Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

http://link.springer.com/journal/18

List of Papers (Total 905)

Inhibition of regulated cell death by cell-penetrating peptides

Development of the means to efficiently and continuously renew missing and non-functional proteins in diseased cells remains a major goal in modern molecular medicine. While gene therapy has the potential to achieve this, substantial obstacles must be overcome before clinical application can be considered. A promising alternative approach is the direct delivery of non-permeant...

Mechanisms of ferroptosis

Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of cell death that can be triggered by small molecules or conditions that inhibit glutathione biosynthesis or the glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). This lethal process is defined by the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species and depletion of plasma membrane polyunsaturated fatty...

Mitochondrial cAMP signaling

Cyclic adenosine 3, 5′-monophosphate (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger regulating many biological processes, such as cell migration, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. cAMP signaling functions not only on the plasma membrane, but also in the nucleus and in organelles such as mitochondria. Mitochondrial cAMP signaling is an indispensable part of the cytoplasm...

A single point in protein trafficking by Plasmodium falciparum determines the expression of major antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes targeted by human antibodies

Antibodies to blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum play a pivotal role in human immunity to malaria. During parasite development, multiple proteins are trafficked from the intracellular parasite to the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs). However, the relative importance of different proteins as targets of acquired antibodies, and key pathways involved...

Inhibitory interneurons in visual cortical plasticity

For proper maturation of the neocortex and acquisition of specific functions and skills, exposure to sensory stimuli is vital during critical periods of development when synaptic connectivity is highly malleable. To preserve reliable cortical processing, it is essential that these critical periods end after which learning becomes more conditional and active interaction with the...

Common pitfalls of stem cell differentiation: a guide to improving protocols for neurodegenerative disease models and research

Induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells have revolutionized cellular neuroscience, providing the opportunity to model neurological diseases and test potential therapeutics in a pre-clinical setting. The power of these models has been widely discussed, but the potential pitfalls of stem cell differentiation in this research are less well described. We have analyzed...

Cold-inducible proteins CIRP and RBM3, a unique couple with activities far beyond the cold

Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) and RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) are two evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins that are transcriptionally upregulated in response to low temperature. Featuring an RNA-recognition motif (RRM) and an arginine–glycine-rich (RGG) domain, these proteins display many similarities and specific disparities in the regulation of...

Regulation of actin nucleation and autophagosome formation

Autophagy is a process of self-eating, whereby cytosolic constituents are enclosed by a double-membrane vesicle before delivery to the lysosome for degradation. This is an important process which allows for recycling of nutrients and cellular components and thus plays a critical role in normal cellular homeostasis as well as cell survival during stresses such as starvation or...

GFAP isoforms control intermediate filament network dynamics, cell morphology, and focal adhesions

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the characteristic intermediate filament (IF) protein in astrocytes. Expression of its main isoforms, GFAPα and GFAPδ, varies in astrocytes and astrocytoma implying a potential regulatory role in astrocyte physiology and pathology. An IF-network is a dynamic structure and has been functionally linked to cell motility, proliferation, and...

Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins in neuronal development

Regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton is of pivotal importance for neuronal development and function. One such regulatory mechanism centers on microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs): structurally and functionally diverse regulatory factors, which can form complex macromolecular assemblies at the growing microtubule plus-ends. +TIPs modulate important properties of...

Clinical perspectives of TRAIL: insights into central nervous system disorders

The TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand TRAIL is a member of the TNF superfamily that has been firstly studied and evaluated for its anti-cancer activity, and the insights into its biology have already led to the identification of several TRAIL-based anticancer strategies with strong clinical therapeutic potentials. Nonetheless, the TRAIL system is far more complex and it can...

Maintaining memory of silencing at imprinted differentially methylated regions

Imprinted genes are an exceptional cluster of genes which are expressed in a parent-of-origin dependent fashion. This allele-specific expression is dependent on differential DNA methylation which is established in the parental germlines in a sex-specific manner. The DNA methylation imprint is accompanied by heterochromatin modifications which must be continuously maintained...

Nucleoside modifications in the regulation of gene expression: focus on tRNA

Both, DNA and RNA nucleoside modifications contribute to the complex multi-level regulation of gene expression. Modified bases in tRNAs modulate protein translation rates in a highly dynamic manner. Synonymous codons, which differ by the third nucleoside in the triplet but code for the same amino acid, may be utilized at different rates according to codon–anticodon affinity...

Cellular response to DNA interstrand crosslinks: the Fanconi anemia pathway

Interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are a highly toxic form of DNA damage. ICLs can interfere with vital biological processes requiring separation of the two DNA strands, such as replication and transcription. If ICLs are left unrepaired, it can lead to mutations, chromosome breakage and mitotic catastrophe. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway can repair this type of DNA lesion, ensuring...

Role of tau in the spatial organization of axonal microtubules: keeping parallel microtubules evenly distributed despite macromolecular crowding

Opposing views have been proposed regarding the role of tau, the principal microtubule-associated protein in axons. On the one hand, tau forms cross-bridges at the interface between microtubules and induces microtubule bundling in neurons. On the other hand, tau is also considered a polymer brush which efficiently separates microtubules. In mature axons, microtubules are indeed...

Poly-ubiquitination in TNFR1-mediated necroptosis

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a master pro-inflammatory cytokine, and inappropriate TNF signaling is implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory diseases. Ligation of TNF to its receptor TNFR1 induces the transient formation of a primary membrane-bound signaling complex, known as complex I, that drives expression of pro-survival genes. Defective complex I activation results...

External and internal triggers of cell death in yeast

In recent years, yeast was confirmed as a useful eukaryotic model system to decipher the complex mechanisms and networks occurring in higher eukaryotes, particularly in mammalian cells, in physiological as well in pathological conditions. This article focuses attention on the contribution of yeast in the study of a very complex scenario, because of the number and interconnection...

Reactivation of telomerase in cancer

Activation of telomerase is a critical step in the development of about 85 % of human cancers. Levels of Tert, which encodes the reverse transcriptase subunit of telomerase, are limiting in normal somatic cells. Tert is subjected to transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, but the precise mechanism of how telomerase is re-activated in cancer cells is...

Cadmium overkill: autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis signalling in endothelial cells exposed to cadmium

Apoptosis, necrosis, or autophagy—it is the mode of cell demise that defines the response of surrounding cells and organs. In case of one of the most toxic substances known to date, cadmium (Cd), and despite a large number of studies, the mode of cell death induced is still unclear. As there exists conflicting data as to which cell death mode is induced by Cd both across various...

Cell migration in the developing rodent olfactory system

The components of the nervous system are assembled in development by the process of cell migration. Although the principles of cell migration are conserved throughout the brain, different subsystems may predominantly utilize specific migratory mechanisms, or may display unusual features during migration. Examining these subsystems offers not only the potential for insights into...

Modulatory effects of α7 nAChRs on the immune system and its relevance for CNS disorders

The clinical development of selective alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) agonists has hitherto been focused on disorders characterized by cognitive deficits (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia). However, α7 nAChRs are also widely expressed by cells of the immune system and by cells with a secondary role in pathogen defense. Activation of α7 nAChRs leads to...

Comparative genomics of drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is one of the causative agents of human sleeping sickness, a fatal disease that is transmitted by tsetse flies and restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa. Here we investigate two independent lines of T. b. rhodesiense that have been selected with the drugs melarsoprol and pentamidine over the course of 2 years, until they exhibited stable cross-resistance...

Molecular specification of germ layers in vertebrate embryos

In order to generate the tissues and organs of a multicellular organism, different cell types have to be generated during embryonic development. The first step in this process of cellular diversification is the formation of the three germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. The ectoderm gives rise to the nervous system, epidermis and various neural crest-derived tissues, the...