PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,083)

Genetic Influences on Exercise Participation in 37.051 Twin Pairs from Seven Countries

Background A sedentary lifestyle remains a major threat to health in contemporary societies. To get more insight in the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in exercise participation, twin samples from seven countries participating in the GenomEUtwin project were used. Methodology Self-reported data on leisure time exercise...

Development of a Tumor-Selective Approach to Treat Metastatic Cancer

Background Patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer have almost uniformly poor prognoses. The treatments available for patients with disseminated disease are usually not curative and have side effects that limit the therapy that can be given. A treatment that is selectively toxic to tumors would maximize the beneficial effects of therapy and minimize side effects, potentially...

Long-Term Persistence of Robust Antibody and Cytotoxic T Cell Responses in Recovered Patients Infected with SARS Coronavirus

Most of the individuals infected with SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spontaneously recovered without clinical intervention. However, the immunological correlates associated with patients' recovery are currently unknown. In this report, we have sequentially monitored 30 recovered patients over a two-year period to characterize temporal changes in SARS-CoV-specific antibody responses...

The Release of Nitric Oxide from S-Nitrosothiols Promotes Angiogenesis

Background Free nitric oxide (NO) reacts with sulphydryl residues to form S-nitrosothiols, which act as NO reservoirs. We sought to determine whether thiol-preserving agents and antioxidants, such as dithiothreitol (DTT) and vitamin C, induce NO release from S-nitrosylated proteins in endothelial cell cultures to promote angiogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings NO release was...

Dissecting Oct3/4-Regulated Gene Networks in Embryonic Stem Cells by Expression Profiling

POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4) is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4...

Spatial Control of Rabies on Heterogeneous Landscapes

Rabies control in terrestrial wildlife reservoirs relies heavily on an oral rabies vaccine (ORV). In addition to direct ORV delivery to protect wildlife in natural habitats, vaccine corridors have been constructed to control the spread; these corridors are often developed around natural barriers, such as rivers, to enhance the effectiveness of vaccine deployment. However, the...

Perceptual Learning of Motion Leads to Faster Flicker Perception

Critical flicker fusion thresholds (CFFT) describe when quick amplitude modulations of a light source become undetectable as the frequency of the modulation increases. The threshold at which CFF occurs has been shown to remain constant under repeated testing. Additionally, CFF thresholds are correlated with various measures of intelligence, and have been regarded by clinicians as...

Critical Role of Methylglyoxal and AGE in Mycobacteria-Induced Macrophage Apoptosis and Activation

Apoptosis and activation of macrophages play an important role in the host response to mycobacterial infection involving TNF-α as a critical autocrine mediator. The underlying mechanisms are still ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate elevated levels of methylglyoxal (MG), a small and reactive molecule that is usually a physiological product of various metabolic pathways, and...

Triose Phosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Caused by Altered Dimerization–Not Catalytic Inactivity–of the Mutant Enzymes

Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by various mutations in the gene encoding the key glycolytic enzyme TPI. A drastic decrease in TPI activity and an increased level of its substrate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, have been measured in unpurified cell extracts of affected individuals. These observations allowed concluding that the...

Human Resistin Is a Systemic Immune-Derived Proinflammatory Cytokine Targeting both Leukocytes and Adipocytes

The characteristics of human resistin (RETN) are unclear and controversial despite intensive adipose-focused research. Its transcriptional and functional similarity with the murine myeloid-specific and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon (Cebpe)-dependent gene, resistin-like gamma (Retnlg), is unexplored. We examined the human CEBPE-regulatory pathway by unbiased reference and...

A Mouse Stromal Response to Tumor Invasion Predicts Prostate and Breast Cancer Patient Survival

Primary and metastatic tumor growth induces host tissue responses that are believed to support tumor progression. Understanding the molecular changes within the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression may therefore be relevant not only for discovering potential therapeutic targets, but also for identifying putative molecular signatures that may improve tumor...

A Weakened Transcriptional Enhancer Yields Variegated Gene Expression

Identical genes in the same cellular environment are sometimes expressed differently. In some cases, including the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus, this type of differential gene expression has been related to the absence of a transcriptional enhancer. To gain additional information on the role of the IgH enhancer, we examined expression driven by enhancers that were...

Electrochemically Generated Acid and Its Containment to 100 Micron Reaction Areas for the Production of DNA Microarrays

An addressable electrode array was used for the production of acid at sufficient concentration to allow deprotection of the dimethoxytrityl (DMT) protecting group from an overlaying substrate bound to a porous reaction layer. Containment of the generated acid to an active electrode of 100 micron diameter was achieved by the presence of an organic base. This procedure was then...

Restructuring of Pancreatic Islets and Insulin Secretion in a Postnatal Critical Window

Function and structure of adult pancreatic islets are determined by early postnatal development, which in rats corresponds to the first month of life. We analyzed changes in blood glucose and hormones during this stage and their association with morphological and functional changes of alpha and beta cell populations during this period. At day 20 (d20), insulin and glucose plasma...

Use of Confocal Laser as Light Source Reveals Stomata-Autonomous Function

In most terrestrial plants, stomata open during the day to maximize the update of CO2 for photosynthesis, but they close at night to minimize water loss. Blue light, among several environmental factors, controls this process. Stomata response to diverse stimuli seems to be dictated by the behaviour of neighbour stomata creating leaf areas of coordinated response. Here individual...

Ribosomal Protein Gene Knockdown Causes Developmental Defects in Zebrafish

The ribosomal proteins (RPs) form the majority of cellular proteins and are mandatory for cellular growth. RP genes have been linked, either directly or indirectly, to various diseases in humans. Mutations in RP genes are also associated with tissue-specific phenotypes, suggesting a possible role in organ development during early embryogenesis. However, it is not yet known how...

Efficient Non-Viral Ocular Gene Transfer with Compacted DNA Nanoparticles

Background The eye is an excellent candidate for gene therapy as it is immune privileged and much of the disease-causing genetics are well understood. Towards this goal, we evaluated the efficiency of compacted DNA nanoparticles as a system for non-viral gene transfer to ocular tissues. The compacted DNA nanoparticles examined here have been shown to be safe and effective in a...

A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments

Background Stanley Milgram's 1960s experimental findings that people would administer apparently lethal electric shocks to a stranger at the behest of an authority figure remain critical for understanding obedience. Yet, due to the ethical controversy that his experiments ignited, it is nowadays impossible to carry out direct experimental studies in this area. In the study...

Mapping the Antigenicity of the Parasites in Leishmania donovani Infection by Proteome Serology

Background Leishmaniasis defines a cluster of protozoal diseases with diverse clinical manifestations. The visceral form caused by Leishmania donovani is the most severe. So far, no vaccines exist for visceral leishmaniasis despite indications of naturally developing immunity, and sensitive immunodiagnostics are still at early stages of development. Methodology/Principle Findings...

Association and Host Selectivity in Multi-Host Pathogens

The distribution of multi-host pathogens over their host range conditions their population dynamics and structure. Also, host co-infection by different pathogens may have important consequences for the evolution of hosts and pathogens, and host-pathogen co-evolution. Hence it is of interest to know if the distribution of pathogens over their host range is random, or if there are...

A Uniform Genomic Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Typing Methodology and Database Designed to Facilitate Clinical Applications

Background Minor Histocompatibility (H) antigen mismatches significantly influence the outcome of HLA-matched allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The molecular identification of human H antigens is increasing rapidly. In parallel, clinical application of minor H antigen typing has gained interest. So far, relevant and simple tools to analyze the minor H antigens in a quick and...

Is Adipose Tissue a Place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence?

Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), has the ability to persist in its human host for exceptionally long periods of time. However, little is known about the location of the bacilli in latently infected individuals. Long-term mycobacterial persistence in the lungs has been reported, but this may not sufficiently account for strictly...

Predator Mimicry: Metalmark Moths Mimic Their Jumping Spider Predators

Cases of mimicry provide many of the nature's most convincing examples of natural selection. Here we report evidence for a case of predator mimicry in which metalmark moths in the genus Brenthia mimic jumping spiders, one of their predators. In controlled trials, Brenthia had higher survival rates than other similarly sized moths in the presence of jumping spiders and jumping...

Fine Tuning of Globin Gene Expression by DNA Methylation

Expression patterns in the globin gene cluster are subject to developmental regulation in vivo. While the γA and γG genes are expressed in fetal liver, both are silenced in adult erythrocytes. In order to decipher the role of DNA methylation in this process, we generated a YAC transgenic mouse system that allowed us to control γA methylation during development. DNA methylation...

Cdx4 and Menin Co-Regulate Hoxa9 Expression in Hematopoietic Cells

Background Transcription factor Cdx4 and transcriptional coregulator menin are essential for Hoxa9 expression and normal hematopoiesis. However, the precise mechanism underlying Hoxa9 regulation is not clear. Methods and Findings Here, we show that the expression level of Hoxa9 is correlated with the location of increased trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4M3). The active and...