PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,736)

Genetics of Local Adaptation in the Laboratory: Flowering Time Quantitative Trait Loci under Geographic and Seasonal Conditions in Arabidopsis

Flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana is controlled by a large number of genes and various environmental factors, such as light and temperature. The objective of this study was to identify flowering time quantitative trait loci (QTL) under growth conditions simulating seasonal conditions from native geographic locations. Our growth chambers were set to simulate the spring...

An NF-κB and Slug Regulatory Loop Active in Early Vertebrate Mesoderm

Background In both Drosophila and the mouse, the zinc finger transcription factor Snail is required for mesoderm formation; its vertebrate paralog Slug (Snai2) appears to be required for neural crest formation in the chick and the clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Both Slug and Snail act to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to suppress apoptosis. Methodology...

Soluble TNF Mediates the Transition from Pulmonary Inflammation to Fibrosis

Background Fibrosis, the replacement of functional tissue with excessive fibrous tissue, can occur in all the main tissues and organ systems, resulting in various pathological disorders. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is a prototype fibrotic disease involving abnormal wound healing in response to multiple sites of ongoing alveolar epithelial injury. Methodology/Principal Findings...

To Have or Not To Have a Pet for Better Health?

Background Pet ownership is thought to have health benefits, but not all scientific explorations have been founded on proper applications of representative samples or statistically correct methodologies. Databanks have been too small for proper statistical analyses; or, instead of a random sample, participation has been voluntary. The direction of causality has been evaluated...

The Interplay between PolyQ and Protein Context Delays Aggregation by Forming a Reservoir of Protofibrils

Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are inherited neurodegenerative disorders caused by the expansion of CAG codon repeats, which code for polyQ in the corresponding gene products. These diseases are associated with the presence of amyloid-like protein aggregates, induced by polyQ expansion. It has been suggested that the soluble aggregates rather than the mature fibrillar aggregates...

Increased Nucleotide Diversity with Transient Y Linkage in Drosophila americana

Recombination shapes nucleotide variation within genomes. Patterns are thought to arise from the local recombination landscape, influencing the degree to which neutral variation experiences hitchhiking with selected variation. This study examines DNA polymorphism along Chromosome 4 (element B) of Drosophila americana to identify effects of hitchhiking arising as a consequence of...

Towards Alignment Independent Quantitative Assessment of Homology Detection

Identification of homologous proteins provides a basis for protein annotation. Sequence alignment tools reliably identify homologs sharing high sequence similarity. However, identification of homologs that share low sequence similarity remains a challenge. Lowering the cutoff value could enable the identification of diverged homologs, but also introduces numerous false hits...

Transcriptional Changes Common to Human Cocaine, Cannabis and Phencyclidine Abuse

A major goal of drug abuse research is to identify and understand drug-induced changes in brain function that are common to many or all drugs of abuse. As these may underlie drug dependence and addiction, the purpose of the present study was to examine if different drugs of abuse effect changes in gene expression that converge in common molecular pathways. Microarray analysis was...

Detection of Conjugation Related Type Four Secretion Machinery in Aeromonas culicicola

Background Aeromonas sp. can now be considered relatively common enteropathogens due to the increase of diseases in humans. Aeromonas culicicola is a gram negative rod-shaped bacterium isolated for the first time from the mosquito mid-gut, but subsequently detected in other insects and waters also. Our previous study discovered that A. culicicola harbors three plasmids, which we...

MiRNA-Directed Regulation of VEGF and Other Angiogenic Factors under Hypoxia

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 20–24 nt non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression primarily through post-transcriptional repression or mRNA degradation in a sequence-specific manner. The roles of miRNAs are just beginning to be understood, but the study of miRNA function has been limited by poor understanding of the general principles of gene regulation by miRNAs. Here we...

Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Gene Polymorphism Modifies the Effect of Coffee Intake on Incidence of Acute Coronary Events

Background The role of coffee intake as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) has been debated for decades. We examined whether the relationship between coffee intake and incidence of CHD events is dependent on the metabolism of circulating catecholamines, as determined by functional polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Methodology/Principal...

Swordtail Fry Attend to Chemical and Visual Cues in Detecting Predators and Conspecifics

Predation pressure and energy requirements present particularly salient opposing selective pressures on young fish. Thus, fry are expected to possess sophisticated means of detecting predators and resources. Here we tested the hypotheses that fry of the swordtail fish Xiphophorus birchmanni use chemical and visual cues in detection of predators and conspecifics. To test these...

Designer Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffolds for Adult Mouse Neural Stem Cell 3-Dimensional Cultures

Biomedical researchers have become increasingly aware of the limitations of conventional 2-dimensional tissue cell culture systems, including coated Petri dishes, multi-well plates and slides, to fully address many critical issues in cell biology, cancer biology and neurobiology, such as the 3-D microenvironment, 3-D gradient diffusion, 3-D cell migration and 3-D cell-cell...

Cooperation between Engulfment Receptors: The Case of ABCA1 and MEGF10

The engulfment of dying cells is a specialized form of phagocytosis that is extremely conserved across evolution. In the worm, it is genetically controlled by two parallel pathways, which are only partially reconstituted in mammals. We focused on the recapitulation of the CED-1 defined pathway in mammalian systems. We first explored and validated MEGF10, a novel receptor bearing...

Acceptance of Anti-Retroviral Therapy among Patients Infected with HIV and Tuberculosis in Rural Malawi Is Low and Associated with Cost of Transport

Background A study was conducted among newly registered HIV-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients systematically offered anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in a district hospital in rural Malawi in order to a) determine the acceptance of ART b) conduct a geographic mapping of those placed on ART and c) examine the association between “cost of transport” and ART acceptance. Methodology...

Shaping Leg Muscles in Drosophila: Role of ladybird, a Conserved Regulator of Appendicular Myogenesis

Legs are locomotor appendages used by a variety of evolutionarily distant vertebrates and invertebrates. The primary biological leg function, locomotion, requires the formation of a specialised appendicular musculature. Here we report evidence that ladybird, an orthologue of the Lbx1 gene recognised as a hallmark of appendicular myogenesis in vertebrates, is expressed in leg...

Natural Variation in Partial Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae Is Controlled by Two Major QTLs in Arabidopsis thaliana

Background Low-level, partial resistance is pre-eminent in natural populations, however, the mechanisms underlying this form of resistance are still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we used the model pathosystem Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) - Arabidopsis thaliana to study the genetic basis of this form of resistance...

IL-7 Up-Regulates TNF-α-Dependent Osteoclastogenesis in Patients Affected by Solid Tumor

Background Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent regulator of lymphocyte development, which has also significant effects on bone; in fact it is a potent osteoclastogenic factor. Some human solid tumors produce high IL-7 levels, suggesting a potential IL-7 role on tumor development and progression. Methodology We studied 50 male patients affected by solid tumors, and their blood...

Heterozygote Advantage for Fecundity

Heterozygote advantage, or overdominance, remains a popular and persuasive explanation for the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations in the face of selection. However, despite being first proposed more than 80 years ago, there remain few examples that fit the criteria for heterozygote advantage, all of which are associated with disease resistance and are...

Docking of Secretory Vesicles Is Syntaxin Dependent

Secretory vesicles dock at the plasma membrane before they undergo fusion. Molecular docking mechanisms are poorly defined but believed to be independent of SNARE proteins. Here, we challenged this hypothesis by acute deletion of the target SNARE, syntaxin, in vertebrate neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Deletion resulted in fusion arrest in both systems. No docking defects were...

Gender Differences in Publication Output: Towards an Unbiased Metric of Research Performance

We examined the publication records of a cohort of 168 life scientists in the field of ecology and evolutionary biology to assess gender differences in research performance. Clear discrepancies in publication rate between men and women appear very early in their careers and this has consequences for the subsequent citation of their work. We show that a recently proposed index...

A Critical Role for FBXW8 and MAPK in Cyclin D1 Degradation and Cancer Cell Proliferation

Cyclin D1 regulates G1 progression. Its transcriptional regulation is well understood. However, the mechanism underlying cyclin D1 ubiquitination and its subsequent degradation is not yet clear. We report that cyclin D1 undergoes increased degradation in the cytoplasm during S phase in a variety of cancer cells. This is mediated by phosphorylation at Thr286 through the activity...

CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells Suppress Anti-Tumor Immune Responses in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

Background A wealth of evidence obtained using mouse models indicates that CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) maintain peripheral tolerance to self-antigens and also inhibit anti-tumor immune responses. To date there is limited information about CD4+ T cell responses in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We set out to measure T cell responses to a tumor-associated...

Comparative Toxicity of Fumigants and a Phosphine Synergist Using a Novel Containment Chamber for the Safe Generation of Concentrated Phosphine Gas

Background With the phasing out of ozone-depleting substances in accordance with the United Nations Montreal Protocol, phosphine remains as the only economically viable fumigant for widespread use. However the development of high-level resistance in several pest insects threatens the future usage of phosphine; yet research into phosphine resistance mechanisms has been limited due...

Rho Kinase's Role in Myosin Recruitment to the Equatorial Cortex of Mitotic Drosophila S2 Cells Is for Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Phosphorylation

Background Myosin II recruitment to the equatorial cortex is one of the earliest events in establishment of the cytokinetic contractile ring. In Drosophila S2 cells, we previously showed that myosin II is recruited to the furrow independently of F-actin, and that Rho1 and Rok are essential for this recruitment [1]. Rok phosphorylates several cellular proteins, including the...