Experimental Brain Research

http://link.springer.com/journal/221

List of Papers (Total 534)

How do we decide what to do? Resting-state connectivity patterns and components of self-generated thought linked to the development of more concrete personal goals

Human cognition is not limited to the available environmental input but can consider realities that are different to the here and now. We describe the cognitive states and neural processes linked to the refinement of descriptions of personal goals. When personal goals became concrete, participants reported greater thoughts about the self and the future during mind-wandering. This...

Recalibration of vocal affect by a dynamic face

Perception of vocal affect is influenced by the concurrent sight of an emotional face. We demonstrate that the sight of an emotional face also can induce recalibration of vocal affect. Participants were exposed to videos of a ‘happy’ or ‘fearful’ face in combination with a slightly incongruous sentence with ambiguous prosody. After this exposure, ambiguous test sentences were...

Forgetting the new locations of one’s keys: spatial-memory interference in Korsakoff’s amnesia

The present study focused on interference in a group of patients with amnesia due to Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS) within the domain of spatial memory. An object–location memory task was used in which participants first learned an array of objects on a computer screen, followed by a reconstruction of the object positions. Next a trial was given in which the same objects were...

Effects of a cognitive dual task on variability and local dynamic stability in sustained repetitive arm movements using principal component analysis: a pilot study

In many daily jobs, repetitive arm movements are performed for extended periods of time under continuous cognitive demands. Even highly monotonous tasks exhibit an inherent motor variability and subtle fluctuations in movement stability. Variability and stability are different aspects of system dynamics, whose magnitude may be further affected by a cognitive load. Thus, the aim...

Postural responses to target jumps and background motion in a fast pointing task

When reaching towards an object while standing, one’s hand responds very quickly to visual perturbations such as the target being displaced or the background moving. Such responses require postural adjustments. When the background moves, its motion might be attributed to self-motion in a stable world, and thereby induce compensatory postural adjustments that affect the hand. The...

In-group biases and oculomotor responses: beyond simple approach motivation

An in-group bias describes an individual’s bias towards a group that they belong to. Previous studies suggest that in-group bias facilitates approach motor responses, but disrupts avoidance ones. Such motor biases are shown to be more robust when the out-group is threatening. We investigated whether, under controlled visual familiarity and complexity, in-group biases still...

Anticipatory coarticulation in non-speeded arm movements can be motor-equivalent, carry-over coarticulation always is

In a sequence of arm movements, any given segment could be influenced by its predecessors (carry-over coarticulation) and by its successor (anticipatory coarticulation). To study the interdependence of movement segments, we asked participants to move an object from an initial position to a first and then on to a second target location. The task involved ten joint angles...

Route previewing results in altered gaze behaviour, increased self-confidence and improved stepping safety in both young and older adults during adaptive locomotion

Older adults with falls risk tend to look away prematurely from targets for safe foot placement to view future hazards; behaviour associated with increased anxiety and stepping inaccuracies. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of route previewing in reducing anxiety and optimizing gaze behaviour and stepping performance of younger and older adults. Nine younger and nine older...

Neural changes associated with cerebellar tDCS studied using MR spectroscopy

Anodal cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is known to enhance motor learning, and therefore, has been suggested to hold promise as a therapeutic intervention. However, the neural mechanisms underpinning the effects of cerebellar tDCS are currently unknown. We investigated the neural changes associated with cerebellar tDCS using magnetic resonance...

How removing visual information affects grasping movements

Our interaction with objects is facilitated by the availability of visual feedback. Here, we investigate how and when visual feedback affects the way we grasp an object. Based on the main views on grasping (reach-and-grasp and double-pointing views), we designed four experiments to test: (1) whether the availability of visual feedback influences the digits independently, and (2...

Decoding auditory spatial and emotional information encoding using multivariate versus univariate techniques

Emotion can have diverse effects on behaviour and perception, modulating function in some circumstances, and sometimes having little effect. Recently, it was identified that part of the heterogeneity of emotional effects could be due to a dissociable representation of emotion in dual pathway models of sensory processing. Our previous fMRI experiment using traditional univariate...

Social targets improve body-based and environment-based strategies during spatial navigation

Encoding the position of another person in space is vital for everyday life. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific navigational strategies associated with encoding the position of another person in the wider spatial environment. We asked two groups of participants to learn the location of a target (person or object) during active navigation, while optic flow...

Recalibration of hand position sense during unconscious active and passive movement

Precise knowledge of one’s limbs’ position in space is fundamental for goal-directed action. The brain’s representation of the body in space is thought to be generated through a process of multisensory integration of visual, tactile and proprioceptive signals. In this study, we devised a setup that allowed us to displace participants’ right hand without their subjective awareness...

Modulation of specific inhibitory networks in fatigued locomotor muscles of healthy males

Reduced maximal force capability of skeletal muscle, as a consequence of exercise, can be due to peripheral or central fatigue mechanisms. In upper-limb muscles, neuromuscular fatigue is concurrent with reduced corticospinal excitability and increased inhibition (lengthened corticospinal silent period [CSP]; reduced short-interval intracortical inhibition [SICI] ratio). However...

Multisensory enhancement elicited by unconscious visual stimuli

The merging of information from different senses (i.e., multisensory integration) can facilitate information processing. Processing enhancements have been observed with signals that are irrelevant to the task at hand, and with cues that are non-predictive. Such findings are consistent with the notion that multiple sensory signals are sometimes integrated automatically...

The influence of cervical movement on eye stabilization reflexes: a randomized trial

To investigate the influence of the amount of cervical movement on the cervico-ocular reflex (COR) and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in healthy individuals. Eye stabilization reflexes, especially the COR, are changed in neck pain patients. In healthy humans, the strength of the VOR and the COR are inversely related. In a cross-over trial the amplitude of the COR and VOR (measured...

Rapid temporal recalibration to visuo–tactile stimuli

For a comprehensive understanding of the environment, the brain must constantly decide whether the incoming information originates from the same source and needs to be integrated into a coherent percept. This integration process is believed to be mediated by temporal integration windows. If presented with temporally asynchronous stimuli for a few minutes, the brain adapts to this...

Cognitively and socially induced stress affects postural control

Postural control is an adaptive process that can be affected by many aspects of human behavior, including emotional contexts. The main emotional contexts that affect postural control are postural threat and passive viewing of aversive or threatening images, both of which produce a reduction in postural sway. The aim of the present study was to assess whether similar stress...

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) modulates flow experience

Flow has been defined as a pleasant psychological state that people experience when completely absorbed in an activity. Previous correlative evidence showed that the vagal tone (as indexed by heart rate variability) is a reliable marker of flow. So far, it has not yet been demonstrated that the vagus nerve plays a causal role in flow. To explore this we used transcutaneous vagus...

Acute and repetitive fronto-cerebellar tDCS stimulation improves mood in non-depressed participants

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation, which allows for selective inhibition or excitation of neural structures. It has demonstrated some efficacy in the treatment of mood disorders. However, these studies have predominately focused on stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The cerebellum has an increasingly recognized...

Peripersonal space boundaries around the lower limbs

Neurophysiological investigations in non-human primates have shown that bi- and tri-modal fronto-parietal neurons exist that respond to touch on the body and visual (and/or auditory) stimuli near the body. The receptive fields of these neurons extend into space around the body, producing a zone wherein multisensory information is readily integrated. This space around the body...

Gait bradykinesia in Parkinson’s disease: a change in the motor program which controls the synergy of gait

This study examined how gait bradykinesia is changed by the motor programming in Parkinson’s disease. Thirty-five idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients and nine age-matched healthy subjects participated in this study. After the patients fixated on a visual-fixation target (conditioning-stimulus), the voluntary-gait was triggered by a visual on-stimulus. While the subject walked...