Clinical Epigenetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/13148

List of Papers (Total 602)

Clusterization in head and neck squamous carcinomas based on lncRNA expression: molecular and clinical correlates

Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key players in a remarkably variety of biological processes and pathologic conditions, including cancer. Next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatics procedures predict the existence of tens of thousands of lncRNAs, from which we know the functions of only a handful of them, and very little is known in cancer...

Assessing alternative base substitutions at primer CpG sites to optimise unbiased PCR amplification of methylated sequences

Background Determining the role of DNA methylation in various biological processes is dependent on the accurate representation of often highly complex patterns. Accurate representation is dependent on unbiased PCR amplification post bisulfite modification, regardless of methylation status of any given epiallele. This is highly dependent on primer design. Particular difficulties...

Aberrant DNA methylation in melanoma: biomarker and therapeutic opportunities

Aberrant DNA methylation is an epigenetic hallmark of melanoma, known to play important roles in melanoma formation and progression. Recent advances in genome-wide methylation methods have provided the means to identify differentially methylated genes, methylation signatures, and potential biomarkers. However, despite considerable effort and advances in cataloging methylation...

Validation of the MethylationEPIC BeadChip for fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumours

DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic modification due to its role in regulating gene expression, and its involvement in the pathogenesis of cancer and several diseases upon aberrations in methylation. The method of choice to evaluate genome-wide methylation has been the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K), but it was recently replaced with the MethylationEPIC...

Interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and a common polymorphism in the PON1 gene on DNA methylation in genes associated with cardio-metabolic disease risk—an exploratory study

BackgroundPrenatal environmental conditions may influence disease risk in later life. We previously found a gene-environment interaction between the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Q192R genotype and prenatal pesticide exposure leading to an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile at school age. However, the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been resolved. It was hypothesized that...

DNA methylation signatures for 2016 WHO classification subtypes of diffuse gliomas

BackgroundGlioma is the most common of all primary brain tumors with poor prognosis and high mortality. The 2016 World Health Organization classification of the tumors of central nervous system uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to redefine many tumor entities. The new classification scheme divides diffuse gliomas into low-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma (GBM...

Epigenetic signatures of gestational diabetes mellitus on cord blood methylation

Background Intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) confers a lifelong increased risk for metabolic and other complex disorders to the offspring. GDM-induced epigenetic modifications modulating gene regulation and persisting into later life are generally assumed to mediate these elevated disease susceptibilities. To identify candidate genes for fetal...

A novel method for isolation of histones from serum and its implications in therapeutics and prognosis of solid tumours

Background Dysregulation in post-translational modifications of histones and their modifiers are now well-recognized as a hallmark of cancer and can be used as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for disease progression and prognosis. In most solid tumours, a biopsy is challenging, costly, painful or potentially risky for the patient. Therefore, non-invasive methods like...

Associations of LEP, CRH, ICAM-1, and LINE-1 methylation, measured in saliva, with waist circumference, body mass index, and percent body fat in mid-childhood

BackgroundGenetics explains a small proportion of variance in body mass index at the population level. Epigenetics, commonly measured by gene methylation, holds promise for understanding obesity risk factors and mechanisms.MethodsParticipants were 431 adolescents aged 10–15 years. BMI z-score, waist circumference z-score, and percent body fat were measured. Saliva samples were...

The dynamic DNA methylation landscape of the mutL homolog 1 shore is altered by MLH1-93G>A polymorphism in normal tissues and colorectal cancer

Background Colorectal cancers (CRCs) undergo distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations. Expression of mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), a mismatch repair gene that corrects DNA replication errors, is lost in up to 15% of sporadic tumours due to mutation or, more commonly, due to DNA methylation of its promoter CpG island. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CpG island of MLH1...

LINE-1 is preferentially hypomethylated within adenomatous polyps in the presence of synchronous colorectal cancer

Background Conventional tubular adenomas are frequently detected in patients undergoing average risk screening colonoscopy and are over-represented in patients who will develop colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether features of adenomas could serve as predictors of synchronous CRC is not known. Here, we investigate whether global methylation markers, including LINE-1, differ within...

Epigenome-wide discovery and evaluation of leukocyte DNA methylation markers for the detection of colorectal cancer in a screening setting

BackgroundColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. If detected at an early stage, prognosis is good. Despite increasing evidence for the benefits of implemented screening programs, such as screening colonoscopy, compliance is rather low. Hence there is demand for non-invasive tests for the early detection of CRC with high acceptance in population-wide...

Cerebral white matter hyperintensities on MRI and acceleration of epigenetic aging: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

Background Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are part of the spectrum of brain vascular injury accompanying aging and are associated with a substantial risk of stroke and dementia. We investigated the association of cerebral WMH burden on MRI with a DNA methylation-based biomarker of aging, termed DNA methylation age acceleration...

DNA methylation at modifier genes of lung disease severity is altered in cystic fibrosis

Background Lung disease progression is variable among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and depends on DNA mutations in the CFTR gene, polymorphic variations in disease modifier genes, and environmental exposure. The contribution of genetic factors has been extensively investigated, whereas the mechanism whereby environmental factors modulate the lung disease is unknown. In this...

Colorectal adenoma and carcinoma specific miRNA profiles in biopsy and their expression in plasma specimens

Background MiRNA expression markers are well characterized in colorectal cancer (CRC), but less is known about miRNA expression profiles in colorectal adenomas. Genome-wide miRNA and mRNA expression analyses were conducted through the colorectal adenoma dysplasia sequence. Furthermore, analysis of the expression levels of miRNAs in matched plasma samples was performed, focusing...

Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging in middle-aged but not in elderly individuals

BackgroundHuman aging is associated with profound changes in one of the major epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation. Some of these changes occur in a clock-like fashion, i.e., correlating with the calendar age of an individual, thus providing a new aging biomarker. Some reports have identified factors associated with the acceleration of the epigenetic age. However, it is also...

Medulloblastoma and ependymoma cells display increased levels of 5-carboxylcytosine and elevated TET1 expression

Background Alteration of DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) patterns represents one of the causes of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Tet proteins can oxidise 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Although the roles of these oxidised forms of 5mC (oxi-mCs) in cancer pathogenesis are still largely unknown, there are...

Epigenetic strategies to reverse drug resistance in heterogeneous multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy, which remains incurable because most patients eventually relapse or become refractory to current treatments. Due to heterogeneity within the cancer cell microenvironment, cancer cell populations employ a dynamic survival strategy to chemotherapeutic treatments, which frequently results in a rapid acquisition of therapy...

Maternal intake of methyl-group donors affects DNA methylation of metabolic genes in infants

Background Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and infant nutrition in the early postnatal period (lactation) are critically involved in the development and health of the newborn infant. The Maternal Nutrition and Offspring’s Epigenome (MANOE) study was set up to assess the effect of maternal methyl-group donor intake (choline, betaine, folate, methionine) on infant DNA...

Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on lipids: the Rotterdam Study

Background DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism that is suggested to be associated with blood lipid levels. We aimed to identify CpG sites at which DNA methylation levels are associated with blood levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and total cholesterol in 725 participants of the Rotterdam...

Global DNA methylation levels are altered by modifiable clinical manipulations in assisted reproductive technologies

Background We analyzed placental DNA methylation levels at repeated sequences (LINE1 elements) and all CCGG sites (the LUMA assay) to study the effect of modifiable clinical or laboratory procedures involved in in vitro fertilization. We included four potential modifiable factors: oxygen tension during embryo culture, fresh embryo transfer vs frozen embryo transfer...

An empirically driven data reduction method on the human 450K methylation array to remove tissue specific non-variable CpGs

Background Population based epigenetic association studies of disease and exposures are becoming more common with the availability of economical genome-wide technologies for interrogation of the methylome, such as the Illumina 450K Human Methylation Array (450K). Often, the expected small number of differentially methylated cytosine-guanine pairs (CpGs) in studies of the human...

Genome-wide DNA methylation profile identified a unique set of differentially methylated immune genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients in India

Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the common malignancies in Southeast Asia. Epigenetic changes, mainly the altered DNA methylation, have been implicated in many cancers. Considering the varied environmental and genotoxic exposures among the Indian population, we conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation study on paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues of...