PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 192,604)

Simulation Modifies Prehension: Evidence for a Conjoined Representation of the Graspable Features of an Object and the Action of Grasping It

Movement formulas, engrams, kinesthetic images and internal models of the body in action are notions derived mostly from clinical observations of brain-damaged subjects. They also suggest that the prehensile geometry of an object is integrated in the neural circuits and includes the object's graspable characteristics as well as its semantic properties. In order to determine...

LPS Responsiveness and Neutrophil Chemotaxis In Vivo Require PMN MMP-8 Activity

We identify matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, the polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte collagenase, as a critical mediator initiating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsiveness in vivo. PMN infiltration towards LPS is abrogated in Mmp8-null mice. MMP-8 cleaves LPS-induced CXC chemokine (LIX) at Ser4∼Val5 and Lys79∼Arg80. LIX bioactivity is increased upon N-terminal cleavage, enhancing...

A Key Role of Dendritic Cells in Probiotic Functionality

BackgroundDisruption of the intestinal homeostasis and tolerance towards the resident microbiota is a major mechanism involved in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. While some bacteria are inducers of disease, others, known as probiotics, are able to reduce inflammation. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in regulating immune responses and in inducing...

XIAP Protection of Photoreceptors in Animal Models of Retinitis Pigmentosa

BackgroundRetinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a blinding genetic disorder that is caused by the death of photoreceptors in the outer nuclear layer of the retina. To date, 39 different genetic loci have been associated with the disease, and 28 mutated genes have been identified. Despite the complexity of the underlying genetic basis for RP, the final common pathway is photoreceptor cell...

A Glimpse of Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome from Comparative Genomics of S. suis 2 Chinese Isolates

Background Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen, causing more than 200 cases of severe human infection worldwide, with the hallmarks of meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, etc. Very recently, SS2 has been recognized as an etiological agent for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), which was originally associated with Streptococcus pyogenes...

Identification of a Small TAF Complex and Its Role in the Assembly of TAF-Containing Complexes

TFIID plays a role in nucleating RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex assembly on protein-coding genes. TFIID is a multisubunit complex comprised of the TATA box binding protein (TBP) and 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFs). Another class of multiprotein transcriptional regulatory complexes having histone acetyl transferase (HAT) activity, and containing TAFs, includes TFTC...

Ribonuclease Activity of Dis3 Is Required for Mitotic Progression and Provides a Possible Link between Heterochromatin and Kinetochore Function

BackgroundCellular RNA metabolism has a broad range of functional aspects in cell growth and division, but its role in chromosome segregation during mitosis is only poorly understood. The Dis3 ribonuclease is a key component of the RNA-processing exosome complex. Previous isolation of the dis3-54 cold-sensitive mutant of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe suggested that Dis3...

HIV/AIDS Drugs for Sub-Saharan Africa: How Do Brand and Generic Supply Compare?

BackgroundSignificant quantities of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to treat HIV/AIDS have been procured for Sub-Saharan Africa for the first time in their 20-year history. This presents a novel opportunity to empirically study the roles of brand and generic suppliers in providing access to ARVs.Methodology/Principal FindingsAn observational study of brand and generic supply based on...

Cytosolic 5′-Triphosphate Ended Viral Leader Transcript of Measles Virus as Activator of the RIG I-Mediated Interferon Response

BackgroundDouble stranded RNA (dsRNA) is widely accepted as an RNA motif recognized as a danger signal by the cellular sentries. However, the biology of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses, or Mononegavirales, is hardly compatible with the production of such dsRNA.Methodology and Principal FindingsDuring measles virus infection, the IFN-β gene transcription was found to be...

Factors Associated with Adherence to Anti-Hypertensive Treatment in Pakistan

ObjectivesPoor adherence is one of the biggest obstacles in therapeutic control of high blood pressure. The objectives of this study were (i) to measure adherence to antihypertensive therapy in a representative sample of the hypertensive Pakistani population and (ii) to investigate the factors associated with adherence in the studied population.Methods and ResultsA cross...

Transient Receptor Potential Ion Channels Control Thermoregulatory Behaviour in Reptiles

Biological functions are governed by thermodynamics, and animals regulate their body temperature to optimise cellular performance and to avoid harmful extremes. The capacity to sense environmental and internal temperatures is a prerequisite for the evolution of thermoregulation. However, the mechanisms that enable ectothermic vertebrates to sense heat remain unknown. The recently...

Theory versus Data: How to Calculate R0?

To predict the potential severity of outbreaks of infectious diseases such as SARS, HIV, TB and smallpox, a summary parameter, the basic reproduction number R0, is generally calculated from a population-level model. R0 specifies the average number of secondary infections caused by one infected individual during his/her entire infectious period at the start of an outbreak. R0 is...

Genesis of a Fungal Non-Self Recognition Repertoire

Conspecific allorecognition, the ability for an organism to discriminate its own cells from those of another individual of the same species, has been developed by many organisms. Allorecognition specificities are determined by highly polymorphic genes. The processes by which this extreme polymorphism is generated remain largely unknown. Fungi are able to form heterokaryons by...

Single Feature Polymorphism Discovery in Rice

The discovery of nucleotide diversity captured as single feature polymorphism (SFP) by using the expression array is a high-throughput and effective method in detecting genome-wide polymorphism. The efficacy of such method was tested in rice, and the results presented in the paper indicate high sensitivity in predicting SFP. The sensitivity of polymorphism detection was further...

Variation in GYS1 Interacts with Exercise and Gender to Predict Cardiovascular Mortality

BackgroundThe muscle glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) has been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the metabolic syndrome (MetS), male myocardial infarction and a defective increase in muscle glycogen synthase protein in response to exercise. We addressed the questions whether polymorphism in GYS1 can predict cardiovascular (CV) mortality in a high-risk population, if this risk...

A Practical Genome Scan for Population-Specific Strong Selective Sweeps That Have Reached Fixation

Phenotypic divergences between modern human populations have developed as a result of genetic adaptation to local environments over the past 100,000 years. To identify genes involved in population-specific phenotypes, it is necessary to detect signatures of recent positive selection in the human genome. Although detection of elongated linkage disequilibrium (LD) has been a...

Redundancy in Genotyping Arrays

Despite their unprecedented density, current SNP genotyping arrays contain large amounts of redundancy, with up to 40 oligonucleotide features used to query each SNP. By using publicly available reference genotype data from the International HapMap, we show that 93.6% sensitivity at <5% false positive rate can be obtained with only four probes per SNP, compared with 98.3% with...

Aversive Learning in Honeybees Revealed by the Olfactory Conditioning of the Sting Extension Reflex

Invertebrates have contributed greatly to our understanding of associative learning because they allow learning protocols to be combined with experimental access to the nervous system. The honeybee Apis mellifera constitutes a standard model for the study of appetitive learning and memory since it was shown, almost a century ago, that bees learn to associate different sensory...

ADRB2 Arg16Gly Polymorphism, Lung Function, and Mortality: Results from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

BackgroundGrowing evidence suggests that the Arg16Arg genotype of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene may be associated with adverse effects of beta-agonist therapy. We sought to examine the association of beta-agonist use and the Arg16Gly polymorphism with lung function and mortality among participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.Methodology and Principal...

Stability of mRNA/DNA and DNA/DNA Duplexes Affects mRNA Transcription

Nucleic acids, due to their structural and chemical properties, can form double-stranded secondary structures that assist the transfer of genetic information and can modulate gene expression. However, the nucleotide sequence alone is insufficient in explaining phenomena like intron-exon recognition during RNA processing. This raises the question whether nucleic acids are endowed...

Tetrahymena Metallothioneins Fall into Two Discrete Subfamilies

BackgroundMetallothioneins are ubiquitous small, cysteine-rich, multifunctional proteins which can bind heavy metals.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe report the results of phylogenetic and gene expression analyses that include two new Tetrahymena thermophila metallothionein genes (MTT3 and MTT5). Sequence alignments of all known Tetrahymena metallothioneins have allowed us to...

Increased Expression of the Auxiliary β2-subunit of Ventricular L-type Ca2+ Channels Leads to Single-Channel Activity Characteristic of Heart Failure

BackgroundIncreased activity of single ventricular L-type Ca2+-channels (L-VDCC) is a hallmark in human heart failure. Recent findings suggest differential modulation by several auxiliary β-subunits as a possible explanation.Methods and ResultsBy molecular and functional analyses of human and murine ventricles, we find that enhanced L-VDCC activity is accompanied by altered...

Precancerous Stem Cells Have the Potential for both Benign and Malignant Differentiation

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in hematopoietic and solid tumors. However, their precursors—namely, precancerous stem cells (pCSCs) —have not been characterized. Here we experimentally define the pCSCs that have the potential for both benign and malignant differentiation, depending on environmental cues. While clonal pCSCs can develop into various types of tissue...

Global Identification and Characterization of Transcriptionally Active Regions in the Rice Genome

Genome tiling microarray studies have consistently documented rich transcriptional activity beyond the annotated genes. However, systematic characterization and transcriptional profiling of the putative novel transcripts on the genome scale are still lacking. We report here the identification of 25,352 and 27,744 transcriptionally active regions (TARs) not encoded by annotated...

Invasions and Extinctions Reshape Coastal Marine Food Webs

The biodiversity of ecosystems worldwide is changing because of species loss due to human-caused extinctions and species gain through intentional and accidental introductions. Here we show that the combined effect of these two processes is altering the trophic structure of food webs in coastal marine systems. This is because most extinctions (∼70%) occur at high trophic levels...