Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

http://link.springer.com/journal/18

List of Papers (Total 895)

C3aR and C5aR1 act as key regulators of human and mouse β-cell function

Aims Complement components 3 and 5 (C3 and C5) play essential roles in the complement system, generating C3a and C5a peptides that are best known as chemotactic and inflammatory factors. In this study we characterised islet expression of C3 and C5 complement components, and the impact of C3aR and C5aR1 activation on islet function and viability. Materials and methods Human and...

The function of endocytosis in Wnt signaling

Wnt growth factors regulate one of the most important signaling networks during development, tissue homeostasis and disease. Despite the biological importance of Wnt signaling, the mechanism of endocytosis during this process is ill described. Wnt molecules can act as paracrine signals, which are secreted from the producing cells and transported through neighboring tissue to...

Interaction and cross-talk between non-coding RNAs

Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has been shown to regulate diverse cellular processes and functions through controlling gene expression. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as a competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) where microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs regulate each other through their biding sites. Interactions of miRNAs and lncRNAs have been reported to trigger decay of the targeted lncRNAs...

Coordination of cardiac rhythmic output and circadian metabolic regulation in the heart

Over the course of a 24-h day, demand on the heart rises and falls with the sleep/wake cycles of the organism. Cardiac metabolism oscillates appropriately, with the relative contributions of major energy sources changing in a circadian fashion. The cardiac peripheral clock is hypothesized to drive many of these changes, yet the precise mechanisms linking the cardiac clock to...

Developmentally regulated signaling pathways in glioma invasion

Malignant gliomas are the most common, infiltrative, and lethal primary brain tumors affecting the adult population. The grim prognosis for this disease is due to a combination of the presence of highly invasive tumor cells that escape surgical resection and the presence of a population of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells found within these tumors. Several studies suggest that...

Molecular processes involved in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

B cell leukaemia is one of the most frequent malignancies in the paediatric population, but also affects a significant proportion of adults in developed countries. The majority of infant and paediatric cases initiate the process of leukaemogenesis during foetal development (in utero) through the formation of a chromosomal translocation or the acquisition/deletion of genetic...

The ever-growing complexity of the mitochondrial fission machinery

The mitochondrial network constantly changes and remodels its shape to face the cellular energy demand. In human cells, mitochondrial fusion is regulated by the large, evolutionarily conserved GTPases Mfn1 and Mfn2, which are embedded in the mitochondrial outer membrane, and by OPA1, embedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane. In contrast, the soluble dynamin-related GTPase...

Development of brain ventricular system

The brain ventricular system (BVS) consists of brain ventricles and channels connecting ventricles filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The disturbance of CSF flow has been linked to neurodegenerative disease including hydrocephalus, which manifests itself as an abnormal expansion of BVS. This relatively common developmental disorder has been observed in human and domesticated...

The mitochondrial epitranscriptome: the roles of RNA modifications in mitochondrial translation and human disease

Mitochondrial protein synthesis is essential for the production of components of the oxidative phosphorylation system. RNA modifications in the mammalian mitochondrial translation apparatus play key roles in facilitating mitochondrial gene expression as they enable decoding of the non-conventional genetic code by a minimal set of tRNAs, and efficient and accurate protein...

Current knowledge on exosome biogenesis and release

Exosomes are nanosized membrane vesicles released by fusion of an organelle of the endocytic pathway, the multivesicular body, with the plasma membrane. This process was discovered more than 30 years ago, and during these years, exosomes have gone from being considered as cellular waste disposal to mediate a novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. The exponential interest...

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) modulates trophic signaling through interaction with serine protease HTRA1

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a small conserved protein, is abundant in the immune- and central nervous system (CNS). MIF has several receptors and binding partners that can modulate its action on a cellular level. It is upregulated in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer although its function is far from clear. Here, we report the finding of a new binding...

Orchestration of H3K27 methylation: mechanisms and therapeutic implication

Histone proteins constitute the core component of the nucleosome, the basic unit of chromatin. Chemical modifications of histone proteins affect their interaction with genomic DNA, the accessibility of recognized proteins, and the recruitment of enzymatic complexes to activate or diminish specific transcriptional programs to modulate cellular response to extracellular stimuli or...

Stress-induced changes in miRNA biogenesis and functioning

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that play key roles in the regulation of cellular homeostasis in eukaryotic organisms. There is emerging evidence that some of these processes are influenced by various forms of cellular stresses, including DNA damage, pathogen invasion or chronic stress associated with diseases. Many reports over the last decade demonstrate examples...

Expression of a SOX1 overlapping transcript in neural differentiation and cancer models

SOX1 is a member of the SOXB1 subgroup of transcription factors involved in early embryogenesis, CNS development and maintenance of neural stem cells. The structure and regulation of the human SOX1 locus has been less studied than that of SOX2, another member of the SOXB1 subgroup for which an overlapping transcript has been reported. Here we report that the SOX1 locus harbours a...

Methods of probing the interactions between small molecules and disordered proteins

It is generally recognized that a large fraction of the human proteome is made up of proteins that remain disordered in their native states. Despite the fact that such proteins play key biological roles and are involved in many major human diseases, they still represent challenging targets for drug discovery. A major bottleneck for the identification of compounds capable of...

Telomerase and drug resistance in cancer

It is well known that a decreased expression or inhibited activity of telomerase in cancer cells is accompanied by an increased sensitivity to some drugs (e.g., doxorubicin, cisplatin, or 5-fluorouracil). However, the mechanism of the resistance resulting from telomerase alteration remains elusive. There are theories claiming that it might be associated with telomere shortening...

Wallerian demyelination: chronicle of a cellular cataclysm

Wallerian demyelination is characteristic of peripheral nerve degeneration after traumatic injury. After axonal degeneration, the myelinated Schwann cell undergoes a stereotypical cellular program that results in the disintegration of the myelin sheath, a process termed demyelination. In this review, we chronologically describe this program starting from the late and visible...

Behaviour of intrinsically disordered proteins in protein–protein complexes with an emphasis on fuzziness

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not, by themselves, fold into a compact globular structure. They are extremely dynamic and flexible, and are typically involved in signalling and transduction of information through binding to other macromolecules. The reason for their existence may lie in their malleability, which enables them to bind several different partners with...

Human heart disease: lessons from human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

Technical advances in generating and phenotyping cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-CMs) are now driving their wider acceptance as in vitro models to understand human heart disease and discover therapeutic targets that may lead to new compounds for clinical use. Current literature clearly shows that hPSC-CMs recapitulate many molecular, cellular, and...

Necroptosis and ferroptosis are alternative cell death pathways that operate in acute kidney failure

Ferroptosis is a recently recognized caspase-independent form of regulated cell death that is characterized by the accumulation of lethal lipid ROS produced through iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Considering that regulation of fatty acid metabolism is responsible for the membrane-resident pool of oxidizable fatty acids that undergo lipid peroxidation in ferroptotic processes...

ATP-induced Ca2+-signalling mechanisms in the regulation of mesenchymal stem cell migration

The ability of cells to migrate to the destined tissues or lesions is crucial for physiological processes from tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis and immune responses, and also for stem cell-based regenerative medicines. Cytosolic Ca2+ is a primary second messenger in the control and regulation of a wide range of cell functions including cell migration. Extracellular ATP, together...

Hh signaling in regeneration of the ischemic heart

Myocardial infarction (MI) is caused by the occlusion of a coronary artery due to underlying atherosclerosis complicated by localized thrombosis. The blockage of blood flow leads to cardiomyocyte (CM) death in the infarcted area. Adult mammalian cardiomyocytes have little capacity to proliferate in response to injury; however, some pathways active during embryogenesis and silent...