PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,478)

Accelerated Variant of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Clinical Behavior and Gene Expression Pattern

BackgroundIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea or cough. However, a subset of patients has a short duration of symptoms with rapid progression to end-stage disease. In this study, we evaluated clinical and molecular features of “rapid” and “slow” progressors with IPF.Methods and Findings26 patients with <6 months of symptoms...

Melanoma Screening with Cellular Phones

BackgroundMobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases.Methodology/Principal FindingsIn...

Whole-Genome Sequencing and Assembly with High-Throughput, Short-Read Technologies

While recently developed short-read sequencing technologies may dramatically reduce the sequencing cost and eventually achieve the $1000 goal for re-sequencing, their limitations prevent the de novo sequencing of eukaryotic genomes with the standard shotgun sequencing protocol. We present SHRAP (SHort Read Assembly Protocol), a sequencing protocol and assembly methodology that...

Regular Patterns in Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Simple Spike Trains

BackgroundCerebellar Purkinje cells (PC) in vivo are commonly reported to generate irregular spike trains, documented by high coefficients of variation of interspike-intervals (ISI). In strong contrast, they fire very regularly in the in vitro slice preparation. We studied the nature of this difference in firing properties by focusing on short-term variability and its dependence...

Early Trauma and Increased Risk for Physical Aggression during Adulthood: The Moderating Role of MAOA Genotype

Previous research has reported that a functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene promoter can moderate the association between early life adversity and increased risk for violence and antisocial behavior. In this study of a combined population of psychiatric outpatients and healthy volunteers (N = 235), we tested the hypothesis that MAOA genotype moderates the...

A Database of Wing Diversity in the Hawaiian Drosophila

BackgroundWithin genus Drosophila, the endemic Hawaiian species offer some of the most dramatic examples of morphological and behavioral evolution. The advent of the Drosophila grimshawi genome sequence permits genes of interest to be readily cloned from any of the hundreds of species of Hawaiian Drosophila, offering a powerful comparative approach to defining molecular...

Bax Function in the Absence of Mitochondria in the Primitive Protozoan Giardia lamblia

Bax-induced permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and release of cytochrome c are key events in apoptosis. Although Bax can compromise mitochondria in primitive unicellular organisms that lack a classical apoptotic machinery, it is still unclear if Bax alone is sufficient for this, or whether additional mitochondrial components are required. The protozoan parasite...

Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry

BackgroundEffective influenza surveillance requires new methods capable of rapid and inexpensive genomic analysis of evolving viral species for pandemic preparedness, to understand the evolution of circulating viral species, and for vaccine strain selection. We have developed one such approach based on previously described broad-range reverse transcription PCR/electrospray...

Experimental Selection for Drosophila Survival in Extremely Low O2 Environment

BackgroundCellular hypoxia, if severe enough, results usually in injury or cell death. Our research in this area has focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxic tissue injury to explore strategies to prevent injury or enhance tolerance. The current experiments were designed to determine the genetic basis for adaptation to long term low O2 environments.Methodology...

The Arabidopsis thaliana Brassinosteroid Receptor (AtBRI1) Contains a Domain that Functions as a Guanylyl Cyclase In Vitro

BackgroundGuanylyl cyclases (GCs) catalyze the formation of the second messenger guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) from guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP). Cyclic GMP has been implicated in an increasing number of plant processes, including responses to abiotic stresses such as dehydration and salt, as well as hormones.Principle FindingsHere we used a rational search...

Molecular Biogeography: Towards an Integrated Framework for Conserving Pan-African Biodiversity

BackgroundBiogeographic models partition ecologically similar species assemblages into discrete ecoregions. However, the history, relationship and interactions between these regions and their assemblages have rarely been explored.Methodology/Principal FindingsHere we develop a taxon-based approach that explicitly utilises molecular information to compare ecoregion history and...

Absent or Low Rate of Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Bats (Chiroptera)

Bats are the only flying mammals and have well developed navigation abilities for 3D-space. Even bats with comparatively small home ranges cover much larger territories than rodents, and long-distance migration by some species is unique among small mammals. Adult proliferation of neurons, i.e., adult neurogenesis, in the dentate gyrus of rodents is thought to play an important...

High-Yield Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water by a Synthetic Enzymatic Pathway

BackgroundThe future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and...

Ionizing Radiation Changes the Electronic Properties of Melanin and Enhances the Growth of Melanized Fungi

BackgroundMelanin pigments are ubiquitous in nature. Melanized microorganisms are often the dominating species in certain extreme environments, such as soils contaminated with radionuclides, suggesting that the presence of melanin is beneficial in their life cycle. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation could change the electronic properties of melanin and might enhance the...

Impact of HIV on Cell Survival and Antiviral Activity of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are important mediators of innate immunity that act mainly through secretion of interferon (IFN)-α. Previous studies have found that these cells can suppress HIV in vitro; additionally, pDCs have been shown to be severely reduced in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine the ability of...

Analysis of Intraviral Protein-Protein Interactions of the SARS Coronavirus ORFeome

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome is predicted to encode 14 functional open reading frames, leading to the expression of up to 30 structural and non-structural protein products. The functions of a large number of viral ORFs are poorly understood or unknown. In order to gain more insight into functions and modes of action and interaction of the...

Virtual Northern Analysis of the Human Genome

BackgroundWe applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90%) confidence. By...

Global Genetic Population Structure of Bacillus anthracis

Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is a disease of historical and current importance that is found throughout the world. The basis of its historical transmission is anecdotal and its true global population structure has remained largely cryptic. Seven diverse B. anthracis strains were whole-genome sequenced to identify rare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...

Positive Selection within the Schizophrenia-Associated GABAA Receptor β2 Gene

The gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor plays a major role in inhibitory neurotransmissions. Intronic SNPs and haplotypes in GABRB2, the gene for GABAA receptor β2 subunit, are associated with schizophrenia and correlated with the expression of two alternatively spliced β2 isoforms. In the present study, using chimpanzee as an ancestral reference, high frequencies...

A Novel Motif Identified in Dependence Receptors

Programmed cell death signaling is a critical feature of development, cellular turnover, oncogenesis, and neurodegeneration, among other processes. Such signaling may be transduced via specific receptors, either following ligand binding—to death receptors—or following the withdrawal of trophic ligands—from dependence receptors. Although dependence receptors display functional...

Predicting Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality from Morbidity Data

BackgroundFew European countries conduct reactive surveillance of influenza mortality, whereas most monitor morbidity.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe developed a simple model based on Poisson seasonal regression to predict excess cases of pneumonia and influenza mortality during influenza epidemics, based on influenza morbidity data and the dominant types/subtypes of circulating...

Resistance Exercise Reverses Aging in Human Skeletal Muscle

Human aging is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and functional impairment (sarcopenia). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to sarcopenia. We evaluated whether healthy aging was associated with a transcriptional profile reflecting mitochondrial impairment and whether resistance exercise could reverse this signature to...

Anthrax Toxins Induce Shock in Rats by Depressed Cardiac Ventricular Function

Anthrax infections are frequently associated with severe and often irreversible hypotensive shock. The isolated toxic proteins of Bacillus anthracis produce a non-cytokine-mediated hypotension in rats by unknown mechanisms. These observations suggest the anthrax toxins have direct cardiovascular effects. Here, we characterize these effects. As a first step, we administered...

Structural Insights into the Evolution of a Non-Biological Protein: Importance of Surface Residues in Protein Fold Optimization

Phylogenetic profiling of amino acid substitution patterns in proteins has led many to conclude that most structural information is carried by interior core residues that are solvent inaccessible. This conclusion is based on the observation that buried residues generally tolerate only conserved sequence changes, while surface residues allow more diverse chemical substitutions...

Conformational Proofreading: The Impact of Conformational Changes on the Specificity of Molecular Recognition

To perform recognition, molecules must locate and specifically bind their targets within a noisy biochemical environment with many look-alikes. Molecular recognition processes, especially the induced-fit mechanism, are known to involve conformational changes. This raises a basic question: Does molecular recognition gain any advantage by such conformational changes? By introducing...