PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 195,827)

DAF-2/Insulin-Like Signaling in C. elegans Modifies Effects of Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Stress on Aging, Stress and Growth

BackgroundDietary restriction (DR) and reduced insulin/IGF-I-like signaling (IIS) are two regimens that promote longevity in a variety of organisms. Genetic analysis in C. elegans nematodes has shown that DR and IIS couple to distinct cellular signaling pathways. However, it is not known whether these pathways ultimately converge on overlapping or distinct targets to extend...

Subcellular Distribution of Mitochondrial Ribosomal RNA in the Mouse Oocyte and Zygote

Mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (mtrRNAs) have been reported to translocate extra-mitochondrially and localize to the germ cell determinant of oocytes and zygotes in some metazoa except mammals. To address whether the mtrRNAs also localize in the mammals, expression and distribution of mitochondrion-encoded RNAs in the mouse oocytes and zygotes was examined by whole-mount in situ...

Physical Analyses of E. coli Heteroduplex Recombination Products In Vivo: On the Prevalence of 5′ and 3′ Patches

BackgroundHomologous recombination in Escherichia coli creates patches (non-crossovers) or splices (half crossovers), each of which may have associated heteroduplex DNA. Heteroduplex patches have recombinant DNA in one strand of the duplex, with parental flanking markers. Which DNA strand is exchanged in heteroduplex patches reflects the molecular mechanism of recombination...

Multiple Origins of Knockdown Resistance Mutations in the Afrotropical Mosquito Vector Anopheles gambiae

How often insecticide resistance mutations arise in natural insect populations is a fundamental question for understanding the evolution of resistance and also for modeling its spread. Moreover, the development of resistance is regarded as a favored model to study the molecular evolution of adaptive traits. In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae two point mutations (L1014F and...

Admixture Mapping Provides Evidence of Association of the VNN1 Gene with Hypertension

Migration patterns in modern societies have created the opportunity to use population admixture as a strategy to identify susceptibility genes. To implement this strategy, we genotyped a highly informative ancestry marker panel of 2270 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a random population sample of African Americans (N = 1743), European Americans (N = 1000) and Mexican Americans...

A Conceptual Framework for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Regulating Ontogenetic Allometry

Although ontogenetic changes in body shape and its associated allometry has been studied for over a century, essentially nothing is known about their underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. One of the reasons for this ignorance is the unavailability of a conceptual framework to formulate the experimental design for data collection and statistical models for data analyses...

An Intronic Signal for Alternative Splicing in the Human Genome

An important level at which the expression of programmed cell death (PCD) genes is regulated is alternative splicing. Our previous work identified an intronic splicing regulatory element in caspase-2 (casp-2) gene. This 100-nucleotide intronic element, In100, consists of an upstream region containing a decoy 3′ splice site and a downstream region containing binding sites for...

Brain Responses to Violet, Blue, and Green Monochromatic Light Exposures in Humans: Prominent Role of Blue Light and the Brainstem

BackgroundRelatively long duration retinal light exposure elicits nonvisual responses in humans, including modulation of alertness and cognition. These responses are thought to be mediated in part by melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells which are more sensitive to blue light than violet or green light. The contribution of the melanopsin system and the brain mechanisms...

A Tale of Four Stories: Soil Ecology, Theory, Evolution and the Publication System

BackgroundSoil ecology has produced a huge corpus of results on relations between soil organisms, ecosystem processes controlled by these organisms and links between belowground and aboveground processes. However, some soil scientists think that soil ecology is short of modelling and evolutionary approaches and has developed too independently from general ecology. We have tested...

Mosaic Genome Architecture of the Anopheles gambiae Species Complex

BackgroundAttempts over the last three decades to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the Anopheles gambiae species complex have been important for developing better strategies to control malaria transmission.MethodologyWe used fingerprint genotyping data from 414 field-collected female mosquitoes at 42 microsatellite loci to infer the evolutionary relationships of four...

Active Hippocampal Networks Undergo Spontaneous Synaptic Modification

The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any...

Potent Activity of the HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitor Bevirimat in SCID-hu Thy/Liv Mice

BackgroundThe HIV-1 maturation inhibitor, 3-O-(3′,3′-dimethylsuccinyl) betulinic acid (bevirimat, PA-457) is a promising drug candidate with 10 nM in vitro antiviral activity against multiple wild-type (WT) and drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates. Bevirimat has a novel mechanism of action, specifically inhibiting cleavage of spacer peptide 1 (SP1) from the C-terminus of capsid which...

Transcriptional Networks in S. cerevisiae Linked to an Accumulation of Base Excision Repair Intermediates

Upon exposure to DNA damaging agents, Saccharomyces cerevisiae respond by activating a massive transcriptional program that reflects the fact that “DNA damaging” agents also damage other cellular macromolecules. To identify the transcriptional response that is specific to DNA damage, we have modulated the first two enzymes in the base excision repair (BER) pathway generating...

The Effect of Predictability on Subjective Duration

Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down...

Identification of Novel Drosophila melanogaster MicroRNAs

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with important regulatory roles in post-transcriptional regulation of metazoan development, homeostasis and disease. The full set of miRNAs is not known for any species and it is believed that many await discovery. The recent assembly of 15 insect genomes has provided the opportunity to identify novel miRNAs in the fruit fly...

Forecasting Non-Stationary Diarrhea, Acute Respiratory Infection, and Malaria Time-Series in Niono, Mali

BackgroundMuch of the developing world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, exhibits high levels of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhea, acute respiratory infection, and malaria. With the increasing awareness that the aforementioned infectious diseases impose an enormous burden on developing countries, public health programs therein could benefit from parsimonious...

Identification of a Novel Modulator of Thyroid Hormone Receptor-Mediated Action

BackgroundDiabetes is characterized by reduced thyroid function and altered myogenesis after muscle injury. Here we identify a novel component of thyroid hormone action that is repressed in diabetic rat muscle.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe have identified a gene, named DOR, abundantly expressed in insulin-sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle and heart, whose expression is...

Putative Zinc Finger Protein Binding Sites Are Over-Represented in the Boundaries of Methylation-Resistant CpG Islands in the Human Genome

BackgroundMajority of CpG dinucleotides in mammalian genomes tend to undergo DNA methylation, but most CpG islands are resistant to such epigenetic modification. Understanding about mechanisms that may lead to the methylation resistance of CpG islands is still very poor.Methodology/Principal FindingsUsing the genome-scale in vivo DNA methylation data from human brain, we...

A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants

BackgroundThe carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of...

Evolutionarily Conserved Protein Sequences of Influenza A Viruses, Avian and Human, as Vaccine Targets

BackgroundInfluenza A viruses generate an extreme genetic diversity through point mutation and gene segment exchange, resulting in many new strains that emerge from the animal reservoirs, among which was the recent highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. This genetic diversity also endows these viruses with a dynamic adaptability to their habitats, one result being the rapid selection of...

Detection of Light Images by Simple Tissues as Visualized by Photosensitized Magnetic Resonance Imaging

In this study, we show how light can be absorbed by the body of a living rat due to an injected pigment circulating in the blood stream. This process is then physiologically translated in the tissue into a chemical signature that can be perceived as an image by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We previously reported that illumination of an injected photosynthetic...

Identification of Prophages in Bacterial Genomes by Dinucleotide Relative Abundance Difference

BackgroundProphages are integrated viral forms in bacterial genomes that have been found to contribute to interstrain genetic variability. Many virulence-associated genes are reported to be prophage encoded. Present computational methods to detect prophages are either by identifying possible essential proteins such as integrases or by an extension of this technique, which...

Reappraisal of Vipera aspis Venom Neurotoxicity

BackgroundThe variation of venom composition with geography is an important aspect of intraspecific variability in the Vipera genus, although causes of this variability remain unclear. The diversity of snake venom is important both for our understanding of venomous snake evolution and for the preparation of relevant antivenoms to treat envenomations. A geographic intraspecific...

Cerebrocortical Beta Activity in Overweight Humans Responds to Insulin Detemir

BackgroundInsulin stimulates cerebrocortical beta and theta activity in lean humans. This effect is reduced in obese individuals indicating cerebrocortical insulin resistance. In the present study we tested whether insulin detemir is a suitable tool to restore the cerebral insulin response in overweight humans. This approach is based on studies in mice where we could recently...

Differential Regulation of Circulating Levels of Molecular Chaperones in Patients Undergoing Treatment for Periodontal Disease

BackgroundEvidence is emerging that molecular chaperones, in addition to their intracellular protein folding actions, can act as intercellular signaling proteins with an ability to modulate leukocyte function. Recent evidence has also shown that these proteins can exist in the circulation and may be involved in disease pathogenesis. We have used periodontitis and its treatment as...