PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,866)

A Three-Stage Colonization Model for the Peopling of the Americas

BackgroundWe evaluate the process by which the Americas were originally colonized and propose a three-stage model that integrates current genetic, archaeological, geological, and paleoecological data. Specifically, we analyze mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data by using complementary coalescent models of demographic history and incorporating non-genetic data to enhance the...

Analysis of the Human Kinome Using Methods Including Fold Recognition Reveals Two Novel Kinases

BackgroundProtein sequence similarity is a commonly used criterion for inferring the unknown function of a protein from a protein of known function. However, proteins can diverge significantly over time such that sequence similarity is difficult, if not impossible, to find. In some cases, a structural similarity remains over long evolutionary time scales and once detected can be...

Hsf1 Activation Inhibits Rapamycin Resistance and TOR Signaling in Yeast Revealed by Combined Proteomic and Genetic Analysis

TOR kinases integrate environmental and nutritional signals to regulate cell growth in eukaryotic organisms. Here, we describe results from a study combining quantitative proteomics and comparative expression analysis in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae, to gain insights into TOR function and regulation. We profiled protein abundance changes under conditions of TOR inhibition by...

Effect of Newborn Resuscitation Training on Health Worker Practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya

BackgroundBirth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker...

Coordination of Cell Polarity during Xenopus Gastrulation

Cell polarity is an essential feature of animal cells contributing to morphogenesis. During Xenopus gastrulation, it is known that chordamesoderm cells are polarized and intercalate each other allowing anterior-posterior elongation of the embryo proper by convergent extension (CE). Although it is well known that the cellular protrusions at both ends of polarized cells exert...

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Regulate Susceptibility to Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury

BackgroundMechanical ventilation causes ventilator-induced lung injury in animals and humans. Mitogen-activated protein kinases have been implicated in ventilator-induced lung injury though their functional significance remains incomplete. We characterize the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/mitogen activated protein kinase kinase-3 and c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase-1 in...

A Novel OxyR Sensor and Regulator of Hydrogen Peroxide Stress with One Cysteine Residue in Deinococcus radiodurans

In bacteria, OxyR is a peroxide sensor and transcription regulator, which can sense the presence of reactive oxygen species and induce antioxidant system. When the cells are exposed to H2O2, OxyR protein is activated via the formation of a disulfide bond between the two conserved cysteine residues (C199 and C208). In Deinococcus radiodurans, a previously unreported special...

A Model of Salmonella Colitis with Features of Diarrhea in SLC11A1 Wild-Type Mice

BackgroundMice do not get diarrhea when orally infected with S. enterica, but pre-treatment with oral aminoglycosides makes them susceptible to Salmonella colitis. However, genetically susceptible ItyS mice (Nramp1G169D allele) die from systemic infection before they develop diarrhea, so a new model is needed to study the pathogenesis of diarrhea. We pretreated ItyR mice...

Delayed Rectifier and A-Type Potassium Channels Associated with Kv 2.1 and Kv 4.3 Expression in Embryonic Rat Neural Progenitor Cells

BackgroundBecause of the importance of voltage-activated K+ channels during embryonic development and in cell proliferation, we present here the first description of these channels in E15 rat embryonic neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Activation, inactivation, and single-channel conductance properties of recorded progenitor cells were compared...

Prevention of Hypovolemic Circulatory Collapse by IL-6 Activated Stat3

Half of trauma deaths are attributable to hypovolemic circulatory collapse (HCC). We established a model of HCC in rats involving minor trauma plus severe hemorrhagic shock (HS). HCC in this model was accompanied by a 50% reduction in peak acceleration of aortic blood flow and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. HCC and apoptosis increased with increasing duration of hypotension. Apoptosis...

Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase Kinase α Is Expressed by Monocytic Cells and Regulates the Activation Profile

Macrophages are capable of assuming numerous phenotypes in order to adapt to endogenous and exogenous challenges but many of the factors that regulate this process are still unknown. We report that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase α (CaMKKα) is expressed in human monocytic cells and demonstrate that its inhibition blocks type-II monocytic cell activation and promotes...

Genome Sequence of the Saprophyte Leptospira biflexa Provides Insights into the Evolution of Leptospira and the Pathogenesis of Leptospirosis

Leptospira biflexa is a free-living saprophytic spirochete present in aquatic environments. We determined the genome sequence of L. biflexa, making it the first saprophytic Leptospira to be sequenced. The L. biflexa genome has 3,590 protein-coding genes distributed across three circular replicons: the major 3,604 chromosome, a smaller 278-kb replicon that also carries essential...

Pregnancy Outcome and Placenta Pathology in Plasmodium berghei ANKA Infected Mice Reproduce the Pathogenesis of Severe Malaria in Pregnant Women

Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is expressed in a range of clinical complications that include increased disease severity in pregnant women, decreased fetal viability, intra-uterine growth retardation, low birth weight and infant mortality. The physiopathology of malaria in pregnancy is difficult to scrutinize and attempts were made in the past to use animal models for...

The ER-Bound RING Finger Protein 5 (RNF5/RMA1) Causes Degenerative Myopathy in Transgenic Mice and Is Deregulated in Inclusion Body Myositis

Growing evidence supports the importance of ubiquitin ligases in the pathogenesis of muscular disorders, although underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here we show that the expression of RNF5 (aka RMA1), an ER-anchored RING finger E3 ligase implicated in muscle organization and in recognition and processing of malfolded proteins, is elevated and mislocalized to...

Combined Effect of Hemostatic Gene Polymorphisms and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Advanced Coronary Atherosclerosis

BackgroundRelative little attention has been devoted until now to the combined effects of gene polymorphisms of the hemostatic pathway as risk factors for Myocardial Infarction (MI), the main thrombotic complication of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of ten common prothrombotic polymorphisms as a determinant of MI...

Repeat Confirmatory Testing for Persons with Discordant Whole Blood and Oral Fluid Rapid HIV Test Results: Findings from Post Marketing Surveillance

BackgroundReactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB), immunofluorescent assay (IFA) or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)). When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result), repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen...

Lack of Evidence for Changing Virulence of HIV-1 in North America

BackgroundSeveral long-term cohort studies and in-vitro fitness assays have resulted in inconsistent reports on changes in HIV-1 virulence, including reports of decreasing, stable, and increasing virulence over the course of the AIDS pandemic. We tested the hypothesis of changing HIV-1 virulence by examining trends in prognostic clinical markers of disease progression from 1984...

In Drosophila melanogaster the COM Locus Directs the Somatic Silencing of Two Retrotransposons through both Piwi-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

BackgroundIn the Drosophila germ line, repeat-associated small interfering RNAs (rasiRNAs) ensure genomic stability by silencing endogenous transposable elements. This RNA silencing involves small RNAs of 26-30 nucleotides that are mainly produced from the antisense strand and function through the Piwi protein. Piwi belongs to the subclass of the Argonaute family of RNA...

Expression of SPIG1 Reveals Development of a Retinal Ganglion Cell Subtype Projecting to the Medial Terminal Nucleus in the Mouse

Visual information is transmitted to the brain by roughly a dozen distinct types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) defined by a characteristic morphology, physiology, and central projections. However, our understanding about how these parallel pathways develop is still in its infancy, because few molecular markers corresponding to individual RGC types are available. Previously, we...

Self-Consistent Estimation of Mislocated Fixations during Reading

During reading, we generate saccadic eye movements to move words into the center of the visual field for word processing. However, due to systematic and random errors in the oculomotor system, distributions of within-word landing positions are rather broad and show overlapping tails, which suggests that a fraction of fixations is mislocated and falls on words to the left or right...

Prolactin Receptor Signaling Is Essential for Perinatal Brown Adipocyte Function: A Role for Insulin-like Growth Factor-2

BackgroundThe lactogenic hormones prolactin (PRL) and placental lactogens (PL) play central roles in reproduction and mammary development. Their actions are mediated via binding to PRL receptor (PRLR), highly expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT), yet their impact on adipocyte function and metabolism remains unclear.Methodology/Principal FindingsPRLR knockout (KO) newborn mice...

Commercial Nucleic-Acid Amplification Tests for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Respiratory Specimens: Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression

BackgroundHundreds of studies have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of nucleic-acid amplification tests (NAATs) for tuberculosis (TB). Commercial tests have been shown to give more consistent results than in-house assays. Previous meta-analyses have found high specificity but low and highly variable estimates of sensitivity. However, reasons for variability in study results have...

Functional Group and Substructure Searching as a Tool in Metabolomics

BackgroundA direct link between the names and structures of compounds and the functional groups contained within them is important, not only because biochemists frequently rely on literature that uses a free-text format to describe functional groups, but also because metabolic models depend upon the connections between enzymes and substrates being known and appropriately stored...

Evolution and Diversity of Clonal Bacteria: The Paradigm of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

BackgroundMycobacterium tuberculosis complex species display relatively static genomes and 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity. Studying the evolutionary history of such monomorphic bacteria is a difficult and challenging task.Principal FindingsWe found that single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of DNA repair, recombination and replication (3R) genes in a comprehensive...

Heavy Metal Tolerance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacterium widespread in the environment. S. maltophilia Sm777 exhibits innate resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, this bacterium tolerates high levels (0.1 to 50 mM) of various toxic metals, such as Cd, Pb, Co, Zn, Hg, Ag, selenite, tellurite and uranyl. S. maltophilia Sm777 was able...