Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

http://link.springer.com/journal/18

List of Papers (Total 904)

Opposing effects on the cell cycle of T lymphocytes by Fbxo7 via Cdk6 and p27

G1 phase cell cycle proteins, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) and its activating partners, the D-type cyclins, are important regulators of T-cell development and function. An F-box protein, called F-box only protein 7 (Fbxo7), acts as a cell cycle regulator by enhancing cyclin D-Cdk6 complex formation and stabilising levels of p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. We...

A threshold of transmembrane potential is required for mitochondrial dynamic balance mediated by DRP1 and OMA1

As an organellar network, mitochondria dynamically regulate their organization via opposing fusion and fission pathways to maintain bioenergetic homeostasis and contribute to key cellular pathways. This dynamic balance is directly linked to bioenergetic function: loss of transmembrane potential across the inner membrane (Δψ m) disrupts mitochondrial fission/fusion balance...

Old drugs with new skills: fenoprofen as an allosteric enhancer at melanocortin receptor 3

The efficiency of drug research and development has paradoxically declined over the last decades despite major scientific and technological advances, promoting new cost-effective strategies such as drug repositioning by systematic screening for new actions of known drugs. Here, we performed a screening for positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) at melanocortin (MC) receptors. The...

H2S biosynthesis and catabolism: new insights from molecular studies

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has profound biological effects within living organisms and is now increasingly being considered alongside other gaseous signalling molecules, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Conventional use of pharmacological and molecular approaches has spawned a rapidly growing research field that has identified H2S as playing a functional role in...

Sorting receptor SORLA: cellular mechanisms and implications for disease

Sorting-related receptor with A-type repeats (SORLA) is an intracellular sorting receptor that directs cargo proteins, such as kinases, phosphatases, and signaling receptors, to their correct location within the cell. The activity of SORLA assures proper function of cells and tissues, and receptor dysfunction is the underlying cause of common human malignancies, including...

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β regulates fractalkine production by altering its trafficking from Golgi to plasma membrane: implications for Alzheimer’s disease

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a serine-threonine kinase implicated in multiple processes and signaling pathways. Its dysregulation is associated with different pathological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we demonstrate how changes in GSK-3β activity and/or levels regulate the production and subsequent secretion of fractalkine, a chemokine involved...

WNK signalling pathways in blood pressure regulation

Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a major public health problem affecting more than a billion people worldwide with complications, including stroke, heart failure and kidney failure. The regulation of blood pressure is multifactorial reflecting genetic susceptibility, in utero environment and external factors such as obesity and salt intake. In keeping with Arthur Guyton’s...

Cardiomyocyte proliferation in zebrafish and mammals: lessons for human disease

Cardiomyocytes proliferate profusely during early development and for a brief period after birth in mammals. Within a month after birth, this proliferative capability is dramatically reduced in mammals unlike lower vertebrates where it persists into adult life. The zebrafish, for example, retains the ability to regenerate the apex of the heart following resection by a mechanism...

Multi-OMIC profiling of survival and metabolic signaling networks in cells subjected to photodynamic therapy

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established palliative treatment for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma that is clinically promising. However, tumors tend to regrow after PDT, which may result from the PDT-induced activation of survival pathways in sublethally afflicted tumor cells. In this study, tumor-comprising cells (i.e., vascular endothelial cells, macrophages, perihilar...

NEAT1 modulates herpes simplex virus-1 replication by regulating viral gene transcription

Nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) is the crucial structural platform of paraspeckles, which is one type of nuclear bodies. As a stress-induced lncRNA, the expression of NEAT1 increases in response to viral infection, but little is known about the role of NEAT1 or paraspeckles in the replication of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Here, we demonstrate that HSV-1...

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and its stability

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is responsible for the disease cystic fibrosis (CF). It is a membrane protein belonging to the ABC transporter family functioning as a chloride/anion channel in epithelial cells around the body. There are over 1500 mutations that have been characterised as CF-causing; the most common of these, accounting for ~70 % of...

Isolating Escherichia coli strains for recombinant protein production

Escherichia coli has been widely used for the production of recombinant proteins. To improve protein production yields in E. coli, directed engineering approaches have been commonly used. However, there are only few reported examples of the isolation of E. coli protein production strains using evolutionary approaches. Here, we first give an introduction to bacterial evolution and...

Filamentous actin accumulates during plant cell penetration and cell wall plug formation in Phytophthora infestans

The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight in potato and tomato. It is a devastating pathogen and there is an urgent need to design alternative strategies to control the disease. To find novel potential drug targets, we used Lifeact-eGFP expressing P. infestans for high resolution live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton in various developmental stages...

Role of CFTR in epithelial physiology

Salt and fluid absorption and secretion are two processes that are fundamental to epithelial function and whole body fluid homeostasis, and as such are tightly regulated in epithelial tissues. The CFTR anion channel plays a major role in regulating both secretion and absorption in a diverse range of epithelial tissues, including the airways, the GI and reproductive tracts, sweat...

Transition from inflammation to proliferation: a critical step during wound healing

The ability to rapidly restore the integrity of a broken skin barrier is critical and is the ultimate goal of therapies for hard-to-heal-ulcers. Unfortunately effective treatments to enhance healing and reduce scarring are still lacking. A deeper understanding of the physiology of normal repair and of the pathology of delayed healing is a prerequisite for the development of more...

Mechanisms of ciliogenesis suppression in dividing cells

The primary cilium is a non-motile and microtubule-enriched protrusion ensheathed by plasma membrane. Primary cilia function as mechano/chemosensors and signaling hubs and their disorders predispose to a wide spectrum of human diseases. Most types of cells assemble their primary cilia in response to cellular quiescence, whereas they start to retract the primary cilia upon cell...

Regulation of mRNA decay in plant responses to salt and osmotic stress

Plant acclimation to environmental stresses requires fast signaling to initiate changes in developmental and metabolic responses. Regulation of gene expression by transcription factors and protein kinases acting upstream are important elements of responses to salt and drought. Gene expression can be also controlled at the post-transcriptional level. Recent analyses on mutants in...

A historical and evolutionary perspective on the biological significance of circulating DNA and extracellular vesicles

The discovery of quantitative and qualitative differences of the circulating DNA (cirDNA) between healthy and diseased individuals inclined researchers to investigate these molecules as potential biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis and prognosis of various pathologies. However, except for some prenatal tests, cirDNA analyses have not been readily translated to clinical practice...

P2Y2 receptor modulates shear stress-induced cell alignment and actin stress fibers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

Endothelial cells release ATP in response to fluid shear stress, which activates purinergic (P2) receptor-mediated signaling molecules including endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS), a regulator of vascular tone. While P2 receptor-mediated signaling in the vasculature is well studied, the role of P2Y2 receptors in shear stress-associated endothelial cell alignment, cytoskeletal...

Phospholipid flippases attenuate LPS-induced TLR4 signaling by mediating endocytic retrieval of Toll-like receptor 4

P4-ATPases are lipid flippases that catalyze the transport of phospholipids to create membrane phospholipid asymmetry and to initiate the biogenesis of transport vesicles. Here we show, for the first time, that lipid flippases are essential to dampen the inflammatory response and to mediate the endotoxin-induced endocytic retrieval of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in human...

Epigenetic dysregulation of brainstem nuclei in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease: looking in the correct place at the right time?

Even though the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains unknown, it is suggested that an interplay among genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors is involved. An increasing body of evidence pinpoints that dysregulation in the epigenetic machinery plays a role in AD. Recent developments in genomic technologies have allowed for high throughput interrogation of the...

Back to the tubule: microtubule dynamics in Parkinson’s disease

Cytoskeletal homeostasis is essential for the development, survival and maintenance of an efficient nervous system. Microtubules are highly dynamic polymers important for neuronal growth, morphology, migration and polarity. In cooperation with several classes of binding proteins, microtubules regulate long-distance intracellular cargo trafficking along axons and dendrites. The...

Preparing the lethal hit: interplay between exo- and endocytic pathways in cytotoxic T lymphocytes

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes patrol our body in search for infected cells which they kill through the release of cytotoxic substances contained in cytotoxic granules. The fusion of cytotoxic granules occurs at a specially formed contact site, the immunological synapse, and is tightly controlled to ensure specificity. In this review, we discuss the contribution of two intracellular...

How cancer cells dictate their microenvironment: present roles of extracellular vesicles

Intercellular communication plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression through secretory molecules, including growth factors and cytokines. Recent advances have revealed that small membrane vesicles, termed extracellular vesicles (EVs), served as a regulatory agent in the intercellular communication of cancer. EVs enable the transfer of functional molecules...

Oligodendroglial membrane dynamics in relation to myelin biogenesis

In the central nervous system, oligodendrocytes synthesize a specialized membrane, the myelin membrane, which enwraps the axons in a multilamellar fashion to provide fast action potential conduction and to ensure axonal integrity. When compared to other membranes, the composition of myelin membranes is unique with its relatively high lipid to protein ratio. Their biogenesis is...