Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

http://link.springer.com/journal/18

List of Papers (Total 905)

ATP-induced Ca2+-signalling mechanisms in the regulation of mesenchymal stem cell migration

The ability of cells to migrate to the destined tissues or lesions is crucial for physiological processes from tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis and immune responses, and also for stem cell-based regenerative medicines. Cytosolic Ca2+ is a primary second messenger in the control and regulation of a wide range of cell functions including cell migration. Extracellular ATP, together...

Hh signaling in regeneration of the ischemic heart

Myocardial infarction (MI) is caused by the occlusion of a coronary artery due to underlying atherosclerosis complicated by localized thrombosis. The blockage of blood flow leads to cardiomyocyte (CM) death in the infarcted area. Adult mammalian cardiomyocytes have little capacity to proliferate in response to injury; however, some pathways active during embryogenesis and silent...

BMP type II receptor as a therapeutic target in pulmonary arterial hypertension

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic disease characterized by a progressive elevation in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. This occurs due to abnormal remodeling of small peripheral lung vasculature resulting in progressive occlusion of the artery lumen that eventually causes right heart failure and death. The most common cause of PAH is inactivating mutations in...

An efficient method to enrich for knock-out and knock-in cellular clones using the CRISPR/Cas9 system

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) are versatile tools for genome editing. Here we report a method to increase the frequency of Cas9-targeted cellular clones. Our method is based on a chimeric construct with a Blasticidin S Resistance gene (bsr) placed...

Vinculin in cell–cell and cell–matrix adhesions

Vinculin was identified as a component of focal adhesions and adherens junctions nearly 40 years ago. Since that time, remarkable progress has been made in understanding its activation, regulation and function. Here we discuss the current understanding of the roles of vinculin in cell–cell and cell–matrix adhesions. Emphasis is placed on the how vinculin is recruited, activated...

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis supports Th17 differentiation and limits de novo regulatory T cell induction by directly interfering with T cell receptor signaling

Adaptive immunity critically contributes to control acute infection with enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; however, the role of CD4+ T cell subsets in establishing infection and allowing pathogen persistence remains elusive. Here, we assessed the modulatory capacity of Y. pseudotuberculosis on CD4+ T cell differentiation. Using in vivo assays, we report that infection...

Defining motility in the Staphylococci

The ability of bacteria to move is critical for their survival in diverse environments and multiple ways have evolved to achieve this. Two forms of motility have recently been described for Staphylococcus aureus, an organism previously considered to be non-motile. One form is called spreading, which is a type of sliding motility and the second form involves comet formation, which...

Integration of mRNP formation and export

Expression of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes relies on the coordinated action of many sophisticated molecular machineries. Transcription produces precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs) and the active gene provides an environment in which the pre-mRNAs are processed, folded, and assembled into RNA–protein (RNP) complexes. The dynamic pre-mRNPs incorporate the growing transcript, proteins...

Impairment of systemic DHA synthesis affects macrophage plasticity and polarization: implications for DHA supplementation during inflammation

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid obtained from the diet or synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid through the action of fatty acid elongases (ELOVL) and desaturases. DHA plays important roles in the central nervous system as well as in peripheral organs and is the precursor of several molecules that regulate resolution of inflammation. In the present study, we...

Tyrosine 842 in the activation loop is required for full transformation by the oncogenic mutant FLT3-ITD

The type III receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 is frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia. Oncogenic FLT3 mutants display constitutive activity leading to aberrant cell proliferation and survival. Phosphorylation on several critical tyrosine residues is known to be essential for FLT3 signaling. Among these tyrosine residues, Y842 is located in the so-called activation loop. The...

Deciphering the BAR code of membrane modulators

The BAR domain is the eponymous domain of the “BAR-domain protein superfamily”, a large and diverse set of mostly multi-domain proteins that play eminent roles at the membrane cytoskeleton interface. BAR domain homodimers are the functional units that peripherally associate with lipid membranes and are involved in membrane sculpting activities. Differences in their intrinsic...

Microbial carcinogenic toxins and dietary anti-cancer protectants

Several toxins are known which account for the ability of some bacteria to initiate or promote carcinogenesis. These ideas are summarised and evidence is discussed for more specific mechanisms involving chymotrypsin and the bacterial chymotryptic enzyme subtilisin. Subtilisin and Bacillus subtilis are present in the gut and environment and both are used commercially in...

ABCB4 missense mutations D243A, K435T, G535D, I490T, R545C, and S978P significantly impair the lipid floppase and likely predispose to secondary pathologies in the human population

Bile salts are natural detergents required to solubilise dietary fat and lipid soluble vitamins. They are synthesised in hepatocytes and secreted into the luminal space of the biliary tree by the bile salt export pump (BSEP), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in the canalicular membrane. BSEP deficiency causes cytotoxic accumulation of bile salts in the hepatocyte that...

S-phase checkpoint regulations that preserve replication and chromosome integrity upon dNTP depletion

DNA replication stress, an important source of genomic instability, arises upon different types of DNA replication perturbations, including those that stall replication fork progression. Inhibitors of the cellular pool of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) slow down DNA synthesis throughout the genome. Following depletion of dNTPs, the highly conserved replication checkpoint...

Clearance of cerebral Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease: reassessing the role of microglia and monocytes

Deficiency in cerebral amyloid β-protein (Aβ) clearance is implicated in the pathogenesis of the common late-onset forms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Accumulation of misfolded Aβ in the brain is believed to be a net result of imbalance between its production and removal. This in turn may trigger neuroinflammation, progressive synaptic loss, and ultimately cognitive decline...

Skeletal muscle secretome in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a pivotal anti-inflammatory role of adiponectin

Background Persistent inflammation exacerbates the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The hormone, adiponectin (ApN), which is decreased in the metabolic syndrome, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties on skeletal muscle and alleviates the dystrophic phenotype of mdx mice. Here, we investigate whether ApN retains its anti-inflammatory action in myotubes obtained...

Regulation of the H+-ATP synthase by IF1: a role in mitohormesis

The mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase is a primary hub of cellular homeostasis by providing the energy required to sustain cellular activity and regulating the production of signaling molecules that reprogram nuclear activity needed for adaption to changing cues. Herein, we summarize findings regarding the regulation of the activity of the H+-ATP synthase by its physiological...

Comparing the rules of engagement of androgen and glucocorticoid receptors

Despite the diverse physiological activities of androgens and glucocorticoids, the corresponding receptors are very close members of the nuclear-receptor super family. Their action mechanisms show striking similarities, since both receptors recognize very similar DNA-response elements and recruit the same coactivators to their target genes. The specificity of the responses lies...

Fluid shear stress-induced TGF-β/ALK5 signaling in renal epithelial cells is modulated by MEK1/2

Renal tubular epithelial cells are exposed to mechanical forces due to fluid flow shear stress within the lumen of the nephron. These cells respond by activation of mechano-sensors located at the plasma membrane or the primary cilium, having crucial roles in maintenance of cellular homeostasis and signaling. In this paper, we applied fluid shear stress to study TGF-β signaling in...

Control of signaling molecule range during developmental patterning

Tissue patterning, through the concerted activity of a small number of signaling pathways, is critical to embryonic development. While patterning can involve signaling between neighbouring cells, in other contexts signals act over greater distances by traversing complex cellular landscapes to instruct the fate of distant cells. In this review, we explore different strategies...

Complement factor H in host defense and immune evasion

Complement is the major humoral component of the innate immune system. It recognizes pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns, and initiates the immune response in coordination with innate and adaptive immunity. When activated, the complement system unleashes powerful cytotoxic and inflammatory mechanisms, and thus its tight control is crucial to prevent damage to host...

A novel 72-kDa leukocyte-derived osteoglycin enhances the activation of toll-like receptor 4 and exacerbates cardiac inflammation during viral myocarditis

Background Viral myocarditis can severely damage the myocardium through excessive infiltration of immune cells. Osteoglycin (OGN) is part of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP) family. SLRP’s may affect inflammatory and fibrotic processes, but the implication of OGN in cardiac inflammation and the resulting injury upon viral myocarditis is unknown. Methods and...