PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,425)

Concentration of the Most-Cited Papers in the Scientific Literature: Analysis of Journal Ecosystems

Background A minority of scientific journals publishes the majority of scientific papers and receives the majority of citations. The extent of concentration of the most influential articles is less well known. Methods/Principal Findings The 100 most-cited papers in the last decade in each of 21 scientific fields were analyzed; fields were considered as ecosystems and their...

Establishing Clonal Cell Lines with Endothelial-Like Potential from CD9hi, SSEA-1− Cells in Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Embryoid Bodies

Background Differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into specific cell types with minimal risk of teratoma formation could be efficiently directed by first reducing the differentiation potential of ESCs through the generation of clonal, self-renewing lineage-restricted stem cell lines. Efforts to isolate these stem cells are, however, mired in an impasse where the lack of...

A Single Basis for Developmental Buffering of Drosophila Wing Shape

The nature of developmental buffering processes has been debated extensively, based on both theoretical reasoning and empirical studies. In particular, controversy has focused on the question of whether distinct processes are responsible for canalization, the buffering against environmental or genetic variation, and for developmental stability, the buffering against random...

Molecular Adaptation during Adaptive Radiation in the Hawaiian Endemic Genus Schiedea

Background “Explosive” adaptive radiations on islands remain one of the most puzzling evolutionary phenomena. The rate of phenotypic and ecological adaptations is extremely fast during such events, suggesting that many genes may be under fairly strong selection. However, no evidence for adaptation at the level of protein coding genes was found, so it has been suggested that...

Wnt, Hedgehog and Junctional Armadillo/β-Catenin Establish Planar Polarity in the Drosophila Embryo

To generate specialized structures, cells must obtain positional and directional information. In multi-cellular organisms, cells use the non-canonical Wnt or planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway to establish directionality within a cell. In vertebrates, several Wnt molecules have been proposed as permissible polarity signals, but none has been shown to provide a...

Differences between Belgian and Brazilian Group A Streptococcus Epidemiologic Landscape

Background Group A Streptococcus (GAS) clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. Methods and Findings We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium) and Brasília (Brazil). Clinical questionnaires were filled out and...

A Comparative Study on the Cost of New Antibiotics and Drugs of Other Therapeutic Categories

Background Drug treatment is becoming more expensive due to the increased cost for the introduction of new drugs, and there seems to be an uneven distribution of medication cost for different therapeutic categories. We hypothesized that the cost of new antimicrobial agents may differ from that of other therapeutic categories and this may play a role in the stagnation of...

The Effectiveness of Contact Tracing in Emerging Epidemics

Background Contact tracing plays an important role in the control of emerging infectious diseases, but little is known yet about its effectiveness. Here we deduce from a generic mathematical model how effectiveness of tracing relates to various aspects of time, such as the course of individual infectivity, the (variability in) time between infection and symptom-based detection...

Short and Long-Term Effects of hVEGF-A165 in Cre-Activated Transgenic Mice

We have generated a transgenic mouse where hVEGF-A165 expression has been silenced with loxP-STOP fragment, and we used this model to study the effects of hVEGF-A165 over-expression in mice after systemic adenovirus mediated Cre-gene transfer. Unlike previous conventional transgenic models, this model leads to the expression of hVEGF-A165 in only a low number of cells in the...

Cognitive Aging in Zebrafish

Background Age-related impairments in cognitive functions represent a growing clinical and social issue. Genetic and behavioral characterization of animal models can provide critical information on the intrinsic and environmental factors that determine the deterioration or preservation of cognitive abilities throughout life. Methodology/Principal Findings Behavior of wild-type...

E-Cadherin-Coated Plates Maintain Pluripotent ES Cells without Colony Formation

Embryonic stem (ES) cells cultured on gelatin-coated plates or feeder layers form tight aggregated colonies by the E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions. Here we show that murine ES cells do not make cell-cell contacts or form colonies when cultured on the plate coated with a fusion protein of E-cadherin and IgG Fc domain. The cells in culture retain all ES cell features...

Requirement of TORC1 for Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus

Late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and long-term memory depend on the transcription of mRNA of CRE-driven genes and synthesis of proteins. However, how synaptic signals propagate to the nucleus is unclear. Here we report that the CREB coactivator TORC1 (transducer of regulated CREB activity 1) undergoes neuronal activity-induced translocation from the cytoplasm to the...

Multilocus Sequence Typing Breathes Life into a Microbial Metagenome

Shot-gun sequencing of DNA isolated from the environment and the assembly of metagenomes from the resulting data has considerably advanced the study of microbial diversity. However, the subsequent matching of these hypothetical metagenomes to cultivable microorganisms is a limitation of such cultivation-independent methods of population analysis. Using a nucleotide sequence-based...

Molecular Pathogenesis and Therapy of Polycythemia Induced in Mice by JAK2 V617F

Background A somatic activating mutation (V617F) in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase was recently discovered in the majority of patients with polycythemia vera (PV), and some with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis. However, the role of mutant JAK2 in disease pathogenesis is unclear. Methods and Findings We expressed murine JAK2 WT or V617F via retroviral...

Clues to Neuro-Degeneration in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease from Global Gene Expression Profiling

Background Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in the late endocytic pathway. The majority of NPC cases are due to mutations in the NPC1 gene. The precise function of this gene is not yet known. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cDNA microarrays, we analyzed the genome...

Societal Learning in Epidemics: Intervention Effectiveness during the 2003 SARS Outbreak in Singapore

Background Rapid response to outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases is impeded by uncertain diagnoses and delayed communication. Understanding the effect of inefficient response is a potentially important contribution of epidemic theory. To develop this understanding we studied societal learning during emerging outbreaks wherein patient removal accelerates as information is...

Isolation of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria in Children Investigated for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Objective To evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates among children investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis in a rural South African community. Methods Children were investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis as part of a tuberculosis vaccine surveillance program (2001–2005). The clinical features of children in whom NTM were...

Genetic Influences on Exercise Participation in 37.051 Twin Pairs from Seven Countries

Background A sedentary lifestyle remains a major threat to health in contemporary societies. To get more insight in the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in exercise participation, twin samples from seven countries participating in the GenomEUtwin project were used. Methodology Self-reported data on leisure time exercise...

Development of a Tumor-Selective Approach to Treat Metastatic Cancer

Background Patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer have almost uniformly poor prognoses. The treatments available for patients with disseminated disease are usually not curative and have side effects that limit the therapy that can be given. A treatment that is selectively toxic to tumors would maximize the beneficial effects of therapy and minimize side effects, potentially...

Long-Term Persistence of Robust Antibody and Cytotoxic T Cell Responses in Recovered Patients Infected with SARS Coronavirus

Most of the individuals infected with SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spontaneously recovered without clinical intervention. However, the immunological correlates associated with patients' recovery are currently unknown. In this report, we have sequentially monitored 30 recovered patients over a two-year period to characterize temporal changes in SARS-CoV-specific antibody responses...

The Release of Nitric Oxide from S-Nitrosothiols Promotes Angiogenesis

Background Free nitric oxide (NO) reacts with sulphydryl residues to form S-nitrosothiols, which act as NO reservoirs. We sought to determine whether thiol-preserving agents and antioxidants, such as dithiothreitol (DTT) and vitamin C, induce NO release from S-nitrosylated proteins in endothelial cell cultures to promote angiogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings NO release was...

Dissecting Oct3/4-Regulated Gene Networks in Embryonic Stem Cells by Expression Profiling

POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4) is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4...

Spatial Control of Rabies on Heterogeneous Landscapes

Rabies control in terrestrial wildlife reservoirs relies heavily on an oral rabies vaccine (ORV). In addition to direct ORV delivery to protect wildlife in natural habitats, vaccine corridors have been constructed to control the spread; these corridors are often developed around natural barriers, such as rivers, to enhance the effectiveness of vaccine deployment. However, the...

Perceptual Learning of Motion Leads to Faster Flicker Perception

Critical flicker fusion thresholds (CFFT) describe when quick amplitude modulations of a light source become undetectable as the frequency of the modulation increases. The threshold at which CFF occurs has been shown to remain constant under repeated testing. Additionally, CFF thresholds are correlated with various measures of intelligence, and have been regarded by clinicians as...

Critical Role of Methylglyoxal and AGE in Mycobacteria-Induced Macrophage Apoptosis and Activation

Apoptosis and activation of macrophages play an important role in the host response to mycobacterial infection involving TNF-α as a critical autocrine mediator. The underlying mechanisms are still ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate elevated levels of methylglyoxal (MG), a small and reactive molecule that is usually a physiological product of various metabolic pathways, and...