Experimental Brain Research

http://link.springer.com/journal/221

List of Papers (Total 509)

Reduction in parvalbumin-positive interneurons and inhibitory input in the cortex of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

In multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammation leads to damage of central nervous system myelin and axons. Previous studies have postulated impaired GABA transmission in MS, and recent postmortem analysis has shown that GABAergic parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons are decreased in the primary motor cortex (M1) of patients with MS. In this report, we present evidence for the loss of a ...

Effects of strobe light stimulation on postnatal developing rat retina

The nature and intensity of visual stimuli have changed in recent years because of television and other dynamic light sources. Although light stimuli accompanied by contrast and strength changes are thought to have an influence on visual system development, little information is available on the effects of dynamic light stimuli such as a strobe light on visual system development. ...

Differences between Han Chinese and Caucasians in transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters

The study was conducted to investigate the difference between Han Chinese and Caucasians on various parameters measured from responses to transcranial magnetic brain stimulation (TMS). Sixteen subjects were studied in each group. A circular coil at the vertex was used for stimulation, whilst recording surface electromyograms from right first dorsal interosseous. In the passive ...

Human sensitivity to vertical self-motion

Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for 10 ...

The influence of age and surface compliance on changes in postural control and attention due to ankle neuromuscular fatigue

The reduction in the quality and integration of sensory information with aging could increase the alterations in postural control associated with muscle fatigue observed in younger adults. This study aimed to compare changes in postural control and attentional demands due to ankle muscle fatigue, with intact and reduced proprioceptive information at the ankle, between young and ...

Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain structures of the rodent Octodon degus: a brain atlas constructed by combining histological and magnetic resonance images

Degus (Octodon degus) are rodents that are becoming more widely used in the neuroscience field. Degus display several more complex behaviors than rats and mice, including complicated social behaviors, vocal communications, and tool usage with superb manual dexterity. However, relatively little information is known about the anatomy of degu brains. Therefore, for these complex ...

Past rewards capture spatial attention and action choices

The desire to increase rewards and minimize punishing events is a powerful driver in behaviour. Here, we assess how the value of a location affects subsequent deployment of goal-directed attention as well as involuntary capture of attention on a trial-to-trial basis. By tracking eye position, we investigated whether the ability of an irrelevant, salient visual stimulus to capture ...

Saccade reaction time asymmetries during task-switching in pursuit tracking

We investigate how smooth pursuit eye movements affect the latencies of task-switching saccades. Participants had to alternate their foveal vision between a continuous pursuit task in the display center and a discrete object discrimination task in the periphery. The pursuit task was either carried out by following the target with the eyes only (ocular) or by steering an on-screen ...

Visually induced postural reactivity is velocity-dependent at low temporal frequencies and frequency-dependent at high temporal frequencies

Visual stimulation alone is sufficient to produce visually induced postural reactivity (VIPR). While some studies have shown that VIPR increases with the velocity of a moving visual stimulus, others have shown that it decreases with the temporal frequency of an oscillating visual stimulus. These results seem contradictory given that these two variables co-vary in the same ...

Recruitment of ipsilateral and contralateral upper limb muscles following stimulation of the cortical motor areas in the monkey

It is well established that cortical motor stimulation results in contralateral upper limb (UL) activity. Motor responses are also elicited in the ipsilateral UL, though controversy surrounds the significance of these effects. Evidence suggests that ipsilateral muscle activity is more common following the stimulation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and dorsal premotor area ...

The 5′ untranslated region of the serotonin receptor 2C pre-mRNA generates miRNAs and is expressed in non-neuronal cells

The serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that is exclusively expressed in neurons. Here, we report that the 5′ untranslated region of the receptor pre-mRNA as well as its hosted miRNAs is widely expressed in non-neuronal cell lines. Alternative splicing of HTR2C is regulated by MBII-52. MBII-52 and the neighboring MBII-85 cluster are absent in ...

Cue integration and the perception of action in intentional binding

‘Intentional binding’ describes the perceived temporal attraction between a voluntary action and its sensory consequence. Binding has been used in health and disease as an indirect measure of awareness of action or agency, that is, the sense that one controls one’s own actions. It has been proposed that binding results from cue integration, in which a voluntary action provides ...

The psychology of volition

Volition can be studied from two perspectives. From the third-person view, volitional behaviour is internally generated, rather than being determined by the immediate environmental context, and is therefore, to some extent, unpredictable. Such behaviour is not unique to humans, since it is seen in many other species including invertebrates. From the first-person view, our ...

When a smile becomes a fist: the perception of facial and bodily expressions of emotion in violent offenders

Previous reports have suggested an enhancement of facial expression recognition in women as compared to men. It has also been suggested that men versus women have a greater attentional bias towards angry cues. Research has shown that facial expression recognition impairments and attentional biases towards anger are enhanced in violent criminal male offenders. Bodily expressions of ...