PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,516)

Effects of Active Conductance Distribution over Dendrites on the Synaptic Integration in an Identified Nonspiking Interneuron

The synaptic integration in individual central neuron is critically affected by how active conductances are distributed over dendrites. It has been well known that the dendrites of central neurons are richly endowed with voltage- and ligand-regulated ion conductances. Nonspiking interneurons (NSIs), almost exclusively characteristic to arthropod central nervous systems, do not...

Correlation of Circulating CD133+ Progenitor Subclasses with a Mild Phenotype in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients

BackgroundVarious prognostic serum and cellular markers have been identified for many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and tumor pathologies. Here we assessed whether the levels of certain stem cells may predict the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).Methods and FindingsThe levels of several subpopulations of circulating stem cells expressing the CD133...

Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Attentional Guidance during Inefficient Visual Search

Spotting a prey or a predator is crucial in the natural environment and relies on the ability to extract quickly pertinent visual information. The experimental counterpart of this behavior is visual search (VS) where subjects have to identify a target amongst several distractors. In difficult VS tasks, it has been found that the reaction time (RT) is influenced by salience...

Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Mediates Bronchioalveolar Stem Cell Expansion in Mouse Models of Oncogenic K-ras-Induced Lung Cancer

BackgroundNon-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. Developing more effective NSCLC therapeutics will require the elucidation of the genetic and biochemical bases for this disease. Bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) are a putative cancer stem cell population in mouse models of oncogenic K-ras-induced lung...

A DNA Polymerase α Accessory Protein, Mcl1, Is Required for Propagation of Centromere Structures in Fission Yeast

Specialized chromatin exists at centromeres and must be precisely transmitted during DNA replication. The mechanisms involved in the propagation of these structures remain elusive. Fission yeast centromeres are composed of two chromatin domains: the central CENP-ACnp1 kinetochore domain and flanking heterochromatin domains. Here we show that fission yeast Mcl1, a DNA polymerase...

Synthesis and Bio-Imaging Application of Highly Luminescent Mercaptosuccinic Acid-Coated CdTe Nanocrystals

Here we present a facile one-pot method to prepare high-quality CdTe nanocrystals in aqueous phase. In contrast to the use of oxygen-sensitive NaHTe or H2Te as Te source in the current synthetic methods, we employ more stable sodium tellurite as the Te source for preparing highly luminescent CdTe nanocrystals in aqueous solution. By selecting mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as...

The Yeast Tor Signaling Pathway Is Involved in G2/M Transition via Polo-Kinase

The target of rapamycin (Tor) protein plays central roles in cell growth. Rapamycin inhibits cell growth and promotes cell cycle arrest at G1 (G0). However, little is known about whether Tor is involved in other stages of the cell division cycle. Here we report that the rapamycin-sensitive Tor complex 1 (TORC1) is involved in G2/M transition in S. cerevisiae. Strains carrying a...

Missing Girls in India: Infanticide, Feticide and Made-to-Order Pregnancies? Insights from Hospital-Based Sex-Ratio-at-Birth over the Last Century

BackgroundThere are 44 million missing women in India. Gender bias; neglect of girls, infanticides and feticides are responsible. The sex ratio at birth can be used to examine the influence of antenatal sex selection on the sex ratio.Materials and MethodsRecords from 321,991 deliveries at one hospital over 11 decades were utilized. The middle year in each decade was taken as...

Anomalous Hypothalamic Responses to Humor in Cataplexy

BackgroundCataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy...

Comparing the Processing of Music and Language Meaning Using EEG and fMRI Provides Evidence for Similar and Distinct Neural Representations

Recent demonstrations that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful information has raised several questions as to what the underlying mechanisms of establishing meaning in music are, and if the meaning of music is represented in comparable fashion to language meaning. This paper presents evidence showing that expressed affect is a primary pathway to music meaning...

Duration of Protection against Malaria and Anaemia Provided by Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Infants in Navrongo, Ghana

BackgroundIntermittent preventive treatment for malaria in Infants (IPTi) has been shown to give effective and safe protection against malaria. It has been suggested that IPTi might have long-lasting beneficial effects but, in most settings, the protection provided by IPTi appears to be short-lived. Knowledge of the duration of protection given by IPTi would help interpret the...

Visual Learning in Multiple-Object Tracking

BackgroundTracking moving objects in space is important for the maintenance of spatiotemporal continuity in everyday visual tasks. In the laboratory, this ability is tested using the Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) task, where participants track a subset of moving objects with attention over an extended period of time. The ability to track multiple objects with attention is...

Nucleobindin Co-Localizes and Associates with Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in Human Neutrophils

The inducible cyclooxygenase isoform (COX-2) is associated with inflammation, tumorigenesis, as well as with physiological events. Despite efforts deployed in order to understand the biology of this multi-faceted enzyme, much remains to be understood. Nucleobindin (Nuc), a ubiquitous Ca2+-binding protein, possesses a putative COX-binding domain. In this study, we investigated its...

Genital Herpes Has Played a More Important Role than Any Other Sexually Transmitted Infection in Driving HIV Prevalence in Africa

BackgroundExtensive evidence from observational studies suggests a role for genital herpes in the HIV epidemic. A number of herpes vaccines are under development and several trials of the efficacy of HSV-2 treatment with acyclovir in reducing HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression have just reported their results or will report their results in the next year. The...

Increased Aortic Calpain-1 Activity Mediates Age-Associated Angiotensin II Signaling of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

BackgroundAngiotensin II (Ang II) signaling, including matrix metalloproteinase type II (MMP2) activation, has been linked to an age-associated increase in migration capacity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and to other proinflammatory features of arterial aging. Calpain-1 activation is required for MMP2 expression in fibroblasts and is induced in cardiomyocytes by Ang II...

Social Vulnerability, Frailty and Mortality in Elderly People

BackgroundSocial vulnerability is related to the health of elderly people, but its measurement and relationship to frailty are controversial. The aims of the present study were to operationalize social vulnerability according to a deficit accumulation approach, to compare social vulnerability and frailty, and to study social vulnerability in relation to mortality.Methods and...

Ex Vivo Generation of Human Alloantigen-Specific Regulatory T Cells from CD4posCD25high T Cells for Immunotherapy

BackgroundRegulatory T cell (Treg) based immunotherapy is a potential treatment for several immune disorders. By now, this approach proved successful in preclinical animal transplantation and auto-immunity models. In these models the success of Treg based immunotherapy crucially depends on the antigen-specificity of the infused Treg population. For the human setting, information...

dSETDB1 and SU(VAR)3–9 Sequentially Function during Germline-Stem Cell Differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster

Germline-stem cells (GSCs) produce gametes and are thus true “immortal stem cells”. In Drosophila ovaries, GSCs divide asymmetrically to produce daughter GSCs and cystoblasts, and the latter differentiate into germline cysts. Here we show that the histone-lysine methyltransferase dSETDB1, located in pericentric heterochromatin, catalyzes H3-K9 trimethylation in GSCs and their...

Ubiquitin E3 Ligase Ring1b/Rnf2 of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 Contributes to Stable Maintenance of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

BackgroundPolycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) core member Ring1b/Rnf2, with ubiquitin E3 ligase activity towards histone H2A at lysine 119, is essential for early embryogenesis. To obtain more insight into the role of Ring1b in early development, we studied its function in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe investigated the effects of Ring1b...

Antagomir-17-5p Abolishes the Growth of Therapy-Resistant Neuroblastoma through p21 and BIM

We identified a key oncogenic pathway underlying neuroblastoma progression: specifically, MYCN, expressed at elevated level, transactivates the miRNA 17-5p-92 cluster, which inhibits p21 and BIM translation by interaction with their mRNA 3′ UTRs. Overexpression of miRNA 17-5p-92 cluster in MYCN-not-amplified neuroblastoma cells strongly augments their in vitro and in vivo...

Kinetics and Ligand-Binding Preferences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Thymidylate Synthases, ThyA and ThyX

BackgroundMycobacterium tuberculosis kills approximately 2 million people each year and presents an urgent need to identify new targets and new antitubercular drugs. Thymidylate synthase (TS) enzymes from other species offer good targets for drug development and the M. tuberculosis genome contains two putative TS enzymes, a conventional ThyA and a flavin-based ThyX. In M...

Extra-Nuclear Signalling of Estrogen Receptor to Breast Cancer Cytoskeletal Remodelling, Migration and Invasion

BackgroundEstrogen is an established enhancer of breast cancer development, but less is known on its effect on local progression or metastasis. We studied the effect of estrogen receptor recruitment on actin cytoskeleton remodeling and breast cancer cell movement and invasion. Moreover, we characterized the signaling steps through which these actions are enacted.Methodology...

The Proto-Oncogene Int6 Is Essential for Neddylation of Cul1 and Cul3 in Drosophila

Int6 is a proto-oncogene implicated in various types of cancer, but the mechanisms underlying its activity are not clear. Int6 encodes a subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, and interacts with two related complexes, the proteasome, whose activity is regulated by Int6 in S. pombe, and the COP9 signalosome. The COP9 signalosome regulates the activity of Cullin...

Resurrection of DNA Function In Vivo from an Extinct Genome

There is a burgeoning repository of information available from ancient DNA that can be used to understand how genomes have evolved and to determine the genetic features that defined a particular species. To assess the functional consequences of changes to a genome, a variety of methods are needed to examine extinct DNA function. We isolated a transcriptional enhancer element from...

Generation of a Novel Regulatory NK Cell Subset from Peripheral Blood CD34+ Progenitors Promoted by Membrane-Bound IL-15

BackgroundNK cells have been long time considered as cytotoxic lymphocytes competent in killing virus-infected cells and tumors. However, NK cells may also play essential immuno-regulatory functions. In this context, the real existence of a defined NK subset with negative regulatory properties has been hypothesized but never clearly demonstrated.Methodology/Principal...