Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

http://link.springer.com/journal/18

List of Papers (Total 904)

The adhesion receptor GPR56 is activated by extracellular matrix collagen III to improve β-cell function

AimsG-protein coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) is the most abundant islet-expressed G-protein coupled receptor, suggesting a potential role in islet function. This study evaluated islet expression of GPR56 and its endogenous ligand collagen III, and their effects on β-cell function.MethodsGPR56 and collagen III expression in mouse and human pancreas sections was determined by...

Seed coat thickness in the evolution of angiosperms

The seed habit represents a remarkable evolutionary advance in plant sexual reproduction. Since the Paleozoic, seeds carry a seed coat that protects, nourishes and facilitates the dispersal of the fertilization product(s). The seed coat architecture evolved to adapt to different environments and reproductive strategies in part by modifying its thickness. Here, we review the great...

Functional characterisation of naturally occurring mutations in human melanopsin

Melanopsin is a blue light-sensitive opsin photopigment involved in a range of non-image forming behaviours, including circadian photoentrainment and the pupil light response. Many naturally occurring genetic variants exist within the human melanopsin gene (OPN4), yet it remains unclear how these variants affect melanopsin protein function and downstream physiological responses...

Ciliary proteins Fap43 and Fap44 interact with each other and are essential for proper cilia and flagella beating

Cilia beating is powered by the inner and outer dynein arms (IDAs and ODAs). These multi-subunit macrocomplexes are arranged in two rows on each outer doublet along the entire cilium length, except its distal end. To generate cilia beating, the activity of ODAs and IDAs must be strictly regulated locally by interactions with the dynein arm-associated structures within each...

Implication of the VRK1 chromatin kinase in the signaling responses to DNA damage: a therapeutic target?

DNA damage causes a local distortion of chromatin that triggers the sequential processes that participate in specific DNA repair mechanisms. This initiation of the repair response requires the involvement of a protein whose activity can be regulated by histones. Kinases are candidates to regulate and coordinate the connection between a locally altered chromatin and the response...

Approaches to identify and characterize microProteins and their potential uses in biotechnology

MicroProteins are small proteins that contain a single protein domain and are related to larger, often multi-domain proteins. At the molecular level, microProteins act by interfering with the formation of higher order protein complexes. In the past years, several microProteins have been identified in plants and animals that strongly influence biological processes. Due to their...

Follistatin-like 1 in development and human diseases

Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a secreted glycoprotein displaying expression changes during development and disease, among which cardiovascular disease, cancer, and arthritis. The cardioprotective role of FSTL1 has been intensively studied over the last years, though its mechanism of action remains elusive. FSTL1 is involved in multiple signaling pathways and biological processes...

Redox-dependent thiol modifications: implications for the release of extracellular vesicles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, are emerging as important regulators of homeostasis and pathophysiology. During pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant conditions, EV release is induced. As EVs released under such conditions often exert pro-inflammatory and procoagulant effects, they may actively promote the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. There is...

Prion protein cleavage fragments regulate adult neural stem cell quiescence through redox modulation of mitochondrial fission and SOD2 expression

Neurogenesis continues in the post-developmental brain throughout life. The ability to stimulate the production of new neurones requires both quiescent and actively proliferating pools of neural stem cells (NSCs). Actively proliferating NSCs ensure that neurogenic demand can be met, whilst the quiescent pool makes certain NSC reserves do not become depleted. The processes...

Biochemical, biophysical and molecular dynamics studies on the proteoglycan-like domain of carbonic anhydrase IX

Human carbonic anhydrase IX (hCA IX) is a tumour-associated enzyme present in a limited number of normal tissues, but overexpressed in several malignant human tumours. It is a transmembrane protein, where the extracellular region consists of a greatly investigated catalytic CA domain and a much less investigated proteoglycan-like (PG) domain. Considering its important role in...

Amyloid and the origin of life: self-replicating catalytic amyloids as prebiotic informational and protometabolic entities

A crucial stage in the origin of life was the emergence of the first molecular entity that was able to replicate, transmit information, and evolve on the early Earth. The amyloid world hypothesis posits that in the pre-RNA era, information processing was based on catalytic amyloids. The self-assembly of short peptides into β-sheet amyloid conformers leads to extraordinary...

Nestin-expressing progenitor cells: function, identity and therapeutic implications

The neuroepithelial stem cell protein, or Nestin, is a cytoskeletal intermediate filament initially characterized in neural stem cells. However, current extensive evidence obtained in in vivo models and humans shows presence of Nestin+ cells with progenitor and/or regulatory functions in a number of additional tissues, remarkably bone marrow. This review presents the current...

Ion and metabolite transport in the chloroplast of algae: lessons from land plants

Chloroplasts are endosymbiotic organelles and play crucial roles in energy supply and metabolism of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms (algae and land plants). They harbor channels and transporters in the envelope and thylakoid membranes, mediating the exchange of ions and metabolites with the cytosol and the chloroplast stroma and between the different chloroplast...

In vivo regulation of the A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) by the tetraspanin 15

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) plays a major role in the ectodomain shedding of important surface molecules with physiological and pathological relevance including the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the cellular prion protein, and different cadherins. Despite its therapeutic potential, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge how this protease is...

Defining G protein-coupled receptor peptide ligand expressomes and signalomes in human and mouse islets

IntroductionIslets synthesise and secrete numerous peptides, some of which are known to be important regulators of islet function and glucose homeostasis. In this study, we quantified mRNAs encoding all peptide ligands of islet G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in isolated human and mouse islets and carried out in vitro islet hormone secretion studies to provide functional...

Conformational change of the extracellular parts of the CFTR protein during channel gating

Cystic fibrosis can be treated by potentiators, drugs that interact directly with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel to increase its open probability. These substances likely target key conformational changes occurring during channel opening and closing, however, the molecular bases of these conformational changes, and their susceptibility...

Detailed analysis of the plasma extracellular vesicle proteome after separation from lipoproteins

The isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from blood is of great importance to understand the biological role of circulating EVs and to develop EVs as biomarkers of disease. Due to the concurrent presence of lipoprotein particles, however, blood is one of the most difficult body fluids to isolate EVs from. The aim of this study was to develop a robust method to isolate and...

SLC52A3 expression is activated by NF-κB p65/Rel-B and serves as a prognostic biomarker in esophageal cancer

The human riboflavin transporter-3 (encoded by SLC52A3) plays a prominent role in riboflavin absorption. Interestingly, abnormal expression patterns of SLC52A3 in multiple types of human cancers have been recently noted. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its dysregulation remain unclear. In this study, we find that SLC52A3 has two transcript variants that differ in the...

TSC1 and TSC2 regulate cilia length and canonical Hedgehog signaling via different mechanisms

Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate multiple cellular signaling pathways, including Hedgehog (HH), Wingless/Int (WNT) and Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Similarly, primary cilia have been implicated in regulation of mTOR signaling, in which Tuberous Sclerosis Complex proteins 1 and 2 (TSC1/2) negatively regulate protein synthesis by inactivating...

Analysis of novel endosome-to-Golgi retrieval genes reveals a role for PLD3 in regulating endosomal protein sorting and amyloid precursor protein processing

The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to the neurotoxic pro-aggregatory Aβ peptide is controlled by the mechanisms that govern the trafficking and localisation of APP. We hypothesised that genes involved in endosomal protein sorting could play an important role in regulating APP processing and, therefore, analysed ~ 40 novel endosome-to-Golgi retrieval genes...

VRK1 and AURKB form a complex that cross inhibit their kinase activity and the phosphorylation of histone H3 in the progression of mitosis

Regulation of cell division requires the integration of signals implicated in chromatin reorganization and coordination of its sequential changes in mitosis. Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) and Aurora B (AURKB) are two nuclear kinases involved in different steps of cell division. We have studied whether there is any functional connection between these two nuclear kinases, which...

Inhibitors of protein translocation across membranes of the secretory pathway: novel antimicrobial and anticancer agents

Proteins routed to the secretory pathway start their journey by being transported across biological membranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. The essential nature of this protein translocation process has led to the evolution of several factors that specifically target the translocon and block translocation. In this review, various translocation pathways are discussed...