BMC Infectious Diseases

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334

List of Papers (Total 5,462)

Epidemiology of laboratory confirmed measles virus cases in the southern nations of Ethiopia, 2007–2014

Background In Ethiopia, measles case-based surveillance was introduced in 2004 as one strategy for measles control by laboratory confirmation of suspected cases. In this article, epidemiological distribution of laboratory-confirmed measles cases were reported from the Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia between 2007 and 2014, as the region is one of ...

Thromboelastometry analysis of thrombocytopenic dengue patients: a cross-sectional study

Background Dengue virus infection (DVI) is a prevalent and potentially fatal viral disease associated with coagulopathy. So far, the coagulation profile of DVI patients with thrombocytopenia has not been assessed through a viscoelastic test such as rotational thromboelastometry. We aimed to describe the prevalence and characteristics of coagulation abnormalities in dengue fever ...

Depression, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence among outpatients in rural Uganda: vulnerabilities for HIV, STIs and high risk sexual behavior

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and depression are key vulnerabilities for HIV in Uganda, and taken together may have a synergistic effect on risk. Our objective was to investigate the associations between depression, IPV, and alcohol use and HIV-risk indicators among a sample of outpatients in rural Uganda, and the effect of co-occurrence of these factors ...

Risk factors and medical costs for healthcare-associated carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli infection among hospitalized patients in a Chinese teaching hospital

Background The emergence and spread of Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) is becoming a serious problem in Chinese hospitals, however, the data on this is scarce. Therefore, we investigate the risk factors for healthcare-associated CREC infection and study the incidence, antibiotic resistance and medical costs of CREC infections in our hospital. Methods We conducted a ...

Diagnostic dilemma of pulmonary tuberculosis among adults with severe mental illness in Beijing, China

Background Although the prevalence of tuberculosis has decreased significantly over the past decades, the certain populations with mental illness are at increased risk for tuberculosis infection and transmission. However, no studies have examined the performance of different laboratory examination methods among people with severe mental illness in China. Methods In this study, we ...

Exploring surface cleaning strategies in hospital to prevent contact transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Background Cleaning of environmental surfaces in hospitals is important for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other hospital-acquired infections transmitted by the contact route. Guidance regarding the best approaches for cleaning, however, is limited. Methods In this study, a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations was ...

Influenza epidemic surveillance and prediction based on electronic health record data from an out-of-hours general practitioner cooperative: model development and validation on 2003–2015 data

Background Annual influenza epidemics significantly burden health care. Anticipating them allows for timely preparation. The Scientific Institute of Public Health in Belgium (WIV-ISP) monitors the incidence of influenza and influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and reports on a weekly basis. General practitioners working in out-of-hour cooperatives (OOH GPCs) register diagnoses of ILIs ...

Prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection and associated factors among non-commercial men who have sex with men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Shenzhen, China

Background Although HIV and syphilis co-infection has been frequently observed in men who have sex with men (MSM), only few studies have focused on it. Different subgroups of MSM might exhibit heterogeneous HIV and syphilis risk profiles, indicating that interventions for HIV and HIV-related co-infections may vary with different subgroups of MSM. However, no previous study has ...

Development of an algorithm for phenotypic screening of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the routine laboratory

Background Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are difficult to identify among carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (NSE). We designed phenotypic strategies giving priority to high sensitivity for screening putative CPE before further testing. Methods Presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in ertapenem NSE (MIC > 0.5 mg/l) consecutively isolated in 80 French ...

Comparison of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and smear microscopy with culture for the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis

Background Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide. Sputum smear microscopy remains the most widely available pulmonary TB diagnostic tool particularly in resource limited settings. A highly sensitive diagnostic with minimal infrastructure, cost and training is required. Hence, we assessed the ...

Cocaine/crack use is not associated with fibrosis progression measured by AST-to-Platelet Ratio Index in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: a cohort study

Background Cocaine and crack use has been associated with HIV and HCV infections, but its consequences on HCV progression have not been well established. We analyzed the impact of cocaine/crack use on liver fibrosis progression in a cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Methods A Canadian multicenter prospective cohort study followed 1238 HIV-HCV co-infected persons every ...

A severe case of visceral leishmaniasis and liposomal amphotericin B treatment failure in an immunosuppressed patient 15 years after exposure

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan disease, which is responsible for 200.000–400.000 yearly infections worldwide. If left untreated, the fatality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 years. 90% of cases occur in just six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. It is thus a disease rarely seen by physicians in Europe or North ...

Anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) response of imiquimod based toll like receptor 7 ligand in hbv-positive human hepatocelluar carcinoma cell line

Background Toll like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate immunity and various studies suggest that TLRs play a crucial role in pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The present study aims in looking into the status of crucial host and viral gene expression on inciting TLR7. Methods The transcription of TLR7 pathway signaling molecules and HBV DNA viral ...

Tenosynovitis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum infection misdiagnosed as an Alternaria species: a case report

Background Scedosporium apiospermum, which can usually be isolated from soil, polluted stream water and decaying vegetation, is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic dematiaceous fungus. The mortality rate of infection in immunocompromised hosts is over 50%. S. apiospermum is commonly responsible for dermal and epidermal infections (i.e., mycetoma) after traumatic ...

Concentration of fine needle aspirates similar to molecular method improves sensitivity of the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Background Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) diagnosis has been a true challenge solely by clinical evidence in developing countries, due to limited the diagnostic facility on hand. However, the availability and affordability of available diagnostic tools in resource-limited settings like Ethiopia necessitates the quest for other techniques with added value over direct Z-N ...

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the safety and effectiveness of a novel dual-action oral topical formulation against upper respiratory infections

Background Current prevention options for upper respiratory infections (URIs) are not optimal. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ARMS-I™ (currently marketed as Halo™) in the prevention of URIs. Methods ARMS-I is patented novel formulation for the prevention and treatment of influenza, comprising ...

High-risk human papillomavirus infection and abnormal cervical cytology among Nepali and Bhutanese refugee women living in eastern Nepal

Background Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality among women in Nepal and Bhutan. Data on high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities among Nepali and Bhutanese women are sparse. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare the prevalence of HR-HPV infection and cervical abnormalities among Nepali and ...

Assessing the sustainability of daily chlorhexidine bathing in the intensive care unit of a Veteran’s Hospital by examining nurses’ perspectives and experiences

Background Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) of intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been shown to reduce healthcare-associated infections and colonization by multidrug resistant organisms. The objective of this project was to describe the process of daily CHG bathing and identify the barriers and facilitators that can influence its successful adoption and ...

Better care provided to patients with tuberculosis at county designated TB hospitals (CTD) compared to non-CTDs in rural China

Background The primary unit of tuberculosis (TB) medical care in China is the county TB dispensary or county designated hospital (CTD), where patients can receive free diagnosis and treatment. However, a substantial number of patients seek their anti-TB treatment from general health facilities (Non-CTDs). This study aimed to investigate the first anti-TB treatment experience and ...

Cost of shingles: population based burden of disease analysis of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia

Background Around 30% of the population will experience herpes zoster (HZ), 10% of whom develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Together, these illnesses produce a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. Methods Administrative healthcare data collected over the period of April 1 st 1997 to March 31 st 2014 were analyzed to determine the healthcare system burden of HZ ...

Concomitant disseminated histoplasmosis and disseminated tuberculosis after tumor necrosis factor inhibitor treatment: a case report

Background Tumor necrosis factor antagonist inhibitors have transformed the approach to patients with severe autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Although the therapy can be highly effective, TNF-α inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Case presentation Here, we report a case of concomitant disseminated histoplasmosis and ...

Genotypic characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi from patients in two geographical locations in Sri Lanka

Background To date more than 20 antigenically distinct strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) reported within the tsutsugamushi triangle that cause an undifferentiated acute febrile illness in humans. Genotypic characterization of OT in different geographic regions or within the same country, is important in order to establish effective diagnostics, clinical management and to ...

Application of the analytic hierarchy approach to the risk assessment of Zika virus disease transmission in Guangdong Province, China

Background An international spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has attracted global attention in 2015. The infection also affected Guangdong province, which is located in southern China. Multiple factors, including frequent communication with South America and Southeast Asia, suitable climate (sub-tropical) for the habitat of Aedes species, may increase the risk of ZIKV disease ...

Toxoplasmosis-associated IRIS involving the CNS: a case report with longitudinal analysis of T cell subsets

Background HIV-infected patients may present an unforeseen clinical worsening after initiating antiretroviral therapy known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This syndrome is characterized by a heightened inflammatory response toward infectious or non-infectious triggers, and it may affect different organs. Diagnosis of IRIS involving the central nervous system ...

Intestinal helminth co-infection and associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Arba Minch, Ethiopia

Background Helminths affect the outcome of tuberculosis by shifting cell mediated immune response to humoral and by total suppression of the host immune system. On the reverse, Mycobacterium infection favors immune escape of helminths. Therefore assessing helminth co-infection rate and predisposing factors in tuberculosis patients is mandatory to set strategies for better case ...