PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,862)

Improving the Representativeness of Behavioral and Clinical Surveillance for Persons with HIV in the United States: The Rationale for Developing a Population-Based Approach

The need for a new surveillance approach to understand the clinical outcomes and behaviors of people in care for HIV evolved from the new challenges for monitoring clinical outcomes in the HAART era, the impact of the epidemic on an increasing number of areas in the US, and the need for representative data to describe the epidemic and related resource utilization and needs. The...

Patient and Regimen Characteristics Associated with Self-Reported Nonadherence to Antiretroviral Therapy

BackgroundNonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ARVT) is an important behavioral determinant of the success of ARVT. Nonadherence may lead to virological failure, and increases the risk of development of drug resistance. Understanding the prevalence of nonadherence and associated factors is important to inform secondary HIV prevention efforts.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe...

Oct4 Targets Regulatory Nodes to Modulate Stem Cell Function

Stem cells are characterized by two defining features, the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into highly specialized cell types. The POU homeodomain transcription factor Oct4 (Pou5f1) is an essential mediator of the embryonic stem cell state and has been implicated in lineage specific differentiation, adult stem cell identity, and cancer. Recent description of the...

A Computational Approach for Functional Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci That Regulate Thermal Performance Curves

Whether and how thermal reaction norm is under genetic control is fundamental to understand the mechanistic basis of adaptation to novel thermal environments. However, the genetic study of thermal reaction norm is difficult because it is often expressed as a continuous function or curve. Here we derive a statistical model for dissecting thermal performance curves into individual...

Assortative Mating between European Corn Borer Pheromone Races: Beyond Assortative Meeting

BackgroundSex pheromone communication systems may be a major force driving moth speciation by causing behavioral reproductive isolation via assortative meeting of conspecific individuals. The ‘E’ and ‘Z’ pheromone races of the European corn borer (ECB) are a textbook example in this respect. ‘Z’ females produce and ‘Z’ males preferentially respond to a ‘Z’ pheromone blend, while...

The Adaptive Significance of Sensory Bias in a Foraging Context: Floral Colour Preferences in the Bumblebee Bombus terrestris

Innate sensory biases could play an important role in helping naïve animals to find food. As inexperienced bees are known to have strong innate colour biases we investigated whether bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies with stronger biases for the most rewarding flower colour (violet) foraged more successfully in their local flora. To test the adaptive significance of variation...

Differences in Light Interception in Grass Monocultures Predict Short-Term Competitive Outcomes under Productive Conditions

Due to its inherent asymmetry, competition for light is thought to cause loss of diversity from eutrophied systems. However, most of the work on this topic in grasslands has been phenomenological and has not measured light directly. We present the results of one of the few mechanistic experiments investigating the outcome of short-term competition using measurements of light...

Blueprint for a High-Performance Biomaterial: Full-Length Spider Dragline Silk Genes

Spider dragline (major ampullate) silk outperforms virtually all other natural and manmade materials in terms of tensile strength and toughness. For this reason, the mass-production of artificial spider silks through transgenic technologies has been a major goal of biomimetics research. Although all known arthropod silk proteins are extremely large (>200 kiloDaltons), recombinant...

High-Threshold Mechanosensitive Ion Channels Blocked by a Novel Conopeptide Mediate Pressure-Evoked Pain

Little is known about the molecular basis of somatosensory mechanotransduction in mammals. We screened a library of peptide toxins for effects on mechanically activated currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. One conopeptide analogue, termed NMB-1 for noxious mechanosensation blocker 1, selectively inhibits (IC50 1 µM) sustained mechanically activated currents in a...

On the Action of 5-Amino-Salicylic Acid and Sulfapyridine on M. avium including Subspecies paratuberculosis

BackgroundIntroduced in 1942, sulfasalazine (a conjugate of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulfapyridine) is the most prescribed medication used to treat “inflammatory” bowel disease (IBD.) Although controversial, there are increasingly compelling data that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) may be an etiological agent in some or all of IBD. We have shown...

Differentiating between Near- and Non-Cognate Codons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

BackgroundDecoding of mRNAs is performed by aminoacyl tRNAs (aa-tRNAs). This process is highly accurate, however, at low frequencies (10−3 – 10−4) the wrong aa-tRNA can be selected, leading to incorporation of aberrant amino acids. Although our understanding of what constitutes the correct or cognate aa-tRNA:mRNA interaction is well defined, a functional distinction between near...

In Vivo Expression Pattern of MICA and MICB and Its Relevance to Auto-Immunity and Cancer

Non-conventional MHC class I MIC molecules interact not with the TCR, but with NKG2D, a C-type lectin activatory receptor present on most NK, γδ and CD8+ αβ T cells. While this interaction is critical in triggering/calibrating the cytotoxic activity of these cells, the actual extent of its in vivo involvement, in man, in infection, cancer or autoimmunity, needs further assessment...

Mutants in the Mouse NuRD/Mi2 Component P66α Are Embryonic Lethal

BackgroundThe NuRD/Mi2 chromatin complex is involved in histone modifications and contains a large number of subunits, including the p66 protein. There are two mouse and human p66 paralogs, p66α and p66β. The functions of these genes are not clear, in part because there are no mutants available, except in invertebrate model systems.MethodologyWe made loss of function mutants in...

Genome-Wide Identification of Alternatively Spliced mRNA Targets of Specific RNA-Binding Proteins

BackgroundAlternative splicing plays an important role in generating molecular and functional diversity in multi-cellular organisms. RNA binding proteins play crucial roles in modulating splice site choice. The majority of known binding sites for regulatory proteins are short, degenerate consensus sequences that occur frequently throughout the genome. This poses an important...

Naturalised Vitis Rootstocks in Europe and Consequences to Native Wild Grapevine

The genus Vitis is represented by several coexisting species in Europe. Our study focuses on naturalised rootstocks that originate in viticulture. The consequences of their presence to the landscape and to native European species (Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris) are evaluated. This study compares ecological traits (seven qualitative and quantitative descriptors) and the genetic...

Phylogeny of Diving Beetles Reveals a Coevolutionary Arms Race between the Sexes

BackgroundDarwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe combined Bayesian...

CARD15/NOD2 Is Required for Peyer's Patches Homeostasis in Mice

BackgroundCARD15/NOD2 mutations are associated with susceptibility to Crohn's Disease (CD) and Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD). CD and GVHD are suspected to be related with the dysfunction of Peyer's patches (PP) and isolated lymphoid follicles (LFs). Using a new mouse model invalidated for Card15/Nod2 (KO), we thus analysed the impact of the gene in these lymphoid formations...

Personal Drug Selection: Problem-Based Learning in Pharmacology: Experience from a Medical School in Nepal

BackgroundAt the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal, Pharmacology is taught during the first four semesters of the undergraduate medical course. Personal or P-drug selection is an important exercise. The present study was carried out to obtain student opinion about the P-drug learning sessions, the assessment examinations, and on the small group dynamics...

Large Scale Gene Expression Profiles of Regenerating Inner Ear Sensory Epithelia

Loss of inner ear sensory hair cells (HC) is a leading cause of human hearing loss and balance disorders. Unlike mammals, many lower vertebrates can regenerate these cells. We used cross-species microarrays to examine this process in the avian inner ear. Specifically, changes in expression of over 1700 transcription factor (TF) genes were investigated in hair cells of auditory...

Emergence of Fatal PRRSV Variants: Unparalleled Outbreaks of Atypical PRRS in China and Molecular Dissection of the Unique Hallmark

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a severe viral disease in pigs, causing great economic losses worldwide each year. The causative agent of the disease, PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a member of the family Arteriviridae. Here we report our investigation of the unparalleled large-scale outbreaks of an originally unknown, but so-called “high fever” disease in China...

Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection

BackgroundChikungunya (CHIK) virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. Since 2005, the emergence of CHIK virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of CHIK disease in the Indian Ocean. Clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly...

Switching on the Lights for Gene Therapy

Strategies for non-invasive and quantitative imaging of gene expression in vivo have been developed over the past decade. Non-invasive assessment of the dynamics of gene regulation is of interest for the detection of endogenous disease-specific biological alterations (e.g., signal transduction) and for monitoring the induction and regulation of therapeutic genes (e.g., gene...

Pavlov's Cockroach: Classical Conditioning of Salivation in an Insect

Secretion of saliva to aid swallowing and digestion is an important physiological function found in many vertebrates and invertebrates. Pavlov reported classical conditioning of salivation in dogs a century ago. Conditioning of salivation, however, has been so far reported only in dogs and humans, and its underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive because of the complexity of...

Meiotic Transmission of Drosophila pseudoobscura Chromosomal Arrangements

Drosophila pseudoobscura harbors a rich gene arrangement polymorphism on the third chromosome generated by a series of overlapping paracentric inversions. The arrangements suppress recombination in heterokaryotypic individuals, which allows for the selective maintenance of coadapted gene complexes. Previous mapping experiments used to determine the degree to which recombination...

Accurate Reproduction of 161 Small-Molecule Complex Crystal Structures using the EUDOC Program: Expanding the Use of EUDOC to Supramolecular Chemistry

EUDOC is a docking program that has successfully predicted small-molecule-bound protein complexes and identified drug leads from chemical databases. To expand the application of the EUDOC program to supramolecular chemistry, we tested its ability to reproduce crystal structures of small-molecule complexes. Of 161 selected crystal structures of small-molecule guest-host complexes...