PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,866)

TMS-Induced Cortical Potentiation during Wakefulness Locally Increases Slow Wave Activity during Sleep

BackgroundSleep slow wave activity (SWA) is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic...

Molecular Diversity of Legume Root-Nodule Bacteria in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia

BackgroundSymbiotic relationships between leguminous plants (family Fabaceae) and nodule-forming bacteria in Australia native ecosystems remain poorly characterized despite their importance. Most studies have focused on temperate parts of the country, where the use of molecular approaches have already revealed the presence of Bradyrhizobium, Ensifer (formerly Sinorhizobium...

Proteasome Activator Enhances Survival of Huntington's Disease Neuronal Model Cells

In patients with Huntington's disease (HD), the proteolytic activity of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is reduced in the brain and other tissues. The pathological hallmark of HD is the intraneuronal nuclear protein aggregates of mutant huntingtin. We determined how to enhance UPS function and influence catalytic protein degradation and cell survival in HD. Proteasome...

Reduced Susceptibility to Interference in the Consolidation of Motor Memory before Adolescence

Are children superior to adults in consolidating procedural memory? This notion has been tied to “critical,” early life periods of increased brain plasticity. Here, using a motor sequence learning task, we show, in experiment 1, that a) the rate of learning during a training session, b) the gains accrued, without additional practice, within a 24 hours post-training interval...

Identification of uPAR-positive Chemoresistant Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

BackgroundThe urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR/CD87) are major regulators of extracellular matrix degradation and are involved in cell migration and invasion under physiological and pathological conditions. The uPA/uPAR system has been of great interest in cancer research because it is involved in the development of most invasive cancer phenotypes and...

Self-Organization of Anastral Spindles by Synergy of Dynamic Instability, Autocatalytic Microtubule Production, and a Spatial Signaling Gradient

Assembly of the mitotic spindle is a classic example of macromolecular self-organization. During spindle assembly, microtubules (MTs) accumulate around chromatin. In centrosomal spindles, centrosomes at the spindle poles are the dominating source of MT production. However, many systems assemble anastral spindles, i.e., spindles without centrosomes at the poles. How anastral...

Diffusion of Protease into Meat & Bone Meal for Solubility Improvement and Potential Inactivation of the BSE Prion

BackgroundGovernment-imposed feed bans have created a need for new applications for meat & bone meal (MBM). Many potential new applications require MBM protein to be both soluble and free of infectious prion. Treatment with protease is generally effective in reducing insoluble, thermally-denatured proteins to soluble peptides. It has been reported in the literature that certain...

Patient Acceptance of Noninvasive and Invasive Coronary Angiography

BackgroundNoninvasive angiography using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is superior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection of coronary stenoses. We compared patient acceptance of these two noninvasive diagnostic tests and invasive conventional coronary angiography (Angio).Methods and FindingsA total of 111 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery...

Role for Non-Proteolytic Control of M-phase Promoting Factor Activity at M-phase Exit

M-phase Promoting Factor (MPF; the cyclin B-cdk 1 complex) is activated at M-phase onset by removal of inhibitory phosphorylation of cdk1 at thr-14 and tyr-15. At M-phase exit, MPF is destroyed by ubiquitin-dependent cyclin proteolysis. Thus, control of MPF activity via inhibitory phosphorylation is believed to be particularly crucial in regulating transition into, rather than...

Melanesian mtDNA Complexity

Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2) from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more...

Control of Signaling in a MAP-kinase Pathway by an RNA-Binding Protein

Signaling-protein mRNAs tend to have long untranslated regions (UTRs) containing binding sites for RNA-binding proteins regulating gene expression. Here we show that a PUF-family RNA-binding protein, Mpt5, represses the yeast MAP-kinase pathway controlling differentiation to the filamentous form. Mpt5 represses the protein levels of two pathway components, the Ste7 MAP-kinase...

Strategy of Transcription Regulation in the Budding Yeast

Cells must adjust their gene expression in order to compete in a constantly changing environment. Two alternative strategies could in principle ensure optimal coordination of gene expression with physiological requirements. First, characters of the internal physiological state, such as growth rate, metabolite levels, or energy availability, could be feedback to tune gene...

On the Origin of the Functional Architecture of the Cortex

The basic structure of receptive fields and functional maps in primary visual cortex is established without exposure to normal sensory experience and before the onset of the critical period. How the brain wires these circuits in the early stages of development remains unknown. Possible explanations include activity-dependent mechanisms driven by spontaneous activity in the retina...

The Pafah1b Complex Interacts with the Reelin Receptor VLDLR

Reelin is an extracellular protein that directs the organization of cortical structures of the brain through the activation of two receptors, the very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and the apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2), and the phosphorylation of Disabled-1 (Dab1). Lis1, the product of the Pafah1b1 gene, is a component of the brain platelet-activating factor...

Eye Development under the control of SRp55/B52-Mediated Alternative Splicing of eyeless

The genetic programs specifying eye development are highly conserved during evolution and involve the vertebrate Pax-6 gene and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog eyeless (ey). Here we report that the SR protein B52/SRp55 controls a novel developmentally regulated splicing event of eyeless that is crucial for eye growth and specification in Drosophila. B52/SRp55 generates two...

Tentative Mapping of Transcription-Induced Interchromosomal Interaction using Chimeric EST and mRNA Data

Recent studies on chromosome conformation show that chromosomes colocalize in the nucleus, bringing together active genes in transcription factories. This spatial proximity of actively transcribing genes could provide a means for RNA interaction at the transcript level. We have screened public databases for chimeric EST and mRNA sequences with the intent of mapping transcription...

Genome-Wide Analysis of Neuroblastomas using High-Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays

BackgroundNeuroblastomas are characterized by chromosomal alterations with biological and clinical significance. We analyzed paired blood and primary tumor samples from 22 children with high-risk neuroblastoma for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and DNA copy number change using the Affymetrix 10K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array.FindingsMultiple areas of LOH and copy...

The Lingering Effects of an Artificial Blind Spot

BackgroundWhen steady fixation is maintained on the centre of a large patch of texture, holes in the periphery of the texture rapidly fade from awareness, producing artificial scotomata (i.e., invisible areas of reduced vision, like the natural ‘blind spot’). There has been considerable controversy about whether this apparent ‘filling in’ depends on a low-level or high-level...

Sialoadhesin (CD169) Expression in CD14+ Cells Is Upregulated Early after HIV-1 Infection and Increases during Disease Progression

BackgroundSialoadhesin (CD169, siglec-1 or Sn) is an activation marker seen on macrophages in chronic inflammatory diseases and in tumours, and on subsets of tissue macrophages. CD169 is highly expressed by macrophages present in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. It is also increased on blood monocytes of HIV-1 infected patients with a high viral load despite antiretroviral...

Urban Physiology: City Ants Possess High Heat Tolerance

Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12°C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of...

A Rapid Sound-Action Association Effect in Human Insular Cortex

BackgroundLearning to play a musical piece is a prime example of complex sensorimotor learning in humans. Recent studies using electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) indicate that passive listening to melodies previously rehearsed by subjects on a musical instrument evokes differential brain activation as compared with unrehearsed melodies. These...

PPARα Deficiency in Inflammatory Cells Suppresses Tumor Growth

Inflammation in the tumor bed can either promote or inhibit tumor growth. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α is a central transcriptional suppressor of inflammation, and may therefore modulate tumor growth. Here we show that PPARα deficiency in the host leads to overt inflammation that suppresses angiogenesis via excess production of the endogenous angiogenesis...

Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza: Entry Pathways into North America via Bird Migration

Given the possibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza arriving in North America and monitoring programs that have been established to detect and track it, we review intercontinental movements of birds. We divided 157 bird species showing regular intercontinental movements into four groups based on patterns of movement—one of these groups (breed Holarctic, winter Eurasia...

Evidence for Active Maintenance of Inverted Repeat Structures Identified by a Comparative Genomic Approach

Inverted repeats have been found to occur in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. Usually they are short and some have important functions in various biological processes. However, long inverted repeats are rare and can cause genome instability. Analyses of C. elegans genome identified long, nearly-perfect inverted repeat sequences involving both divergently and convergently...

Protein Buffering in Model Systems and in Whole Human Saliva

The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum) of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and α-amylase, were shown to provide, in...