PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 195,468)

Revealing Historic Invasion Patterns and Potential Invasion Sites for Two Non-Native Plant Species

The historical spatio-temporal distribution of invasive species is rarely documented, hampering efforts to understand invasion dynamics, especially at regional scales. Reconstructing historical invasions through use of herbarium records combined with spatial trend analysis and modeling can elucidate spreading patterns and identify susceptible habitats before invasion occurs. Two...

Measuring the Meltdown: Drivers of Global Amphibian Extinction and Decline

Habitat loss, climate change, over-exploitation, disease and other factors have been hypothesised in the global decline of amphibian biodiversity. However, the relative importance of and synergies among different drivers are still poorly understood. We present the largest global analysis of roughly 45% of known amphibians (2,583 species) to quantify the influences of life history...

A Novel Immunoglobulin-Immunoglobulin Interaction in Autoimmunity

Well over six decades since its first description, the Rheumatoid Factor (RF)—autoantibodies recognizing Fc (constant) portion of IgG through their own Fab (antigen binding variable segments)—is believed to have come of age. Autoimmune pancreatitis is a unique form of pancreatitis, biologically characterized by an elevated serum IgG4 concentration. Given the fact that IgG4...

Recombination-Mediated Genetic Engineering of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone of Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)

The production, manipulation and rescue of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Vaccinia virus (VAC-BAC) in order to expedite construction of expression vectors and mutagenesis of the genome has been described (Domi & Moss, 2002, PNAS 99 12415–20). The genomic BAC clone was ‘rescued’ back to infectious virus using a Fowlpox virus helper to supply transcriptional machinery...

Loss of Cytokine-STAT5 Signaling in the CNS and Pituitary Gland Alters Energy Balance and Leads to Obesity

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are critical components of cytokine signaling pathways. STAT5A and STAT5B (STAT5), the most promiscuous members of this family, are highly expressed in specific populations of hypothalamic neurons in regions known to mediate the actions of cytokines in the regulation of energy balance. To test the hypothesis that STAT5...

Brain Neuronal CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors in Drug Abuse and Depression: From Mice to Human Subjects

BackgroundAddiction and major depression are mental health problems associated with stressful events in life with high relapse and reoccurrence even after treatment. Many laboratories were not able to detect the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2-Rs) in healthy brains, but there has been demonstration of CB2-R expression in rat microglial cells and other brain associated...

Endogenous Morphine in SH-SY5Y Cells and the Mouse Cerebellum

BackgroundMorphine, the principal active agent in opium, is not restricted to plants, but is also present in different animal tissues and cell types, including the mammalian brain. In fact, its biosynthetic pathway has been elucidated in a human neural cell line. These data suggest a role for morphine in brain physiology (e.g., neurotransmission), but this hypothesis remains a...

Human VRK1 Is an Early Response Gene and Its Loss Causes a Block in Cell Cycle Progression

BackgroundIn mammalian cells regulatory proteins controlling the cell cycle are necessary due to the requirements of living in a heterogeneous environment of cell-interactions and growth factors. VRK1 is a novel serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates several transcription factors and is associated with proliferation phenotypes.Methodology/Principal FindingsIn this report...

A Cross-Talk between TrkB and Ret Tyrosine Kinases Receptors Mediates Neuroblastoma Cells Differentiation

Understanding the interplay between intracellular signals initiated by multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) to give the final cell phenotype is a major pharmacological challenge. Retinoic acid (RA)-treatment of neuroblastoma (NB) cells implicates activation of Ret and TrkB RTKs as critical step to induce cell differentiation. By studying the signaling interplay between TrkB...

Adherent Self-Renewable Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cell Line: Functional Engraftment in Experimental Stroke Model

BackgroundHuman embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer a virtually unlimited source of neural cells for structural repair in neurological disorders, such as stroke. Neural cells can be derived from hESCs either by direct enrichment, or by isolating specific growth factor-responsive and expandable populations of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Studies have indicated that the direct...

18-Month Effectiveness of Short-Course Antiretroviral Regimens Combined with Alternatives to Breastfeeding to Prevent HIV Mother-to-Child Transmission

ObjectiveWe assessed the 18-month effectiveness of short-course (sc) antiretroviral peripartum regimens combined with alternatives to prolonged breastfeeding to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.MethodologyHIV-1 infected pregnant women received from ≥32–36 weeks of gestation scZidovudine (ZDV)+/−Lamivudine (3TC)+single-dose Nevirapine...

Use of cDNA Tiling Arrays for Identifying Protein Interactions Selected by In Vitro Display Technologies

In vitro display technologies such as mRNA display are powerful screening tools for protein interaction analysis, but the final cloning and sequencing processes represent a bottleneck, resulting in many false negatives. Here we describe an application of tiling array technology to identify specifically binding proteins selected with the in vitro virus (IVV) mRNA display...

Golgi Cisternal Unstacking Stimulates COPI Vesicle Budding and Protein Transport

The Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells is composed of flattened cisternae that are densely packed to form stacks. We have used the Golgi stacking protein GRASP65 as a tool to modify the stacking state of Golgi cisternae. We established an assay to measure protein transport to the cell surface in post-mitotic cells in which the Golgi was unstacked. Cells with an unstacked Golgi...

The Role of IRE1α in the Degradation of Insulin mRNA in Pancreatic β-Cells

BackgroundThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment for the biosynthesis and folding of newly synthesized secretory proteins such as insulin. Perturbations to ER homeostasis cause ER stress and subsequently activate cell signaling pathways, collectively known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). IRE1α is a central component of the UPR. In pancreatic β-cells...

Endothelial Domes Encapsulate Adherent Neutrophils and Minimize Increases in Vascular Permeability in Paracellular and Transcellular Emigration

Local edema, a cardinal sign of inflammation associates closely with neutrophil emigration. Neutrophil emigration has been described to occur primarily through endothelial junctions (paracellular) and more rarely directly through endothelial cells (transcellular). Recently, we reported that unlike in wild-type (wt) mice, Mac-1-/- (CD11b) neutrophils predominantly emigrated...

Cross-Species Functionality of Pararetroviral Elements Driving Ribosome Shunting

BackgroundCauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) belong to distinct genera of pararetroviruses infecting dicot and monocot plants, respectively. In both viruses, polycistronic translation of pregenomic (pg) RNA is initiated by shunting ribosomes that bypass a large region of the pgRNA leader with several short (s)ORFs and a stable stem-loop...

Gene Expression Signature of Cigarette Smoking and Its Role in Lung Adenocarcinoma Development and Survival

BackgroundTobacco smoking is responsible for over 90% of lung cancer cases, and yet the precise molecular alterations induced by smoking in lung that develop into cancer and impact survival have remained obscure.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe performed gene expression analysis using HG-U133A Affymetrix chips on 135 fresh frozen tissue samples of adenocarcinoma and paired...

Precancerous Stem Cells Can Serve As Tumor Vasculogenic Progenitors

Tumor neo-vascularization is critical for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis, which has been considered to be mediated by a mechanism of angiogenesis. However, histopathological studies have suggested that tumor cells might be the progenitor for tumor vasculature. Recently, we have reported that the precancerous stem cells (pCSCs) representing the early stage of developing...

A New Perspective on Transcriptional System Regulation (TSR): Towards TSR Profiling

It has been hypothesized that the net expression of a gene is determined by the combined effects of various transcriptional system regulators (TSRs). However, characterizing the complexity of regulation of the transcriptome is a major challenge. Principal component analysis on 17,550 heterogeneous human microarray experiments revealed that 50 orthogonal factors (hereafter called...

The Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto Interacts with Cyclin G in Drosophila

BackgroundPolycomb (PcG) and trithorax (trxG) genes encode proteins involved in the maintenance of gene expression patterns, notably Hox genes, throughout development. PcG proteins are required for long-term gene repression whereas TrxG proteins are positive regulators that counteract PcG action. PcG and TrxG proteins form large complexes that bind chromatin at overlapping sites...

Modeling Transcriptome Based on Transcript-Sampling Data

BackgroundNewly-evolved multiplex sequencing technology has been bringing transcriptome sequencing into an unprecedented depth. Millions of transcript tags now can be acquired in a single experiment through parallelization. The significant increase in throughput and reduction in cost required us to address some fundamental questions, such as how many transcript tags do we have to...

Modulation of Interleukin-1 Transcriptional Response by the Interaction between VRK2 and the JIP1 Scaffold Protein

BackgroundCellular biological responses to specific stimulation are determined by a balance among signaling pathways. Protein interactions are likely to modulate these pathways. Vaccinia-related kinase-2 (VRK2) is a novel human kinase that can modulate different signaling pathways.Principal FindingsWe report that in vivo, the activity of JIP1-JNK complexes is downregulated by...

Maintenance of Long-Range DNA Interactions after Inhibition of Ongoing RNA Polymerase II Transcription

A relationship exists between nuclear architecture and gene activity and it has been proposed that the activity of ongoing RNA polymerase II transcription determines genome organization in the mammalian cell nucleus. Recently developed 3C and 4C technology allowed us to test the importance of transcription for nuclear architecture. We demonstrate that upon transcription...

mtDNA nt13708A Variant Increases the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

BackgroundMitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism is a possible factor contributing to the maternal parent-of-origin effect in multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility.Methods and FindingsIn order to investigate the role of mtDNA variations in MS, we investigated six European MS case-control cohorts comprising >5,000 individuals. Three well matched cohorts were genotyped with seven...

Higher Infection of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 in Human Monocytes of Patients with G6PD Deficiency

The prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is high in Asia. An ex vivo study was conducted to elucidate the association of G6PD deficiency and dengue virus (DENV) infection when many Asian countries are hyper-endemic. Human monocytes from peripheral mononuclear cells collected from 12 G6PD-deficient patients and 24 age-matched controls were infected...