD) and has recently been shown to be mediated by an unbalanced t(1;19) translocation. Recent studies of 1p/19q co-deleted OD suggest that the NOTCH2 gene is implicated in oligodendrocyte differentiation and may be involved in this rearrangement. The objective of the present study was to...