Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

http://link.springer.com/journal/18

List of Papers (Total 895)

The recognition of ubiquitinated proteins by the proteasome

The ability of ubiquitin to form up to eight different polyubiquitin chain linkages generates complexity within the ubiquitin proteasome system, and accounts for the diverse roles of ubiquitination within the cell. Understanding how each type of ubiquitin linkage is correctly interpreted by ubiquitin binding proteins provides important insights into the link between chain...

Role of Nrf2/HO-1 system in development, oxidative stress response and diseases: an evolutionarily conserved mechanism

The multifunctional regulator nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is considered not only as a cytoprotective factor regulating the expression of genes coding for anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying proteins, but it is also a powerful modulator of species longevity. The vertebrate Nrf2 belongs to Cap ‘n’ Collar (Cnc) bZIP family of transcription factors...

Immunological properties of oxygen-transport proteins: hemoglobin, hemocyanin and hemerythrin

It is now well documented that peptides with enhanced or alternative functionality (termed cryptides) can be liberated from larger, and sometimes inactive, proteins. A primary example of this phenomenon is the oxygen-transport protein hemoglobin. Aside from respiration, hemoglobin and hemoglobin-derived peptides have been associated with immune modulation, hematopoiesis, signal...

Cell–cell junctional mechanotransduction in endothelial remodeling

The vasculature is one of the most dynamic tissues that encounter numerous mechanical cues derived from pulsatile blood flow, blood pressure, activity of smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall, and transmigration of immune cells. The inner layer of blood and lymphatic vessels is covered by the endothelium, a monolayer of cells which separates blood from tissue, an important...

Spatiotemporal regulation of enhancers during cardiogenesis

With the advance in chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing, there has been a dramatic increase in our understanding of distal enhancer function. In the developing heart, the identification and characterisation of such enhancers have deepened our knowledge of the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation that drives cardiac differentiation. With next...

Environmental factors in autoimmune diseases and their role in multiple sclerosis

An increase in autoimmune diseases poses a socioeconomic challenge worldwide. Predisposing genetic risk has been identified, yet environmental factors make up a significant part of the risk in disease initiation and propagation. Next to improved hygiene and a gross reduction of infections, changes in dietary habits are one of the most evident Western lifestyle factors potentially...

Regulation of centriolar satellite integrity and its physiology

Centriolar satellites comprise cytoplasmic granules that are located around the centrosome. Their molecular identification was first reported more than a quarter of a century ago. These particles are not static in the cell but instead constantly move around the centrosome. Over the last decade, significant advances in their molecular compositions and biological functions have...

Metabolic and redox signaling in the retina

Visual perception by photoreceptors relies on the interaction of incident photons from light with a derivative of vitamin A that is covalently linked to an opsin molecule located in a special subcellular structure, the photoreceptor outer segment. The photochemical reaction produced by the photon is optimal when the opsin molecule, a seven-transmembrane protein, is embedded in a...

The final cut: cell polarity meets cytokinesis at the bud neck in S. cerevisiae

Cell division is a fundamental but complex process that gives rise to two daughter cells. It includes an ordered set of events, altogether called “the cell cycle”, that culminate with cytokinesis, the final stage of mitosis leading to the physical separation of the two daughter cells. Symmetric cell division equally partitions cellular components between the two daughter cells...

MicroRNA degeneracy and pluripotentiality within a Lavallière-tie architecture confers robustness to gene expression networks

Modularity, feedback control, functional redundancy and bowtie architecture have been proposed as key factors that confer robustness to complex biological systems. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved but functionally dispensable. These antinomic properties suggest that miRNAs fine-tune gene expression rather than act as genetic switches. We synthesize published and...

Mechanisms of T cell organotropism

Protective immunity relies upon T cell differentiation and subsequent migration to target tissues. Similarly, immune homeostasis requires the localization of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to the sites where immunity takes place. While naïve T lymphocytes recirculate predominantly in secondary lymphoid tissue, primed T cells and activated Tregs must traffic to the antigen rich non...

Diabetes propels the risk for cardiovascular disease: sweet monocytes becoming aggressive?

Diabetes strongly predisposes to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of mortality in these patients, as well as in the entire population. Hyperglycemia is an important cardiovascular risk factor as shown by the observation that even transient periods of hyperglycemia, despite return to normoglycemia during follow-up, increase the risk for CVD, a phenomenon termed...

Epigenetic roles in the malignant transformation of gastric mucosal cells

Gastric carcinogenesis occurs when gastric epithelial cells transition through the initial, immortal, premalignant, and malignant stages of transformation. Epigenetic regulations contribute to this multistep process. Due to the critical role of epigenetic modifications , these changes are highly likely to be of clinical use in the future as new biomarkers and therapeutic targets...

The hematopoietic stem-cell niche in health and leukemia

Research in the last decade has shown that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) interact with and are modulated by a complex multicellular microenvironment in the bone marrow, which includes both the HSC progeny and multiple non-hematopoietic cell types. Intense work is gradually throwing light on the composition of the HSC niche and the molecular cues exchanged between its components...

The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation

The CB2 receptor is the peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. It is mainly expressed in immune tissues, highlighting the possibility that the endocannabinoid system has an immunomodulatory role. In this respect, the CB2 receptor was shown to modulate immune cell functions, both in cellulo and in animal models of inflammatory diseases. In this regard, numerous studies have...

Mechanisms of viral mutation

The remarkable capacity of some viruses to adapt to new hosts and environments is highly dependent on their ability to generate de novo diversity in a short period of time. Rates of spontaneous mutation vary amply among viruses. RNA viruses mutate faster than DNA viruses, single-stranded viruses mutate faster than double-strand virus, and genome size appears to correlate...

Formation of starch in plant cells

Starch-rich crops form the basis of our nutrition, but plants have still to yield all their secrets as to how they make this vital substance. Great progress has been made by studying both crop and model systems, and we approach the point of knowing the enzymatic machinery responsible for creating the massive, insoluble starch granules found in plant tissues. Here, we summarize...

Structure–function relationships of family GH70 glucansucrase and 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes, and their evolutionary relationships with family GH13 enzymes

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce large amounts of α-glucan exopolysaccharides. Family GH70 glucansucrase (GS) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of these α-glucans from sucrose. The elucidation of the crystal structures of representative GS enzymes has advanced our understanding of their reaction mechanism, especially structural features determining their linkage...

Mechanisms of long noncoding RNA function in development and disease

Since decades it has been known that non-protein-coding RNAs have important cellular functions. Deep sequencing recently facilitated the discovery of thousands of novel transcripts, now classified as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), in many vertebrate and invertebrate species. LncRNAs are involved in a wide range of cellular mechanisms, from almost all aspects of gene expression to...

The function of the two-pore channel TPC1 depends on dimerization of its carboxy-terminal helix

Two-pore channels (TPCs) constitute a family of intracellular cation channels with diverse permeation properties and functions in animals and plants. In the model plant Arabidopsis, the vacuolar cation channel TPC1 is involved in propagation of calcium waves and in cation homeostasis. Here, we discovered that the dimerization of a predicted helix within the carboxyl-terminus (CTH...

Negative feedback regulation of the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway

The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway regulates many cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. To reliably convert external stimuli into specific cellular responses and to adapt to environmental circumstances, the pathway must be integrated into the overall...

An outline of necrosome triggers

Necroptosis was initially identified as a backup cell death program when apoptosis is blocked. However, it is now recognized as a cellular defense mechanism against infections and is presumed to be a detrimental factor in several pathologies driven by cell death. Necroptosis is a prototypic form of regulated necrosis that depends on activation of the necrosome, which is a protein...