Clinical Epigenetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/13148

List of Papers (Total 494)

Translating epigenetics into clinic: focus on lupus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic relapsing–remitting autoimmune disease with highly heterogeneous phenotypes. Biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity are useful for early diagnosis as well as monitoring disease activity and long-term complications. Epigenetics potentially provide novel biomarkers in autoimmune diseases. These may include DNA methylation ...

Long-term prenatal exposure to paracetamol is associated with DNA methylation differences in children diagnosed with ADHD

Background Epidemiological studies have shown that long-term exposure to paracetamol during pregnancy is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The mechanism by which paracetamol may modulate the increased risk of developing ADHD is currently unknown. We have conducted an epigenome-wide association study (n = 384 cord blood samples) and investigated ...

Genome-wide microRNA expression profiling in placentae from frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer

Background Frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) is increasingly available for the improvement of the success rate of assisted reproductive technologies other than fresh embryo transfer (ET). There have been numerous findings that FET provides better obstetric and perinatal outcomes. However, the birth weight of infants conceived using FET is heavier than that of those conceived via ...

Maternal blood contamination of collected cord blood can be identified using DNA methylation at three CpGs

Background Cord blood is a commonly used tissue in environmental, genetic, and epigenetic population studies due to its ready availability and potential to inform on a sensitive period of human development. However, the introduction of maternal blood during labor or cross-contamination during sample collection may complicate downstream analyses. After discovering maternal ...

MicroRNA profiling of ovarian granulosa cell tumours reveals novel diagnostic and prognostic markers

Background The aim of this study was to explore the clinical utility of microRNAs (miRNAs) as improved markers of ovarian granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) for cancer diagnosis and prognosis prediction. Current histopathological and genetic markers, such as the presence of a FOXL2 gene mutation to distinguish between the two major subtypes are not wholly accurate and as such novel ...

High levels of circulating folate concentrations are associated with DNA methylation of tumor suppressor and repair genes p16, MLH1, and MGMT in elderly Chileans

Background Changes in DNA methylation, one of the most studied epigenetic mechanisms, are considered an initial marker for early cancer detection. We evaluated how availability of dietary factors (folates and vitamin B12) involved in one-carbon metabolism may contribute to DNA methylation changes of cancer-related genes in human subjects. Methods We studied, by pyrosequencing, the ...

A long-range interactive DNA methylation marker panel for the promoters of HOXA9 and HOXA10 predicts survival in breast cancer patients

Background Most DNA cancer methylation markers are based on the transcriptional regulation of the promoter-gene relationship. Recently, the importance of long-range interactions between distal CpGs and target genes has been revealed. Here, we attempted to identify methylation markers for breast cancer that interact with distant genes. Results We performed integrated analysis using ...

Differential methylation at MHC in CD4+ T cells is associated with multiple sclerosis independently of HLA-DRB1

Background Although many genetic variants have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, they do not explain all the disease risk and there remains uncertainty as to how these variants contribute to disease. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that can influence gene expression and has the potential to mediate the effects of environmental factors on MS. In a ...

Single-molecule quantification of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine for diagnosis of blood and colon cancers

Background The DNA modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is now referred to as the sixth base of DNA with evidence of tissue-specific patterns and correlation with gene regulation and expression. This epigenetic mark was recently reported as a potential biomarker for multiple types of cancer, but its application in the clinic is limited by the utility of recent 5hmC ...

PAT-H-MS coupled with laser microdissection to study histone post-translational modifications in selected cell populations from pathology samples

Background Aberrations in histone post-translational modifications (hPTMs) have been linked with various pathologies, including cancer, and could not only represent useful biomarkers but also suggest possible targetable epigenetic mechanisms. We have recently developed an approach, termed pathology tissue analysis of histones by mass spectrometry (PAT-H-MS), that allows performing ...

BNDF methylation in mothers and newborns is associated with maternal exposure to war trauma

Background The BDNF gene codes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a growth factor involved in neural development, cell differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. Present in both the brain and periphery, BDNF plays critical roles throughout the body and is essential for placental and fetal development. Rodent studies show that early life stress, including prenatal stress, broadly ...

Epigenetic mechanisms during ageing and neurogenesis as novel therapeutic avenues in human brain disorders

Ageing is the main risk factor for human neurological disorders. Among the diverse molecular pathways that govern ageing, epigenetics can guide age-associated decline in part by regulating gene expression and also through the modulation of genomic instability and high-order chromatin architecture. Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of neural differentiation as ...

Regulating role of fetal thyroid hormones on placental mitochondrial DNA methylation: epidemiological evidence from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort study

Background Fetal development largely depends on thyroid hormone availability and proper placental function with an important role played by placental mitochondria. The biological mechanisms by which thyroid hormones exert their effects on mitochondrial function are not well understood. We investigated the role of fetal thyroid hormones on placental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content ...

Physical activity, black carbon exposure, and DNA methylation in the FOXP3 promoter

Background Physical activity is associated with improvement in lung function; however, pollution exposure during physical activity can lead to a transient reduction in lung function. This paradoxical relationship may be linked to altered T regulatory (Treg) cell activity, which increases with exercise and suppresses airway inflammation, but decreases in association with exposure to ...

Epigenetic silencing of SALL3 is an independent predictor of poor survival in head and neck cancer

Background This study examined Sal-like protein (SALL)3 methylation profiles of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients at diagnosis and follow-up and evaluated their prognostic significance and value as a biomarker. SALL3 expression was examined in a panel of cell lines by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The methylation status of the SALL3 ...

Distinct DNA methylation profiles in subtypes of orofacial cleft

Background Epigenetic data could help identify risk factors for orofacial clefts, either by revealing a causal role for epigenetic mechanisms in causing clefts or by capturing information about causal genetic or environmental factors. Given the evidence that different subtypes of orofacial cleft have distinct aetiologies, we explored whether children with different cleft subtypes ...

Histone deacetylase inhibitors potentiate photodynamic therapy in colon cancer cells marked by chromatin-mediated epigenetic regulation of CDKN1A

Background Hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HY-PDT) has recently captured increased attention as an alternative minimally invasive anticancer treatment, although cancer cells may acquire resistance. Therefore, combination treatments may be necessary to enhance HY-PDT efficacy. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are often used in combination treatments due to their ...

ZAR1 is a novel epigenetically inactivated tumour suppressor in lung cancer

Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths with 1.8 million new cases each year and poor 5-year prognosis. Promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressors leads to their inactivation and thereby can promote cancer development and progression. Results In this study, we analysed ZAR1 (zygote arrest 1), which has been said to be a maternal-effect gene and its ...

Effect of personal exposure to black carbon on changes in allergic asthma gene methylation measured 5 days later in urban children: importance of allergic sensitization

Background Asthma gene DNA methylation may underlie the effects of air pollution on airway inflammation. However, the temporality and individual susceptibility to environmental epigenetic regulation of asthma has not been fully elucidated. Our objective was to determine the timeline of black carbon (BC) exposure, measured by personal sampling, on DNA methylation of allergic asthma ...

Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling integrated with gene expression profiling identifies PAX9 as a novel prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Background In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), epigenomic and genomic studies have expanded the existing knowledge about the disease biology and led to the identification of potential biomarkers relevant for implementation of personalized medicine. In this study, an attempt has been made to examine and integrate the global DNA methylation changes with gene expression profile and ...

Epi-drugs in combination with immunotherapy: a new avenue to improve anticancer efficacy

Immune checkpoint factors, such as programmed cell death protein-1/2 (PD-1, PD-2) or cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) receptors, are targets for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) developed for cancer immunotherapy. Indeed, modulating immune inhibitory pathways has been considered an important breakthrough in cancer treatment. Although immune checkpoint blockade ...

Pulmonary microRNA profiling: implications in upper lobe predominant lung disease

Background Numerous pulmonary diseases manifest with upper lobe predominance including cystic fibrosis, smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis. Zonal hypoxia, characteristic of these pulmonary maladies, and oxygen stress in general is known to exert profound effects on various important aspects of cell biology. Lung macrophages are major ...

Prognostic significance of LINE-1 hypomethylation in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Background Inclusion of new biomarkers to improve a personalized treatment approach for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is urgently needed. Hypomethylation of the Long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements, a widely accepted surrogate of overall genomic DNA methylation content, was found to be associated with a poor prognosis in several ...

Analysis of the DNA methylation level of cancer-related genes in colorectal cancer and the surrounding normal mucosa

Background Two molecular pathways promote the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). One is termed “microsatellite stable” (MSS) whereas the other is characterized by “microsatellite instability” (MSI or MIN). In addition, the CpG island methylation phenotype is known to be an important alteration as a third molecular type. Thus, DNA methylation is thought to provide potential ...