PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,217)

Age-Related Attenuation of Dominant Hand Superiority

Background The decline of motor performance of the human hand-arm system with age is well-documented. While dominant hand performance is superior to that of the non-dominant hand in young individuals, little is known of possible age-related changes in hand dominance. We investigated age-related alterations of hand dominance in 20 to 90 year old subjects. All subjects were...

Human Coronary Artery Remodeling, Beginning and End of the Atherosclerotic Process

Background, Aims of the Study The objective of the study was to relate the progress of coronary artery remodeling to the earliest stages of the atherosclerotic process. For this purpose, a mathematical model for description of dimensional change of the coronary artery wall and its constituent components was developed and applied. Materials and Methods The study used coronary...

Regulated Polyploidy in Halophilic Archaea

Polyploidy is common in higher eukaryotes, especially in plants, but it is generally assumed that most prokaryotes contain a single copy of a circular chromosome and are therefore monoploid. We have used two independent methods to determine the genome copy number in halophilic archaea, 1) cell lysis in agarose blocks and Southern blot analysis, and 2) Real-Time quantitative PCR...

Wnt and Hedgehog Are Critical Mediators of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Cancer

Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world, and greater than 90% of lung cancers are cigarette smoke-related. Current treatment options are inadequate, because the molecular basis of cigarette-induced lung cancer is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show that human primary or immortalized bronchial epithelial cells exposed to...

A Bayesian Network Driven Approach to Model the Transcriptional Response to Nitric Oxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

The transcriptional response to exogenously supplied nitric oxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was modeled using an integrated framework of Bayesian network learning and experimental feedback. A Bayesian network learning algorithm was used to generate network models of transcriptional output, followed by model verification and revision through experimentation. Using this framework...

Rapid and Highly Informative Diagnostic Assay for H5N1 Influenza Viruses

A highly discriminative and information-rich diagnostic assay for H5N1 avian influenza would meet immediate patient care needs and provide valuable information for public health interventions, e.g., tracking of new and more dangerous variants by geographic area as well as avian-to-human or human-to-human transmission. In the present study, we have designed a rapid assay based on...

Experimental Rugged Fitness Landscape in Protein Sequence Space

The fitness landscape in sequence space determines the process of biomolecular evolution. To plot the fitness landscape of protein function, we carried out in vitro molecular evolution beginning with a defective fd phage carrying a random polypeptide of 139 amino acids in place of the g3p minor coat protein D2 domain, which is essential for phage infection. After 20 cycles of...

A Systems Biology Strategy Reveals Biological Pathways and Plasma Biomarker Candidates for Potentially Toxic Statin-Induced Changes in Muscle

Background Aggressive lipid lowering with high doses of statins increases the risk of statin-induced myopathy. However, the cellular mechanisms leading to muscle damage are not known and sensitive biomarkers are needed to identify patients at risk of developing statin-induced serious side effects. Methodology We performed bioinformatics analysis of whole genome expression...

A Proof-Of-Principle Study of Epigenetic Therapy Added to Neoadjuvant Doxorubicin Cyclophosphamide for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

Background Aberrant DNA methylation and histone deacetylation participate in cancer development and progression; hence, their reversal by inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone deacetylases (HDACs) is at present undergoing clinical testing in cancer therapy. As epigenetic alterations are common to breast cancer, in this proof-of-concept study demethylating hydralazine, plus...

Divalent Metal Ion Coordination by Residue T118 of Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2 Is Not Essential for Protective Antigen Binding

The protective antigen (PA) subunit of anthrax toxin interacts with the integrin-like I domains of either of two cellular receptors, ANTXR1 or ANTXR2. These I domains contain a metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) made up of five non-consecutive amino acid residues that coordinate a divalent metal ion that is important for PA-binding. The MIDAS residues of integrin I domains...

Factors Affecting Frequency Discrimination of Vibrotactile Stimuli: Implications for Cortical Encoding

Background Measuring perceptual judgments about stimuli while manipulating their physical characteristics can uncover the neural algorithms underlying sensory processing. We carried out psychophysical experiments to examine how humans discriminate vibrotactile stimuli. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects compared the frequencies of two sinusoidal vibrations applied...

Vaccinia Scars Associated with Improved Survival among Adults in Rural Guinea-Bissau

Background In urban Guinea-Bissau, adults with a vaccinia scar had better survival but also a higher prevalence of HIV-2 infection. We therefore investigated the association between vaccinia scar and survival and HIV infection in a rural area of Guinea-Bissau. Methodology/Principal Findings In connection with a study of HIV in rural Guinea-Bissau, we assessed vaccinia and BCG...

Strong HIV-1-Specific T Cell Responses in HIV-1-Exposed Uninfected Infants and Neonates Revealed after Regulatory T Cell Removal

Background In utero transmission of HIV-1 occurs on average in only 3%–15% of HIV-1-exposed neonates born to mothers not on antiretroviral drug therapy. Thus, despite potential exposure, the majority of infants remain uninfected. Weak HIV-1-specific T-cell responses have been detected in children exposed to HIV-1, and potentially contribute to protection against infection. We...

Policy Adjustment in a Dynamic Economic Game

Making sequential decisions to harvest rewards is a notoriously difficult problem. One difficulty is that the real world is not stationary and the reward expected from a contemplated action may depend in complex ways on the history of an animal's choices. Previous functional neuroimaging work combined with principled models has detected brain responses that correlate with...

Genome-Wide Reverse Genetics Framework to Identify Novel Functions of the Vertebrate Secretome

Background Understanding the functional role(s) of the more than 20,000 proteins of the vertebrate genome is a major next step in the post-genome era. The approximately 4,000 co-translationally translocated (CTT) proteins – representing the vertebrate secretome – are important for such vertebrate-critical processes as organogenesis. However, the role(s) for most of these genes is...

Biogenesis and Dynamics of Mitochondria during the Cell Cycle: Significance of 3′UTRs

Nowadays, we are facing a renaissance of mitochondria in cancer biology. However, our knowledge of the basic cell biology and on the timing and mechanisms that control the biosynthesis of mitochondrial constituents during progression through the cell cycle of mammalian cells remain largely unknown. Herein, we document the in vivo changes on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics...

Unusually Long Palindromes Are Abundant in Mitochondrial Control Regions of Insects and Nematodes

Background Palindromes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes. In the present investigation we carried out a comprehensive analysis of palindromes in the mitochondrial control regions (CRs) of several animal groups to study their frequency, distribution and architecture to gain insights into the origin of replication of mtDNA. Methodology/Principal Findings...