Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

http://link.springer.com/journal/18

List of Papers (Total 887)

Functional characterisation of naturally occurring mutations in human melanopsin

Melanopsin is a blue light-sensitive opsin photopigment involved in a range of non-image forming behaviours, including circadian photoentrainment and the pupil light response. Many naturally occurring genetic variants exist within the human melanopsin gene (OPN4), yet it remains unclear how these variants affect melanopsin protein function and downstream physiological responses...

Implication of the VRK1 chromatin kinase in the signaling responses to DNA damage: a therapeutic target?

DNA damage causes a local distortion of chromatin that triggers the sequential processes that participate in specific DNA repair mechanisms. This initiation of the repair response requires the involvement of a protein whose activity can be regulated by histones. Kinases are candidates to regulate and coordinate the connection between a locally altered chromatin and the response...

Follistatin-like 1 in development and human diseases

Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a secreted glycoprotein displaying expression changes during development and disease, among which cardiovascular disease, cancer, and arthritis. The cardioprotective role of FSTL1 has been intensively studied over the last years, though its mechanism of action remains elusive. FSTL1 is involved in multiple signaling pathways and biological processes...

Redox-dependent thiol modifications: implications for the release of extracellular vesicles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, are emerging as important regulators of homeostasis and pathophysiology. During pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant conditions, EV release is induced. As EVs released under such conditions often exert pro-inflammatory and procoagulant effects, they may actively promote the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. There is...

Prion protein cleavage fragments regulate adult neural stem cell quiescence through redox modulation of mitochondrial fission and SOD2 expression

Neurogenesis continues in the post-developmental brain throughout life. The ability to stimulate the production of new neurones requires both quiescent and actively proliferating pools of neural stem cells (NSCs). Actively proliferating NSCs ensure that neurogenic demand can be met, whilst the quiescent pool makes certain NSC reserves do not become depleted. The processes...

Nestin-expressing progenitor cells: function, identity and therapeutic implications

The neuroepithelial stem cell protein, or Nestin, is a cytoskeletal intermediate filament initially characterized in neural stem cells. However, current extensive evidence obtained in in vivo models and humans shows presence of Nestin+ cells with progenitor and/or regulatory functions in a number of additional tissues, remarkably bone marrow. This review presents the current...

Ion and metabolite transport in the chloroplast of algae: lessons from land plants

Chloroplasts are endosymbiotic organelles and play crucial roles in energy supply and metabolism of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms (algae and land plants). They harbor channels and transporters in the envelope and thylakoid membranes, mediating the exchange of ions and metabolites with the cytosol and the chloroplast stroma and between the different chloroplast...

In vivo regulation of the A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) by the tetraspanin 15

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) plays a major role in the ectodomain shedding of important surface molecules with physiological and pathological relevance including the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the cellular prion protein, and different cadherins. Despite its therapeutic potential, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge how this protease is...

Conformational change of the extracellular parts of the CFTR protein during channel gating

Cystic fibrosis can be treated by potentiators, drugs that interact directly with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel to increase its open probability. These substances likely target key conformational changes occurring during channel opening and closing, however, the molecular bases of these conformational changes, and their susceptibility...

Detailed analysis of the plasma extracellular vesicle proteome after separation from lipoproteins

The isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from blood is of great importance to understand the biological role of circulating EVs and to develop EVs as biomarkers of disease. Due to the concurrent presence of lipoprotein particles, however, blood is one of the most difficult body fluids to isolate EVs from. The aim of this study was to develop a robust method to isolate and...

SLC52A3 expression is activated by NF-κB p65/Rel-B and serves as a prognostic biomarker in esophageal cancer

The human riboflavin transporter-3 (encoded by SLC52A3) plays a prominent role in riboflavin absorption. Interestingly, abnormal expression patterns of SLC52A3 in multiple types of human cancers have been recently noted. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its dysregulation remain unclear. In this study, we find that SLC52A3 has two transcript variants that differ in the...

TSC1 and TSC2 regulate cilia length and canonical Hedgehog signaling via different mechanisms

Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate multiple cellular signaling pathways, including Hedgehog (HH), Wingless/Int (WNT) and Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Similarly, primary cilia have been implicated in regulation of mTOR signaling, in which Tuberous Sclerosis Complex proteins 1 and 2 (TSC1/2) negatively regulate protein synthesis by inactivating...

Analysis of novel endosome-to-Golgi retrieval genes reveals a role for PLD3 in regulating endosomal protein sorting and amyloid precursor protein processing

The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to the neurotoxic pro-aggregatory Aβ peptide is controlled by the mechanisms that govern the trafficking and localisation of APP. We hypothesised that genes involved in endosomal protein sorting could play an important role in regulating APP processing and, therefore, analysed ~ 40 novel endosome-to-Golgi retrieval genes...

VRK1 and AURKB form a complex that cross inhibit their kinase activity and the phosphorylation of histone H3 in the progression of mitosis

Regulation of cell division requires the integration of signals implicated in chromatin reorganization and coordination of its sequential changes in mitosis. Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) and Aurora B (AURKB) are two nuclear kinases involved in different steps of cell division. We have studied whether there is any functional connection between these two nuclear kinases, which...

Inhibitors of protein translocation across membranes of the secretory pathway: novel antimicrobial and anticancer agents

Proteins routed to the secretory pathway start their journey by being transported across biological membranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. The essential nature of this protein translocation process has led to the evolution of several factors that specifically target the translocon and block translocation. In this review, various translocation pathways are discussed...

Structure and function of the Nppa–Nppb cluster locus during heart development and disease

Atrial natriuretic factor and brain natriuretic peptide are two important biomarkers in clinical cardiology. These two natriuretic peptide hormones are encoded by the paralogous genes Nppa and Nppb, which are evolutionary conserved. Both genes are predominantly expressed by the heart muscle during the embryonic and fetal stages, and in particular Nppa expression is strongly...

Clostridium difficile-related postinfectious IBS: a case of enteroglial microbiological stalking and/or the solution of a conundrum?

Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome is a well-defined pathological entity that develops in about one-third of subjects after an acute infection (bacterial, viral) or parasitic infestation. Only recently it has been documented that an high incidence of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome occurs after Clostridium difficile infection. However, until now it is not known why...

iPSCs-based generation of vascular cells: reprogramming approaches and applications

Recent advances in the field of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) research have opened a new avenue for stem cell-based generation of vascular cells. Based on their growth and differentiation potential, human iPSCs constitute a well-characterized, generally unlimited cell source for the mass generation of lineage- and patient-specific vascular cells without any ethical...

Role of the microenvironment in myeloid malignancies

The bone marrow microenvironment (BMM) regulates the fate of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in homeostatic and pathologic conditions. In myeloid malignancies, new insights into the role of the BMM and its cellular and molecular actors in the progression of the diseases have started to emerge. In this review, we will focus on describing the major players of the HSC niche and the...

Liver cell therapy: is this the end of the beginning?

The prevalence of liver diseases is increasing globally. Orthotopic liver transplantation is widely used to treat liver disease upon organ failure. The complexity of this procedure and finite numbers of healthy organ donors have prompted research into alternative therapeutic options to treat liver disease. This includes the transplantation of liver cells to promote regeneration...

Signaling pathways and mesenchymal transition in pediatric high-grade glioma

Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG), including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG), are the most lethal types of cancer in children. In recent years, it has become evident that these tumors are driven by epigenetic events, mainly mutations involving genes encoding Histone 3, setting them apart from their adult counterparts. These tumors are exceptionally resistant to...

Bacteriophages targeting intestinal epithelial cells: a potential novel form of immunotherapy

In addition to their established role as a physical barrier to invading pathogens and other harmful agents, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are actively involved in local immune reactions. In the past years, evidence has accumulated suggesting the role of IEC in the immunopathology of intestinal inflammatory disorders (IBD). Recent advances in research on bacteriophages...