Experimental Brain Research

http://link.springer.com/journal/221

List of Papers (Total 503)

Experimental investigations of control principles of involuntary movement: a comprehensive review of the Kohnstamm phenomenon

The Kohnstamm phenomenon refers to the observation that if one pushes the arm hard outwards against a fixed surface for about 30 s, and then moves away from the surface and relaxes, an involuntary movement of the arm occurs, accompanied by a feeling of lightness. Central, peripheral and hybrid theories of the Kohnstamm phenomenon have been advanced. Afferent signals may be ...

Changing the size of a mirror-reflected hand moderates the experience of embodiment but not proprioceptive drift: a repeated measures study on healthy human participants

Mirror visual feedback is used for reducing pain and visually distorting the size of the reflection may improve efficacy. The findings of studies investigating size distortion are inconsistent. The influence of the size of the reflected hand on embodiment of the mirror reflection is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of magnifying and minifying mirror ...

Nothing magical: pantomimed grasping is controlled by the ventral system

In a recent amendment to the two-visual-system model, it has been proposed that actions must result in tactile contact with the goal object for the dorsal system to become engaged (Whitwell et al., Neuropsychologia 55:41–50, 2014). The present study tested this addition by assessing the use of allocentric information in normal and pantomime actions. To this end, magicians, and ...

Does affective touch influence the virtual reality full body illusion?

The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of ...

Changing hands: persistent alterations to body image following brief exposure to multisensory distortions

The dynamic flexibility of body representation has been highlighted through numerous lines of research that range from clinical studies reporting disorders of body ownership, to experimentally induced somatic illusions that have provided evidence for the embodiment of manipulated representations and even fake limbs. While most studies have reported that enlargement of body parts ...

How do the two visual streams interact with each other?

The current consensus divides primate cortical visual processing into two broad networks or “streams” composed of highly interconnected areas (Milner and Goodale 2006, 2008; Goodale 2014). The ventral stream, passing from primary visual cortex (V1) through to inferior parts of the temporal lobe, is considered to mediate the transformation of the contents of the visual signal into ...

The Cognitive Role of the Globus Pallidus interna; Insights from Disease States

The motor symptoms of both Parkinson’s disease and focal dystonia arise from dysfunction of the basal ganglia, and are improved by pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation of the Globus Pallidus interna (GPi). However, Parkinson’s disease is associated with a greater degree of basal ganglia-dependent learning impairment than dystonia. We attempt to understand this observation in terms ...

Optimal visual–haptic integration with articulated tools

When we feel and see an object, the nervous system integrates visual and haptic information optimally, exploiting the redundancy in multiple signals to estimate properties more precisely than is possible from either signal alone. We examined whether optimal integration is similarly achieved when using articulated tools. Such tools (tongs, pliers, etc) are a defining characteristic ...

Factors influencing planning of a familiar grasp to an object: what it is to pick a cup

We assessed the factors influencing the planning of actions required to manipulate one of two everyday objects with matching dimensions but openings at opposite ends: a cup and a vase. We found that, for cups, measures of movement preparation to reach and grasp the object were influenced by whether the grasp was made to the functional part of the object (wide opening) and whether ...

Intercepting accelerated moving targets: effects of practice on movement performance

When performing a rapid manual interception, targets moving under constant motion are often intercepted with greater accuracy when compared to targets moving under accelerated motion. Usually, accelerated targets are timed too late and decelerating ones too early. The present experiment sought to investigate whether these differences in performance when intercepting targets moving ...

Incidental retrieval of prior emotion mimicry

When observing emotional expressions, similar sensorimotor states are activated in the observer, often resulting in physical mimicry. For example, when observing a smile, the zygomaticus muscles associated with smiling are activated in the observer, and when observing a frown, the corrugator brow muscles. We show that the consistency of an individual’s facial emotion, whether they ...

Unravelling the effect of experimental pain on the corticomotor system using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography

The interaction between pain and the motor system is well-known, with past studies showing that pain can alter corticomotor excitability and have deleterious effects on motor learning. The aim of this study was to better understand the cortical mechanisms underlying the interaction between pain and the motor system. Experimental pain was induced on 19 young and healthy participants ...

Embodiment and the origin of interval timing: kinematic and electromyographic data

Recent evidence suggests that interval timing (the judgment of durations lasting from approximately 500 ms. to a few minutes) is closely coupled to the action control system. We used surface electromyography (EMG) and motion capture technology to explore the emergence of this coupling in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-olds. We engaged infants in an active and socially relevant arm-raising ...

Changes in movement organization and control strategies when learning a biomechanically constrained gait pattern, racewalking: a PCA study

Combining advances from gait analysis and motor learning fields, this study aims to examine invariant characteristics and practice-related changes in the control of walking gait when learning a biomechanically constrained pattern, racewalking (RW). RW’s regulation imposes a straightened knee at the stance phase which differentiates it qualitatively from normal walking. Using 3D ...

Executive control and working memory are involved in sub-second repetitive motor timing

The nature of the relationship between timing and cognition remains poorly understood. Cognitive control is known to be involved in discrete timing tasks involving durations above 1 s, but has not yet been demonstrated for repetitive motor timing below 1 s. We examined the latter in two continuation tapping experiments, by varying the cognitive load in a concurrent task. In ...

Abnormal connectivity in the sensorimotor network predicts attention deficits in traumatic brain injury

The aim of this study was to explore modifications of functional connectivity in multiple resting-state networks (RSNs) after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and evaluate the relationship between functional connectivity patterns and cognitive abnormalities. Forty-three moderate/severe TBI patients and 34 healthy controls (HC) underwent resting-state fMRI. Group ICA ...

Learning to echolocate in sighted people: a correlational study on attention, working memory and spatial abilities

Echolocation can be beneficial for the orientation and mobility of visually impaired people. Research has shown considerable individual differences for acquiring this skill. However, individual characteristics that affect the learning of echolocation are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined individual factors that are likely to affect learning to echolocate: sustained ...

Impairment of mitochondria dynamics by human A53T α-synuclein and rescue by NAP (davunetide) in a cell model for Parkinson’s disease

The formation of oligomers and aggregates of overexpressed or mutant α-synuclein play a role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease by causing dysfunction of mitochondria, reflected in their disturbed mobility and production of ROS. The mode of action and mechanisms underlying this mitochondrial impairment is still unclear. We have induced stable ...

Auditory spatial representations of the world are compressed in blind humans

Compared to sighted listeners, blind listeners often display enhanced auditory spatial abilities such as localization in azimuth. However, less is known about whether blind humans can accurately judge distance in extrapersonal space using auditory cues alone. Using virtualization techniques, we show that auditory spatial representations of the world beyond the peripersonal space of ...

Visual mismatch negativity to masked stimuli presented at very brief presentation rates

Mismatch negativity (MMN) has been characterised as a ‘pre-attentive’ component of an event-related potential (ERP) that is related to discrimination and error prediction processes. The aim of the current experiment was to establish whether visual MMN could be recorded to briefly presented, backward and forward masked visual stimuli, given both below and above levels of subjective ...

Matching locations is not just matching sensory representations

People make systematic errors when matching locations of an unseen index finger with the index finger of the other hand, or with a visual target. In this study, we present two experiments that test the consistency of such matching errors across different combinations of matching methods. In the first experiment, subjects had to move their unseen index fingers to visually presented ...

Cerebellar tDCS does not improve performance in probabilistic classification learning

In this study, the role of the cerebellum in a cognitive learning task using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was investigated. Using a weather prediction task, subjects had to learn the probabilistic associations between a stimulus (a combination of cards) and an outcome (sun or rain). This task is a variant of a probabilistic classification learning task, for which ...

Mapping the visual brain areas susceptible to phosphene induction through brain stimulation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique whose effects on neural activity can be uncertain. Within the visual cortex, phosphenes are a useful marker of TMS: They indicate the induction of neural activation that propagates and creates a conscious percept. However, we currently do not know how susceptible different areas of the visual ...