PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,703)

Inhibition of Anthrax Lethal Toxin-Induced Cytolysis of RAW264.7 Cells by Celastrol

BackgroundBacillus anthracis is the bacterium responsible for causing anthrax. The ability of B. anthracis to cause disease is dependent on a secreted virulence factor, lethal toxin, that promotes survival of the bacteria in the host by impairing the immune response. A well-studied effect of lethal toxin is the killing of macrophages, although the molecular mechanisms involved...

Gene Expression Profile of Neuronal Progenitor Cells Derived from hESCs: Activation of Chromosome 11p15.5 and Comparison to Human Dopaminergic Neurons

BackgroundWe initiated differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into dopamine neurons, obtained a purified population of neuronal precursor cells by cell sorting, and determined patterns of gene transcription.MethodologyDopaminergic differentiation of hESCs was initiated by culturing hESCs with a feeder layer of PA6 cells. Differentiating cells were then sorted to...

Elevated Risk for HIV-1 Infection in Adolescents and Young Adults in São Paulo, Brazil

BackgroundRecent studies have sought to describe HIV infection and transmission characteristics around the world. Identification of early HIV-1 infection is essential to proper surveillance and description of regional transmission trends. In this study we compare people recently infected (RI) with HIV-1, as defined by Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion...

Broad and Gag-Biased HIV-1 Epitope Repertoires Are Associated with Lower Viral Loads

BackgroundHLA class-I alleles differ in their ability to control HIV replication through cell-mediated immune responses. No consistent associations have been found between the breadth of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) responses and the control of HIV-1, and it is unknown whether the size or distribution of the viral proteome-wide epitope repertoire, i.e., the intrinsic ability to...

Paracellular Absorption: A Bat Breaks the Mammal Paradigm

Bats tend to have less intestinal tissue than comparably sized nonflying mammals. The corresponding reduction in intestinal volume and hence mass of digesta carried is advantageous because the costs of flight increase with load carried and because take-off and maneuverability are diminished at heavier masses. Water soluble compounds, such as glucose and amino acids, are absorbed...

A Model for Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Deduced from Comparative Whole Genome Analysis

BackgroundDiatoms are unicellular algae responsible for approximately 20% of global carbon fixation. Their evolution by secondary endocytobiosis resulted in a complex cellular structure and metabolism compared to algae with primary plastids.Methodology/Principal FindingsThe whole genome sequence of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has recently been completed. We identified...

Importance of a C-Terminal Conserved Region of Chk1 for Checkpoint Function

BackgroundThe protein kinase Chk1 is an essential component of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. Chk1 is phosphorylated and activated in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe when cells are exposed to agents that damage DNA. Phosphorylation, kinase activation, and nuclear accumulation are events critical to the ability of Chk1 to induce a transient delay in cell cycle...

Y-Chromosome Based Evidence for Pre-Neolithic Origin of the Genetically Homogeneous but Diverse Sardinian Population: Inference for Association Scans

The island of Sardinia shows a unique high incidence of several autoimmune diseases with multifactorial inheritance, particularly type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The prior knowledge of the genetic structure of this population is fundamental to establish the optimal design for association studies in these diseases. Previous work suggested that the Sardinians are a...

Age-Specific Differences in Oncogenic Pathway Deregulation Seen in Human Breast Tumors

PurposeTo define the biology driving the aggressive nature of breast cancer arising in young women.Experimental DesignAmong 784 patients with early stage breast cancer, using prospectively-defined, age-specific cohorts (young ≤45 years; older ≥65 years), 411 eligible patients (n = 200≤45 years; n = 211≥65 years) with clinically-annotated Affymetrix microarray data were identified...

Extent of Beta Cell Destruction Is Important but Insufficient to Predict the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

BackgroundType 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by an inability to produce insulin endogenously. Based on a series of histopathology studies of patients with recent onset of the disease, it is commonly stated that the onset of clinical symptoms corresponds to an 80-95% reduction in beta cell mass. Motivated by the clinical importance of the degree of beta cell destruction at...

Structural Requirements for Yersinia YopJ Inhibition of MAP Kinase Pathways

MAPK signaling cascades are evolutionally conserved. The bacterial effector, YopJ, uses the unique activity of Ser/Thr acetylation to inhibit the activation of the MAPK kinase (MKK) and prevent activation by phosphorylation. YopJ is also able to block yeast MAPK signaling pathways using this mechanism. Based on these observations, we performed a genetic screen to isolate mutants...

Nitrated α–Synuclein Immunity Accelerates Degeneration of Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons

BackgroundThe neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) includes loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, nitrated α-synuclein (N-α-Syn) enriched intraneuronal inclusions or Lewy bodies and neuroinflammation. While the contribution of innate microglial inflammatory activities to disease are known, evidence for how adaptive immune mechanisms may affect the course of...

Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity Finds the Start of Repeating Patterns in Continuous Spike Trains

Experimental studies have observed Long Term synaptic Potentiation (LTP) when a presynaptic neuron fires shortly before a postsynaptic neuron, and Long Term Depression (LTD) when the presynaptic neuron fires shortly after, a phenomenon known as Spike Timing Dependant Plasticity (STDP). When a neuron is presented successively with discrete volleys of input spikes STDP has been...

Comparative Genomic Analyses of Copper Transporters and Cuproproteomes Reveal Evolutionary Dynamics of Copper Utilization and Its Link to Oxygen

Copper is an essential trace element in many organisms and is utilized in all domains of life. It is often used as a cofactor of redox proteins, but is also a toxic metal ion. Intracellular copper must be carefully handled to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species which pose a threat to DNA, lipids, and proteins. In this work, we examined patterns of copper utilization...

Incidence of Tuberculosis and the Predictive Value of ELISPOT and Mantoux Tests in Gambian Case Contacts

BackgroundStudies of Tuberculosis (TB) case contacts are increasingly being utilised for understanding the relationship between M. tuberculosis and the human host and for assessing new interventions and diagnostic tests. We aimed to identify the incidence rate of new TB cases among TB contacts and to relate this to their initial Mantoux and ELISPOT test results.Methods and...

Direct Interaction of Endogenous Kv Channels with Syntaxin Enhances Exocytosis by Neuroendocrine Cells

K+ efflux through voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels can attenuate the release of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones by hyperpolarizing the membrane potential and attenuating Ca2+ influx. Notably, direct interaction between Kv2.1 channels overexpressed in PC12 cells and syntaxin has recently been shown to facilitate dense core vesicle (DCV)-mediated release. Here, we focus...

Correction of Population Stratification in Large Multi-Ethnic Association Studies

BackgroundThe vast majority of genetic risk factors for complex diseases have, taken individually, a small effect on the end phenotype. Population-based association studies therefore need very large sample sizes to detect significant differences between affected and non-affected individuals. Including thousands of affected individuals in a study requires recruitment in numerous...

Genetic Evidence for a Mitochondriate Ancestry in the ‘Amitochondriate’ Flagellate Trimastix pyriformis

Most modern eukaryotes diverged from a common ancestor that contained the α-proteobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to mitochondria. The ‘amitochondriate’ anaerobic protist parasites that have been studied to date, such as Giardia and Trichomonas harbor mitochondrion-related organelles, such as mitosomes or hydrogenosomes. Yet there is one remaining group of mitochondrion...

Albumin-Associated Lipids Regulate Human Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal

BackgroundAlthough human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold great promise as a source of differentiated cells to treat several human diseases, many obstacles still need to be surmounted before this can become a reality. First among these, a robust chemically-defined system to expand hESCs in culture is still unavailable despite recent advances in the understanding of factors...

Sex-Related Differences in Gene Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle

There is sexual dimorphism of skeletal muscle, the most obvious feature being the larger muscle mass of men. The molecular basis for this difference has not been clearly defined. To identify genes that might contribute to the relatively greater muscularity of men, we compared skeletal muscle gene expression profiles of 15 normal men and 15 normal women by using comprehensive...

Whole-Gene Positive Selection, Elevated Synonymous Substitution Rates, Duplication, and Indel Evolution of the Chloroplast clpP1 Gene

BackgroundSynonymous DNA substitution rates in the plant chloroplast genome are generally relatively slow and lineage dependent. Non-synonymous rates are usually even slower due to purifying selection acting on the genes. Positive selection is expected to speed up non-synonymous substitution rates, whereas synonymous rates are expected to be unaffected. Until recently, positive...

The OSU1/QUA2/TSD2-Encoded Putative Methyltransferase Is a Critical Modulator of Carbon and Nitrogen Nutrient Balance Response in Arabidopsis

The balance between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) nutrients must be tightly coordinated so that cells can optimize their opportunity for metabolism, growth and development. However, the C and N nutrient balance perception and signaling mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two allelic oversensitive to sugar1 mutants (osu1-1, osu1...

CD209 Genetic Polymorphism and Tuberculosis Disease

BackgroundTuberculosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. DC-SIGN, encoded by CD209, is a receptor capable of binding and internalizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Previous studies have reported that the CD209 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-336A/G exerts an effect on CD209 expression and is associated with human...

Kinetic Pathway of Pyrophosphorolysis by a Retrotransposon Reverse Transcriptase

DNA and RNA polymerases use a common phosphoryl transfer mechanism for base addition that requires two or three acidic amino acid residues at their active sites. We previously showed, for the reverse transcriptase (RT) encoded by the yeast retrotransposon Ty1, that one of the three conserved active site aspartates (D211) can be substituted by asparagine and still retain in vitro...

High-Resolution Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary History of HIV-1 Subtypes in Albania

BackgroundHIV-1 epidemic in Western Europe is largely due to subtype B. Little is known about the HIV-1 in Eastern Europe, but a few studies have shown that non-B subtypes are quite common. In Albania, where a recent study estimated a ten-fold increase of AIDS incidence during the last six years, subtype A and B account for 90% of the know infections.Methodology/Principal...