Molecular Human Reproduction

http://molehr.oxfordjournals.org

List of Papers (Total 2,177)

Irinotecan metabolite SN38 results in germ cell loss in the testis but not in the ovary of prepubertal mice

STUDY QUESTION Does the Irinotecan metabolite 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecan (SN38) damage the gonads of male and female prepubertal mice?

Assessment of human embryo development using morphological criteria in an era of time-lapse, algorithms and ‘OMICS’: is looking good still important?

With the worldwide move towards single embryo transfer there has been a renewed focus on the requirement for reliable means of assessing embryo viability. In an era of ‘OMICS’ technologies, and algorithms created through the use of time-lapse microscopy, the actual appearance of the human embryo as it progresses through each successive developmental stage to the blastocyst appears ...

Polarity and cell division orientation in the cleavage embryo: from worm to human

Cleavage is a period after fertilization, when a 1-cell embryo starts developing into a multicellular organism. Due to a series of mitotic divisions, the large volume of a fertilized egg is divided into numerous smaller, nucleated cells—blastomeres. Embryos of different phyla divide according to different patterns, but molecular mechanism of these early divisions remains ...

Cell fate in animal and human blastocysts and the determination of viability

Understanding the mechanisms underlying the first cell differentiation events in human preimplantation development is fundamental for defining the optimal conditions for IVF techniques and selecting the most viable embryos for further development. However, our comprehension of the very early events in development is still very limited. Moreover, our knowledge on early lineage ...

BMP signalling in human fetal ovary somatic cells is modulated in a gene-specific fashion by GREM1 and GREM2

STUDY QUESTION Do changes in the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2 and 4, and their antagonists Gremlin1 (GREM1) and Gremlin2 (GREM2) during human fetal ovarian development impact on BMP pathway activity and lead to changes in gene expression that may influence the fate and/or function of ovarian somatic cells?

In vitro differentiation of rat spermatogonia into round spermatids in tissue culture

STUDY QUESTION Do the organ culture conditions, previously defined for in vitro murine male germ cell differentiation, also result in differentiation of rat spermatogonia into post-meiotic germ cells exhibiting specific markers for haploid germ cells?

Preimplantation genetic screening 2.0: the theory

During the last few years a new generation of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been introduced. In this paper, an overview of the different aspects of this so-called PGS 2.0 with respect to the why (what are the indications), the when (which developmental stage, i.e. which material should be studied) and the how (which molecular technique should be used) is given. With ...

Is there a role for DAZL in human female fertility?

The RNA binding protein deleted in azoospermia-like (Dazl) is a key determinant of germ cell maturation and entry into meiosis in rodents and other animal species. Although the complex phenotype of Dazl deficiency in both sexes, with defects at multiple stages of germ cell development and during meiosis, demonstrates its obligate significance in fertility in animal models, its ...

Does mouse embryo primordial germ cell activation start before implantation as suggested by single-cell transcriptomics dynamics?

STUDY HYPOTHESIS Does primordial germ cell (PGC) activation start before mouse embryo implantation, and does the possible regulation of the DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3-like (Dnmt3l) by transcription factor AP-2, gamma (TCFAP2C) have a role in this activation and in the primitive endoderm (PE)–epiblast (EPI) lineage specification?

The double-edged sword of the mammalian oocyte – advantages, drawbacks and approaches for basic and clinical analysis at the single cell level

Oocytes are usually the largest cells in the body and as such offer unique opportunities for single-cell analysis. Unfortunately, these cells are also some of the rarest in the mammalian female, usually necessitating single-cell analysis. In cases of infertility in humans, determining the quality of the oocyte is often restricted to a morphological analysis or to the study of ...

Proteomics of Xenopus development

Modern mass spectrometry-based methods provide an exciting opportunity to characterize protein expression in the developing embryo. We have employed an isotopic labeling technology to quantify the expression dynamics of nearly 6000 proteins across six stages of development in Xenopus laevis from the single stage zygote through the mid-blastula transition and the onset of ...

Bioinformatics approaches to single-cell analysis in developmental biology

Individual cells within the same population show various degrees of heterogeneity, which may be better handled with single-cell analysis to address biological and clinical questions. Single-cell analysis is especially important in developmental biology as subtle spatial and temporal differences in cells have significant associations with cell fate decisions during differentiation ...

Symmetry breaking in the early mammalian embryo: the case for quantitative single-cell imaging analysis

In recent years, advances in imaging probes, cutting-edge microscopy techniques and powerful bioinformatics image analysis have markedly expanded the imaging toolbox available to developmental biologists. Apart from traditional qualitative studies, embryonic development can now be investigated in vivo with improved spatiotemporal resolution, with more detailed quantitative analyses ...

A commercial human protamine-2 antibody used in several studies to detect mouse protamine-2 recognizes mouse transition protein-2 but not protamine-2

The exchange of histones for transition proteins (TNPs) and finally protamines is an essential process during spermatogenesis that enables the strong condensation of chromatin during sperm formation. Research on this process obviously depends on the availability of specific antibodies recognizing these nuclear proteins. A commercial antibody generated against human protamine-2 ...

Rescue of failed oocyte activation after ICSI in a mouse model of male factor infertility by recombinant phospholipase Cζ

Artificial oocyte activation to overcome failed fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in human oocytes typically employs Ca2+ ionophores to produce a single cytosolic Ca2+ increase. In contrast, recombinant phospholipase Czeta (PLCζ) causes Ca2+ oscillations indistinguishable from those occurring during fertilization, but remains untested for its efficacy in a ...

Crosstalk between monocytes and myometrial smooth muscle in culture generates synergistic pro-inflammatory cytokine production and enhances myocyte contraction, with effects opposed by progesterone

Both term and preterm parturition are characterized by an influx of macrophages and neutrophils into the myometrium and cervix, with co-incident increased peripheral blood monocyte activation. Infection and inflammation are strongly implicated in the pathology of preterm labour (PTL), with progesterone considered a promising candidate for its prevention or treatment. In this study, ...

Circadian clock regulation of melatonin MTNR1B receptor expression in human myometrial smooth muscle cells

Circadian genes are expressed in virtually all cells and tissues, and circadian rhythms influence many bodily processes, including reproductive physiology. The expression of hMTNR1B is suppressed during pregnancy until late in term (much like the oxytocin receptor), at which time it is up-regulated to allow for the nocturnal melatonin/oxytocin synergy, which promotes strong ...

Expression and characterization of three Aurora kinase C splice variants found in human oocytes

Chromosome segregation is an extensively choreographed process yet errors still occur frequently in female meiosis, leading to implantation failure, miscarriage or offspring with developmental disorders. Aurora kinase C (AURKC) is a component of the chromosome passenger complex and is highly expressed in gametes. Studies in mouse oocytes indicate that AURKC is required to regulate ...