Cardiovascular Ultrasound

http://www.cardiovascularultrasound.com/

List of Papers (Total 657)

Ultrasound entropy may be a new non-invasive measure of pre-clinical vascular damage in young hypertensive patients

Background The identification of pre-clinical microvascular damage in hypertension by non-invasive techniques has proved frustrating for clinicians. This proof of concept study investigated whether entropy, a novel summary measure for characterizing blood velocity waveforms, is altered in participants with hypertension and may therefore be useful in risk stratification. Methods ...

The utility of pocket-sized echocardiography to assess left ventricular systolic function prior to permanent pacemaker implantation

Background A subset of patients receiving first-time permanent pacemakers (PPM) may also benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) based on the presence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). Routine screening using pocket-sized echocardiography (PSE) may be useful in identifying such patients. Objective To determine whether PSE can be used by an ...

Myocardial function in aortic stenosis – insights from radial multilayer Doppler strain

Background Left ventricular (LV) radial tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) strain increases gradually from the subepicardial to the subendocardial layer in healthy individuals. A speckle tracking echocardiography study suggested this gradient to be reduced in parallel with increasing aortic stenosis (AS) severity. Methods We used TDI strain in 84 patients with AS (mean age 73 ± 10 years, ...

Comparison of left ventricular mechanics in runners versus bodybuilders using speckle tracking echocardiography

Background Athlete’s heart is a common definition for a broad spectrum of adaptations induced by intense exercise. We intended to compare left ventricular (LV) mechanics in two sports disciplines with different exercise nature: marathon runners (endurance) and bodybuilders (power). Methods 24 marathon or ultramarathon runners (R), 14 bodybuilders (B) and 15 healthy, sedentary male ...

Measurements of carotid intima media thickness in non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound images: the effect of dynamic range setting

Background Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) measured with ultrasound (US) is widely used as biomarker for arteriosclerosis and as surrogate endpoint in interventional studies to assess efficacy of drug therapies. Strict US protocols are necessary to ensure reproducibility. The range of US signal intensities used for image formation, the dynamic range (DR), is rarely reported ...

Structural and functional changes in maternal left ventricle during pregnancy: a three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography study

Background Pregnancy represents a physiological adaptation to the transient load changes of maternal heart. This study aimed to investigate maternal left ventricle (LV) performance during normal pregnancy by three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D STE) parameters considering LV loading and shape. Methods Sequential two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and 3D STE ...

Limitations of free-form-text diagnostic requisitions as a tool for evaluating adherence to appropriate use criteria for transthoracic echocardiography

Background Monitoring the adherence to Appropriateness Use Criteria (AUC) has been identified as an important component for the accreditation of echocardiography laboratories. Referral requisitions are a logical tool to rapidly determine the appropriateness of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) referrals, however data is lacking. We investigated whether standard free-form-text ...

A novel software program for detection of potential air emboli during cardiac surgery

Background Risks associated with air emboli introduced during cardiac surgery have been highlighted by reports of postoperative neuropsychological dysfunction, myocardial dysfunction, and mortality. Presently, there are no standard effective methods for quantifying potential emboli in the bloodstream during cardiac surgery. Our objective was to develop software that can ...

Does treatment assignment influence the prognosis of patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis?

Objective Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the standard therapy in patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). In high surgical risk patients, alternative therapeutic options to medical treatment (MT) such as trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) have been proposed. In this study we evaluated whether treatment assignment ...

Echogenic perfluorohexane-loaded macrophages adhere in vivo to activated vascular endothelium in mice, an explorative study

Background Macrophages may concentrate ultrasound contrast agents and exhibit selective adhesion to activated endothelium. The present study investigates in mice the potential of perfluorohexane (PFH) loaded macrophages to act as ultrasound contrast agent with high reflectivity and specifically targeted at (atherosclerotic) vascular lesions. Methods Lung passage was evaluated with ...

Differences in brachial and femoral artery responses to prolonged sitting

Introduction It is unknown if there are limb differences in vascular function during prolonged sitting. Purpose This study was designed to test whether the effects of prolonged sitting on brachial artery (BA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are similar. Methods Twelve men (24.2 ± 4 yrs.) participated in a 3 hr prolonged sitting trial (SIT). SFA and BA flow mediated ...

Shear wave elastography imaging of carotid plaques: feasible, reproducible and of clinical potential

Background Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) imaging is a novel ultrasound technique for quantifying tissue elasticity. Studies have demonstrated that SWE is able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue in a wide range clinical applications. However its applicability to atherosclerotic carotid disease has not been established. The aim of this study was to assess the ...

Utility of carotid duplex ultrasonography in a general inner-city hospital

Background Carotid Duplex Ultrasonography (CDUS) is one of the non-invasive imaging modalities used to evaluate for carotid artery stenosis. However, it is often used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), before heart surgery, syncope and non-specific neurological symptoms although its value is unclear. Our study aimed to further ...

Renal sympathetic denervation inhibites the development of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony during the progression of heart failure in dogs

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether transcatheter renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) interfere with the development of left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony during the progression of heart failure (HF). Methods Nineteen beagles were randomly divided into sham-operated group (six dogs), control group (seven dogs), and RSD group (six dogs). ...

Echocardiographic assessment of ischemic mitral regurgitation

Ischemic mitral regurgitation is an important consequence of LV remodeling after myocardial infarction. Echocardiographic diagnosis and assessment of ischemic mitral regurgitation are critical to gauge its adverse effects on prognosis and to attempt to tailor rational treatment strategy. There is no single approach to the echocardiographic assessment of ischemic mitral ...

Preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction and left atrium reverse remodeling after mitral regurgitation surgery

Background Left atrium enlargement has been associated with cardiac events in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR). Left atrium reverse remodeling (LARR) occur after surgical correction of MR, but the preoperative predictors of this phenomenon are not well known. It is therefore important to identify preoperative predictors for postoperative LARR. Methods We enrolled 62 patients ...

Estimation of cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance by contrast echocardiography transit time measurement: a prospective pilot study

Background Studies with other imaging modalities have demonstrated a relationship between contrast transit and cardiac output (CO) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). We tested the hypothesis that the transit time during contrast echocardiography could accurately estimate both CO and PVR compared to right heart catheterization (RHC). Methods 27 patients scheduled for RHC had ...

Cardiac calcium score on 2D echo: correlations with cardiac and coronary calcium at multi-detector computed tomography

Background To test the hypothesis that a semi-quantitative echocardiographic calcium score (eCS) significantly correlates with cardiac calcium measured by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and, secondarily, severe coronary artery calcifications and stenosis. Methods This is a retrospective, observational study, conducted in a tertiary centre. eCS was compared with ...

Two and three dimensional echocardiography for pre-operative assessment of mitral valve regurgitation

Mitral regurgitation may develop when the leaflets or any other portion of the apparatus becomes abnormal. As the repair techniques for mitral valve disease evolved, so has the need for detailed and accurate imaging of the mitral valve prior to surgery in order to better define the mechanism of valve dysfunction and the severity of regurgitation. In patients with significant mitral ...

Determinants of clinical improvement after surgical replacement or transcatheter aortic valve implantation for isolated aortic stenosis

Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and high surgical risk. Hemodynamic performance after TAVI is superior, but the impact of reverse remodeling on clinical improvement is controversial. We aim to address the differences in hemodynamic changes between SAVR and ...

Diastolic wall strain: a simple marker of abnormal cardiac mechanics

Background Diastolic wall strain (DWS), defined using posterior wall thickness (PWT) measurements from standard echocardiographic images (DWS = [PWT(systole)-PWT(diastole)]/PWT(systole)), has been proposed as a marker of left ventricular (LV) diastolic stiffness. However, the equation for DWS is closely related to systolic radial strain, and whether DWS is associated with abnormal ...

Carotid artery intima-media thickness is closely related to impaired left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease: a single-centre, blinded, non-randomized study

Background Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of the majority of myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a surrogate measure of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Left ventricular (LV) function can be accurately assessed by 2D speckle-tracking strain echocardiography (2D-STE). The aim of this study was to assess the ...

Tissue Doppler, Strain and Strain Rate in ischemic heart disease “How I do it”

Echocardiography is the standard method for assessing myocardial function in patients with ischemic heart disease. The acquisition and interpretation of echocardiographic images, however, remains a highly specialized task which often relies entirely on the subjective visual assessment of the reader and requires therefore, particular training and expertise. Myocardial deformation ...

In vivo assessment of arterial stiffness in the isoflurane anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rat

Background Rodent models are increasingly used to study the development and progression of arterial stiffness. Both the non-invasive Doppler derived Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and the invasively determined arterial elastance index (EaI) have been used to assess arterial stiffness in rats and mice, but the need for anesthetic agents to make these in vivo estimates may limit their ...