PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,122)

A Highly Pathogenic Strain of Staphylococcus sciuri Caused Fatal Exudative Epidermitis in Piglets

Staphylococcus sciuri are important human pathogens responsible for endocarditis, peritonitis, septic shock, urinary tract infection, pelvic inflammatory disease and wound infections. However, little information is known regarding the pathogenicity of S. sciuri to animals. From the pericardial fluid of a diseased piglet with exudative epidermitis (EE), we isolated a strain of...

Nerve Growth Factor mRNA Expression in the Regenerating Antler Tip of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus)

Deer antlers are the only mammalian organs that can fully regenerate each year. During their growth phase, antlers of red deer extend at a rate of approximately 10 mm/day, a growth rate matched by the antler nerves. It was demonstrated in a previous study that extracts from deer velvet antler can promote neurite outgrowth from neural explants, suggesting a possible role for Nerve...

Rapid Dissemination of Plasmodium falciparum Drug Resistance Despite Strictly Controlled Antimalarial Use

Background Inadequate treatment practices with antimalarials are considered major contributors to Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine, pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine. The longitudinal survey conducted in Dielmo, a rural Senegalese community, offers a unique frame to explore the impact of strictly controlled and quantified antimalarial use for diagnosed malaria on drug...

Improvements to the Red List Index

The Red List Index uses information from the IUCN Red List to track trends in the projected overall extinction risk of sets of species. It has been widely recognised as an important component of the suite of indicators needed to measure progress towards the international target of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. However, further application of the...

Intron Dynamics in Ribosomal Protein Genes

The role of spliceosomal introns in eukaryotic genomes remains obscure. A large scale analysis of intron presence/absence patterns in many gene families and species is a necessary step to clarify the role of these introns. In this analysis, we used a maximum likelihood method to reconstruct the evolution of 2,961 introns in a dataset of 76 ribosomal protein genes from 22...

Wingless Directly Represses DPP Morphogen Expression via an Armadillo/TCF/Brinker Complex

Background Spatially restricted morphogen expression drives many patterning and regeneration processes, but how is the pattern of morphogen expression established and maintained? Patterning of Drosophila leg imaginal discs requires expression of the DPP morphogen dorsally and the wingless (WG) morphogen ventrally. We have shown that these mutually exclusive patterns of expression...

The Waiting Time for Inter-Country Spread of Pandemic Influenza

Background The time delay between the start of an influenza pandemic and its subsequent initiation in other countries is highly relevant to preparedness planning. We quantify the distribution of this random time in terms of the separate components of this delay, and assess how the delay may be extended by non-pharmaceutical interventions. Methods and Findings The model...

Relationship between Thermodynamic Driving Force and One-Way Fluxes in Reversible Processes

Chemical reaction systems operating in nonequilibrium open-system states arise in a great number of contexts, including the study of living organisms, in which chemical reactions, in general, are far from equilibrium. Here we introduce a theorem that relates forward and reverse fluxes and free energy for any chemical process operating in a steady state. This relationship, which...

Heterologous Tissue Culture Expression Signature Predicts Human Breast Cancer Prognosis

Background Cancer patients have highly variable clinical outcomes owing to many factors, among which are genes that determine the likelihood of invasion and metastasis. This predisposition can be reflected in the gene expression pattern of the primary tumor, which may predict outcomes and guide the choice of treatment better than other clinical predictors. Methodology/Principal...

At-Risk and Recent-Onset Type 1 Diabetic Subjects Have Increased Apoptosis in the CD4+CD25+high T-Cell Fraction

Background In experimental models, Type 1 diabetes T1D can be prevented by adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ FoxP3+ suppressor or regulatory T cells. Recent studies have found a suppression defect of CD4+CD25+high T cells in human disease. In this study we measure apoptosis of CD4+CD25+high T cells to see if it could contribute to reduced suppressive activity of these cells. Methods...

Genetics of Local Adaptation in the Laboratory: Flowering Time Quantitative Trait Loci under Geographic and Seasonal Conditions in Arabidopsis

Flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana is controlled by a large number of genes and various environmental factors, such as light and temperature. The objective of this study was to identify flowering time quantitative trait loci (QTL) under growth conditions simulating seasonal conditions from native geographic locations. Our growth chambers were set to simulate the spring...

An NF-κB and Slug Regulatory Loop Active in Early Vertebrate Mesoderm

Background In both Drosophila and the mouse, the zinc finger transcription factor Snail is required for mesoderm formation; its vertebrate paralog Slug (Snai2) appears to be required for neural crest formation in the chick and the clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Both Slug and Snail act to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to suppress apoptosis. Methodology...

Soluble TNF Mediates the Transition from Pulmonary Inflammation to Fibrosis

Background Fibrosis, the replacement of functional tissue with excessive fibrous tissue, can occur in all the main tissues and organ systems, resulting in various pathological disorders. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is a prototype fibrotic disease involving abnormal wound healing in response to multiple sites of ongoing alveolar epithelial injury. Methodology/Principal Findings...

To Have or Not To Have a Pet for Better Health?

Background Pet ownership is thought to have health benefits, but not all scientific explorations have been founded on proper applications of representative samples or statistically correct methodologies. Databanks have been too small for proper statistical analyses; or, instead of a random sample, participation has been voluntary. The direction of causality has been evaluated...

The Interplay between PolyQ and Protein Context Delays Aggregation by Forming a Reservoir of Protofibrils

Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are inherited neurodegenerative disorders caused by the expansion of CAG codon repeats, which code for polyQ in the corresponding gene products. These diseases are associated with the presence of amyloid-like protein aggregates, induced by polyQ expansion. It has been suggested that the soluble aggregates rather than the mature fibrillar aggregates...

Increased Nucleotide Diversity with Transient Y Linkage in Drosophila americana

Recombination shapes nucleotide variation within genomes. Patterns are thought to arise from the local recombination landscape, influencing the degree to which neutral variation experiences hitchhiking with selected variation. This study examines DNA polymorphism along Chromosome 4 (element B) of Drosophila americana to identify effects of hitchhiking arising as a consequence of...

Towards Alignment Independent Quantitative Assessment of Homology Detection

Identification of homologous proteins provides a basis for protein annotation. Sequence alignment tools reliably identify homologs sharing high sequence similarity. However, identification of homologs that share low sequence similarity remains a challenge. Lowering the cutoff value could enable the identification of diverged homologs, but also introduces numerous false hits...

Transcriptional Changes Common to Human Cocaine, Cannabis and Phencyclidine Abuse

A major goal of drug abuse research is to identify and understand drug-induced changes in brain function that are common to many or all drugs of abuse. As these may underlie drug dependence and addiction, the purpose of the present study was to examine if different drugs of abuse effect changes in gene expression that converge in common molecular pathways. Microarray analysis was...

Detection of Conjugation Related Type Four Secretion Machinery in Aeromonas culicicola

Background Aeromonas sp. can now be considered relatively common enteropathogens due to the increase of diseases in humans. Aeromonas culicicola is a gram negative rod-shaped bacterium isolated for the first time from the mosquito mid-gut, but subsequently detected in other insects and waters also. Our previous study discovered that A. culicicola harbors three plasmids, which we...

MiRNA-Directed Regulation of VEGF and Other Angiogenic Factors under Hypoxia

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 20–24 nt non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression primarily through post-transcriptional repression or mRNA degradation in a sequence-specific manner. The roles of miRNAs are just beginning to be understood, but the study of miRNA function has been limited by poor understanding of the general principles of gene regulation by miRNAs. Here we...

Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Gene Polymorphism Modifies the Effect of Coffee Intake on Incidence of Acute Coronary Events

Background The role of coffee intake as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) has been debated for decades. We examined whether the relationship between coffee intake and incidence of CHD events is dependent on the metabolism of circulating catecholamines, as determined by functional polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Methodology/Principal...

Swordtail Fry Attend to Chemical and Visual Cues in Detecting Predators and Conspecifics

Predation pressure and energy requirements present particularly salient opposing selective pressures on young fish. Thus, fry are expected to possess sophisticated means of detecting predators and resources. Here we tested the hypotheses that fry of the swordtail fish Xiphophorus birchmanni use chemical and visual cues in detection of predators and conspecifics. To test these...

Designer Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffolds for Adult Mouse Neural Stem Cell 3-Dimensional Cultures

Biomedical researchers have become increasingly aware of the limitations of conventional 2-dimensional tissue cell culture systems, including coated Petri dishes, multi-well plates and slides, to fully address many critical issues in cell biology, cancer biology and neurobiology, such as the 3-D microenvironment, 3-D gradient diffusion, 3-D cell migration and 3-D cell-cell...

Cooperation between Engulfment Receptors: The Case of ABCA1 and MEGF10

The engulfment of dying cells is a specialized form of phagocytosis that is extremely conserved across evolution. In the worm, it is genetically controlled by two parallel pathways, which are only partially reconstituted in mammals. We focused on the recapitulation of the CED-1 defined pathway in mammalian systems. We first explored and validated MEGF10, a novel receptor bearing...

Acceptance of Anti-Retroviral Therapy among Patients Infected with HIV and Tuberculosis in Rural Malawi Is Low and Associated with Cost of Transport

Background A study was conducted among newly registered HIV-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients systematically offered anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in a district hospital in rural Malawi in order to a) determine the acceptance of ART b) conduct a geographic mapping of those placed on ART and c) examine the association between “cost of transport” and ART acceptance. Methodology...