Cardiovascular Ultrasound

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List of Papers (Total 654)

Early markers of right heart involvement in regular smokers by Pocket Size Imaging Device

Purpose To test the diagnostic power of Pocket Size Imaging Device (PSID) in detecting early signs of right heart (RH) involvement in regular smokers (RS) free of overt cardiac involvement. Methods One-hundred-forty-three regular smokers and 51 healthy controls, comparable for age and sex, underwent physical exam (PE), PSID exam and standard echocardiography. Based on a simplified ...

A case report of ventricular dysfunction post pericardiocentesis: stress cardiomyopathy or pericardial decompression syndrome?

We report a case of transient biventricular dysfunction post therapeutic pericardiocentesis, with classic features of stress cardiomyopathy (SCM). In our patient, the clinical and echocardiographic features were more in keeping with Takotsubo-type SCM than pericardial decompression syndrome (PDS). Our case is instructive in challenging our understanding of the aetiology of LV ...

New diastolic cardiomyopathy in patients with severe accidental hypothermia after ECMO rewarming: a case-series observational study

Introduction Accidental hypothermia is a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Hypothermia has been reported to affect left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. However, most of the data come from animal experimental studies. Aim of the study The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of severe accidental hypothermia on systolic and ...

Strain echocardiography identifies impaired longitudinal systolic function in patients with septic shock and preserved ejection fraction

Background Myocardial dysfunction is recognized in sepsis. We hypothesized that mechanical left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular function analysed using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in a cohort of early severe sepsis or septic shock patients, would be different to that of a group of critically ill, non-septic patients. Methods Critically ill adult patients with ...

Relation between E/e’ ratio and NT-proBNP levels in elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis

Background Symptoms in the elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and co-morbidities seem to lack in specificity. Therefore, objective parameters for increased left ventricular(LV) filling pressures are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the septal, lateral and average E/e’ ratio and the value of the N-terminal pro-hormone of brain ...

Grading diastolic function by echocardiography: hemodynamic validation of existing guidelines

Background While echocardiographic grading of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (DD) is used every day, the relationship between echocardiographic DD grade and hemodynamic abnormalities is uncertain. Methods We identified 460 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography within 24 h of elective left heart catheterization and had: normal sinus rhythm, ...

Echocardiographic characteristics of patients with acute heart failure requiring tolvaptan: a retrospective study

Background No study has investigated the admission echocardiographic characteristics of acute heart failure (AHF) patients who are resistant to conventional diuretics and require tolvaptan. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the echocardiographic characteristics of AHF patients who were resistant to conventional diuretics and took tolvaptan (tolvaptan group: 26 patients), and ...

The effects of nicorandil on microvascular function in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI

Background Nicorandil, as a selective potassium channel opener, has dual action including coronary and peripheral vasodilatation and cardioprotective effect through ischemic preconditioning. Considering those characteristics, nicorandil was suggested to reduce the degree of microvascular dysfunction. Methods Thirty-two patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing ...

Mitral valve analysis adding a virtual semi-transparent annulus plane for detection of prolapsing segments

Background We hypothesized that a novel three-dimensional virtual semi-transparent annulus plane (3D VSAP) presented on a holographic screen can be used to visualize the prolapsing tissue in degenerative mitral valve disease and furthermore, provide us with geometrical data of the mitral valve apparatus. Phantom and patient studies were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of ...

Severity of aortic regurgitation assessed by area of vena contracta: a clinical two-dimensional and three-dimensional color Doppler imaging study

Background Quantitation of aortic regurgitation (AR) using two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography, including vena contracta width (VCW) measurement, is still challenging. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography can directly measure the vena contracta area (VCA), regardless of the rheological characteristics. We intended to assess the possibility of 3D vena contracta area (3DVCA) as ...

Evaluation of cardiac masses by real-time perfusion imaging echocardiography

Background Diagnosis of cardiac masses is still challenging by echocardiography and distinguishing tumors from thrombi has important therapeutical implications. We sought to determine the diagnostic value of real-time perfusion echocardiography (RTPE) for cardiac masses characterization. Methods We prospectively studied 86 patients, 23 with malignant tumors (MT), 26 with benign ...

The left ventricle in aortic stenosis – imaging assessment and clinical implications

Aortic stenosis has an increasing prevalence in the context of aging population. In these patients non-invasive imaging allows not only the grading of valve stenosis severity, but also the assessment of left ventricular function. These two goals play a key role in clinical decision-making. Although left ventricular ejection fraction is currently the only left ventricular function ...

Dual imaging stress echocardiography versus computed tomography coronary angiography for risk stratification of patients with chest pain of unknown origin

Background Dual imaging stress echocardiography, combining the evaluation of wall motion and coronary flow reserve (CFR) on the left anterior descending artery (LAD), and computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) are established techniques for assessing prognosis in chest pain patients. In this study we compared the prognostic value of the two methods in a cohort of patients ...

Left carotid adventitial vasa vasorum signal correlates directly with age and with left carotid intima-media thickness in individuals without atheromatous risk factors

Objective The early identification of the onset of subclinical atheromatosis is essential in reducing the high mortality risk from cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. Although carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is the most commonly used early predictor of ongoing atherosclerosis, an experimental model of atherosclerosis, demonstrated that increases in adventitial ...

Variability in echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular function in septic shock patients

Background Echocardiography is increasingly used for haemodynamic evaluation and titration of therapy in intensive care, warranting reliable and reproducible measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the observer dependence of echocardiographic findings of left ventricular (LV) diastolic and systolic dysfunction in patients with septic shock. Methods Echocardiograms ...

The role of renin angiotensin system antagonists in the prevention of doxorubicin and trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity

Abstract Background Cardio-Oncology is an evolving discipline that focuses on the management of cancer patients who develop cardiovascular complications as a result of their treatment. Although the current combination of surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy may lead to a cure in cancer patients, the administration of anti-cancer drugs, in particular Doxorubicin (DOX) and ...

Anti-inflammatory and morphologic effects of pitavastatin on carotid arteries and thoracic aorta evaluated by integrated backscatter trans-esophageal ultrasound and PET/CT: a prospective randomized comparative study with pravastatin (EPICENTRE study)

Background We sought to evaluate the effects of a strong lipophilic statin (pitavastatin) on plaque components and morphology assessed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), as well as plaque inflammation assessed by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in the thoracic aorta and the carotid artery. Furthermore, we compared the effects of ...

The use of strain, strain rate, and displacement by 2D speckle tracking for assessment of systolic left ventricular function in goats: applicability and influence of general anesthesia

Background Assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic function can be achieved by conventional echocardiographic methods, but quantification of contractility, regional myocardial function, and ventricular synchrony is challenging. The goal of this study was to investigate the applicability of two-dimensional speckle tracking (2DST) to characterize segmental and global wall motion ...

Validity of a 5-minute focused echocardiography with A-F mnemonic performed by non-echocardiographers in the management of patients with acute chest pain

Study objective To validate the practicality of focused echocardiography with A-F mnemonic performed by non-specialists in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Design This prospective observational study was conducted in the Emergency Room within 12 months period. Study population consisted of consecutive patients with preliminary diagnosis of an ACS. The ...

Feasibility and accuracy of bedside transthoracic echocardiography in diagnosis of acute proximal aortic dissection

Study objective The purpose of the present study was to establish the accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in diagnosis of acute type A aortic dissection in comparison to computed tomography (CT), with reference to the intraoperative image. Methods The retrospective analysis included 178 patients referred to the cardiac surgery unit in our center due to acute type A ...

Prediction of left ventricular reverse remodeling after therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers and β blockers in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

Background Predictors of left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) after therapy with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers and β blockers in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) remains unclear. Methods We studied 44 patients with IDC who had been treated with the therapy. LVRR was defined as LV end-diastolic dimension ≤ 55 mm ...

Cardiac and renal function in a large cohort of amateur marathon runners

Background Participation of amateur runners in endurance races continues to increase. Previous studies of marathon runners have raised concerns about exercise-induced myocardial and renal dysfunction and damage. In our pooled analysis, we aimed to characterize changes of cardiac and renal function after marathon running in a large cohort of mostly elderly amateur marathon runners. ...

Ultrasound entropy may be a new non-invasive measure of pre-clinical vascular damage in young hypertensive patients

Background The identification of pre-clinical microvascular damage in hypertension by non-invasive techniques has proved frustrating for clinicians. This proof of concept study investigated whether entropy, a novel summary measure for characterizing blood velocity waveforms, is altered in participants with hypertension and may therefore be useful in risk stratification. Methods ...

The utility of pocket-sized echocardiography to assess left ventricular systolic function prior to permanent pacemaker implantation

Background A subset of patients receiving first-time permanent pacemakers (PPM) may also benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) based on the presence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). Routine screening using pocket-sized echocardiography (PSE) may be useful in identifying such patients. Objective To determine whether PSE can be used by an ...