PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,065)

The LARK RNA-Binding Protein Selectively Regulates the Circadian Eclosion Rhythm by Controlling E74 Protein Expression

Despite substantial progress in defining central components of the circadian pacemaker, the output pathways coupling the clock to rhythmic physiological events remain elusive. We previously showed that LARK is a Drosophila RNA-binding protein which functions downstream of the clock to mediate behavioral outputs. To better understand the roles of LARK in the circadian system, we...

Comparing Natural and Constrained Movements: New Insights into the Visuomotor Control of Grasping

BackgroundNeurophysiological studies showed that in macaques, grasp-related sensorimotor transformations are accomplished in a circuit connecting the anterior intraparietal sulcus (area AIP) with premotor area F5. Single unit recordings of macaque indicate that activity of neurons in this circuit is not simply linked to any particular object. Instead, responses correspond to the...

Underestimation of Species Richness in Neotropical Frogs Revealed by mtDNA Analyses

BackgroundAmphibians are rapidly vanishing. At the same time, it is most likely that the number of amphibian species is highly underestimated. Recent DNA barcoding work has attempted to define a threshold between intra- and inter-specific genetic distances to help identify candidate species. In groups with high extinction rates and poorly known species boundaries, like amphibians...

The Novel CXCL12γ Isoform Encodes an Unstructured Cationic Domain Which Regulates Bioactivity and Interaction with Both Glycosaminoglycans and CXCR4

BackgroundCXCL12α, a chemokine that importantly promotes the oriented cell migration and tissue homing of many cell types, regulates key homeostatic functions and pathological processes through interactions with its cognate receptor (CXCR4) and heparan sulfate (HS). The alternative splicing of the cxcl12 gene generates a recently identified isoform, CXCL12γ, which structure...

A Step Towards Seascape Scale Conservation: Using Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) to Map Fishing Activity

BackgroundConservation of marine ecosystems will require a holistic understanding of fisheries with concurrent spatial patterns of biodiversity.Methodology/Principal FindingsUsing data from the UK Government Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) deployed on UK-registered large fishing vessels we investigate patterns of fisheries activity on annual and seasonal scales. Analysis of VMS...

Targeting Thioredoxin Reductase 1 Reduction in Cancer Cells Inhibits Self-Sufficient Growth and DNA Replication

Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) is a major redox regulator in mammalian cells. As an important antioxidant selenoprotein, TR1 is thought to participate in cancer prevention, but is also known to be over-expressed in many cancer cells. Numerous cancer drugs inhibit TR1, and this protein has been proposed as a target for cancer therapy. We previously reported that reduction of TR1...

Rampant Adaptive Evolution in Regions of Proteins with Unknown Function in Drosophila simulans

Adaptive protein evolution is pervasive in Drosophila. Genomic studies, thus far, have analyzed each protein as a single entity. However, the targets of adaptive events may be localized to particular parts of proteins, such as protein domains or regions involved in protein folding. We compared the population genetic mechanisms driving sequence polymorphism and divergence in...

Treating Cancer as an Infectious Disease—Viral Antigens as Novel Targets for Treatment and Potential Prevention of Tumors of Viral Etiology

BackgroundNearly 20% of human cancers worldwide have an infectious etiology with the most prominent examples being hepatitis B and C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma and human papilloma virus-associated cervical cancer. There is an urgent need to find new approaches to treatment and prevention of virus-associated cancers.Methodology/Principal FindingsViral antigens have...

The p11/S100A10 Light Chain of Annexin A2 Is Dispensable for Annexin A2 Association to Endosomes and Functions in Endosomal Transport

BackgroundAnnexin A2 is a peripheral membrane protein that belongs to the annexin family of Ca2+ and phospholipid-binding proteins. This protein, which plays a role in membrane organization and dynamics in particular along the endocytic pathway, exists as a heterotetrameric complex, consisting of two annexin A2 molecules bound via their N-termini to a dimer of p11/S100A10 light...

Creating Physical 3D Stereolithograph Models of Brain and Skull

The human brain and skull are three dimensional (3D) anatomical structures with complex surfaces. However, medical images are often two dimensional (2D) and provide incomplete visualization of structural morphology. To overcome this loss in dimension, we developed and validated a freely available, semi-automated pathway to build 3D virtual reality (VR) and hand-held...

Molecular Correlates of Host Specialization in Staphylococcus aureus

BackgroundThe majority of Staphylococcus aureus isolates that are recovered from either serious infections in humans or from mastitis in cattle represent genetically distinct sets of clonal groups. Moreover, population genetic analyses have provided strong evidence of host specialization among S. aureus clonal groups associated with human and ruminant infection. However, the...

Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian

Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (∼505 million years old) Marjum...

Boosting BCG with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara Expressing Antigen 85A: Different Boosting Intervals and Implications for Efficacy Trials

ObjectivesTo investigate the safety and immunogenicity of boosting BCG with modified vaccinia Ankara expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A), shortly after BCG vaccination, and to compare this first with the immunogenicity of BCG vaccination alone and second with a previous clinical trial where MVA85A was administered more than 10 years after BCG vaccination.DesignThere are two clinical...

Horizontal Gene Transfer Regulation in Bacteria as a “Spandrel” of DNA Repair Mechanisms

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is recognized as the major force for bacterial genome evolution. Yet, numerous questions remain about the transferred genes, their function, quantity and frequency. The extent to which genetic transformation by exogenous DNA has occurred over evolutionary time was initially addressed by an in silico approach using the complete genome sequence of the...

Neutrophil Activation Status in Stable Coronary Artery Disease

BackgroundDuring the last years, neutrophils have emerged as important players in atherogenesis. They are highly activated in peripheral blood of patients with unstable angina. Moreover, a primed state of circulating neutrophils has been proposed in patients with stable angina. Our aim was to investigate the neutrophil activation status in patients with stable coronary artery...

γH2AX Foci Form Preferentially in Euchromatin after Ionising-Radiation

BackgroundThe histone variant histone H2A.X comprises up to 25% of the H2A complement in mammalian cells. It is rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of cells to double-strand break (DSB) inducing agents such as ionising radiation. Within minutes of DSB generation, H2AX molecules are phosphorylated in large chromatin domains flanking DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); these...

Akt1 in Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts Controls Bone Remodeling

Bone mass and turnover are maintained by the coordinated balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, under regulation of many systemic and local factors. Phosphoinositide-dependent serine-threonine protein kinase Akt is one of the key players in the signaling of potent bone anabolic factors. This study initially showed that the disruption of...

Dysconnection Topography in Schizophrenia Revealed with State-Space Analysis of EEG

BackgroundThe dysconnection hypothesis has been proposed to account for pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Widespread structural changes suggesting abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia have been imaged. A functional counterpart of the structural maps would be the EEG synchronization maps. However, due to the limits of currently used bivariate methods...

Illusory Stimuli Can Be Used to Identify Retinal Blind Spots

BackgroundIdentification of visual field loss in people with retinal disease is not straightforward as people with eye disease are frequently unaware of substantial deficits in their visual field, as a consequence of perceptual completion (“filling-in”) of affected areas.MethodologyWe attempted to induce a compelling visual illusion known as the induced twinkle after-effect (TwAE...

Cell Cycle Genes Are the Evolutionarily Conserved Targets of the E2F4 Transcription Factor

Maintaining quiescent cells in G0 phase is achieved in part through the multiprotein subunit complex known as DREAM, and in human cell lines the transcription factor E2F4 directs this complex to its cell cycle targets. We found that E2F4 binds a highly overlapping set of human genes among three diverse primary tissues and an asynchronous cell line, which suggests that tissue...

A New Method to Extract Dental Pulp DNA: Application to Universal Detection of Bacteria

BackgroundDental pulp is used for PCR-based detection of DNA derived from host and bacteremic microorganims. Current protocols require odontology expertise for proper recovery of the dental pulp. Dental pulp specimen exposed to laboratory environment yields contaminants detected using universal 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe developed a new...

Protection of Rhesus Monkeys by a DNA Prime/Poxvirus Boost Malaria Vaccine Depends on Optimal DNA Priming and Inclusion of Blood Stage Antigens

BackgroundWe have previously described a four antigen malaria vaccine consisting of DNA plasmids boosted by recombinant poxviruses which protects a high percentage of rhesus monkeys against Plasmodium knowlesi (Pk) malaria. This is a multi-stage vaccine that includes two pre-erythrocytic antigens, PkCSP and PkSSP2(TRAP), and two erythrocytic antigens, PkAMA-1 and PkMSP-1(42kD...

Microarray Analysis in the Archaeon Halobacterium salinarum Strain R1

BackgroundPhototrophy of the extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum was explored for decades. The research was mainly focused on the expression of bacteriorhodopsin and its functional properties. In contrast, less is known about genome wide transcriptional changes and their impact on the physiological adaptation to phototrophy. The tool of choice to record...

Ancestral Inference and the Study of Codon Bias Evolution: Implications for Molecular Evolutionary Analyses of the Drosophila melanogaster Subgroup

Reliable inference of ancestral sequences can be critical to identifying both patterns and causes of molecular evolution. Robustness of ancestral inference is often assumed among closely related species, but tests of this assumption have been limited. Here, we examine the performance of inference methods for data simulated under scenarios of codon bias evolution within the...

Hsp90 Inhibition Decreases Mitochondrial Protein Turnover

BackgroundCells treated with hsp90 inhibitors exhibit pleiotropic changes, including an expansion of the mitochondrial compartment, accompanied by mitochondrial fragmentation and condensed mitochondrial morphology, with ultimate compromise of mitochondrial integrity and apoptosis.FindingsWe identified several mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complex subunits, including...