Cardiovascular Ultrasound

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List of Papers (Total 657)

Low cardiac output as physiological phenomenon in hibernating, free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) – an observational study

Background Despite 5-7 months of physical inactivity during hibernation, brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to cope with physiological conditions that would be detrimental to humans. During hibernation, the tissue metabolic demands fall to 25% of the active state. Our objective was to assess cardiac function associated with metabolic depression in the hibernating vs. active states ...

Relationship between epicardial adipose tissue, coronary artery disease and adiponectin in a Mexican population

Background The amount of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) around the heart has been identified as an independent predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD), potentially through local release of inflammatory cytokines. Ethnic differences have been observed, but no studies have investigated this relationship in the Mexican population. The objective of the present study was to evaluate ...

Intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity, and flow mediated dilation

The identification of vascular alterations at the sub-clinical, asymptomatic stages are potentially useful for screening, prevention and improvement of cardiovascular risk stratification beyond classical risk factors.Increased intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery is a well-known marker of early atherosclerosis, which significantly correlates with the development of ...

3D Strain helps relating LV function to LV and structure in athletes

Introduction The evaluation of cardiac contraction could benefit from a connection with the underlying helical structure of cardiac fibers in athletes either completely healthy or with minor common cardiopathies like Bicuspid Aortic Valve (BAV). This study aims to exploit the potential role of 3D strain to improve the physiological understanding of LV function and modification due ...

Assessment of left atrial volume before and after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

Background Impaired left ventricular diastolic filling is common in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and recent studies support left ventricular underfilling as a cause. To investigate this further, we assessed left atrial volume index (LAVI) in patients with CTEPH before and after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE). Methods Forty-eight consecutive CTEPH ...

Elevated level of plasma endothelin-1 in patients with atrial septal defect

Background The study aimed to assess the level of plasma Endothelin-1 (ET-1) in patients before and after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) and to evaluate the usefulness of measuring ET-1 levels for the diagnosis and selection of candidates for ASD closure. Methods 80 patients (55 F, 25 M), mean age 42,2 ± 11,5 years were enrolled for an attempt at ASD closure. A ...

Left atrial dysfunction detected by speckle tracking in patients with systemic sclerosis

Background Cardiac involvement is a relevant clinical finding in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is associated with poor prognosis. Left atrial (LA) remodeling and/or dysfunction can be an early sign of diastolic dysfunction. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel and promising tool for detecting very early changes in LA myocardial performance. Aim To ...

Interobserver reliability of echocardiography for prognostication of normotensive patients with pulmonary embolism

Objectives To evaluate the interobserver reliability of echocardiographic findings of right ventricle (RV) dysfunction for prognosticating normotensive patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods A central panel of cardiologists evaluated echocardiographic studies of 75 patients included in the PROTECT study for the following signs: RV diameter, RV/left ventricular (LV) diameter ...

Which method of left atrium size quantification is the most accurate to recognize thromboembolic risk in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation?

Background Left atrial (LA) size is a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes in patients in sinus rhythm, whereas conflicting results have been found in atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aims to: (1) Evaluate the accuracy of LA size to identify surrogate markers of an increased thromboembolic risk in patients with AF; (2) Assess the best method to evaluate LA size in this setting. ...

The potential value of integrated natriuretic peptide and echo-guided heart failure management

There is increasing interest in guiding Heart Failure (HF) therapy with Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) or N-terminal prohormone of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), with the goal of lowering concentrations of these markers (and maintaining their suppression) as part of the therapeutic approach in HF. However, recent European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and American Heart ...

Need for a standardized protocol for stress echocardiography in provoking subaortic and valvular gradient in various cardiac conditions

(Semi) supine exercise testing has an established role in the evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease and can help clinical decision making. Stress echocardiography has the advantages of its wide availability, low cost, and versatility for the assessment of disease severity. However, exercise-induced changes in valve hemodynamics, left ventricular outflow obstruction and ...

How I do it: Lung ultrasound

In the last 15 years, a new imaging application of sonography has emerged in the clinical arena: lung ultrasound (LUS). From its traditional assessment of pleural effusions and masses, LUS has moved towards the revolutionary approach of imaging the pulmonary parenchyma, mainly as a point-of-care technique. Although limited by the presence of air, LUS has proved to be useful in the ...

Diverse geometric changes related to dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction without overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Background Dynamic left ventricular (LV) outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (DLVOTO) is not infrequently observed in older individuals without overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We sought to investigate associated geometric changes and then evaluate their clinical characteristics. Methods A total of 168 patients with DLVOTO, which was defined as a trans-LVOT peak pressure ...

Endocardial border delineation capability of a novel multimodal polymer-shelled contrast agent

Background A novel polymer-shelled contrast agent (CA) with multimodal and target-specific potential was developed recently. To determine its ultrasonic diagnostic features, we evaluated the endocardial border delineation as visualized in a porcine model and the concomitant effect on physiological variables. Methods Three doses of the novel polymer-shelled CA (1.5 ml, 3 ml, and ...

How I do it: judging appropriateness for TTE and TEE

The increasing cost of healthcare is a widespread international problem to which the cost of imaging has been an important contributor. Some imaging tests are ordered inappropriately and contribute to wasted use of resources. Appropriate use criteria have been developed in the USA in order to guide test selection, but there are a number of problems, including the evidence base for ...

Right atrial pressure alterations during echocardiography-guided-catheterization predict tricuspid valvular impairment: a novel method for the creation of a rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

Background We previously reported the use of a catheter system to damage the tricuspid valve and create infectious endocarditis (IE) in an animal model. The current study aims to create a faint IE model suitable for antibiotic prophylaxis using a low bacterial inoculum. We also aim to explore a way to quantitatively assess valvular impairment and to predict the success of the IE ...

Medium-term outcome of recipients of marginal donor hearts selected with new stress-echocardiographic techniques over standard criteria

Background Heart transplantation is limited by severe donor organ shortage. Regardless of the changes made in the acceptance of marginal donors, any such mechanism cannot be considered successful unless recipient graft survival rates remain acceptable. A stress echo-driven selection of donors has proven successful in older donors with normal left ventricular resting function and in ...

Left atrial volume as an independent predictor of exercise capacity in patients with isolated diastolic dysfunction presented with exertional dyspnea

Background Left atrial volume (LAV) and exercise capacity are important prognostic determinants of cardiovascular risk. Exercise intolerance and increased LAV are expected in patients with diastolic dysfunction. While dyspnea is the symptom reported by the patient and considered subjective, exercise capacity obtained by exercise testing provides an objective measure of ...

Reproducibility of aortic intima-media thickness in infants using edge-detection software and manual caliper measurements

Background Aortic intima-media thickness measured by transabdominal ultrasound (aIMT) is an intermediate phenotype of cardiovascular risk. We aimed to (1) investigate the reproducibility of aIMT in a population-derived cohort of infants; (2) establish the distribution of aIMT in early infancy; (3) compare measurement by edge-detection software to that by manual sonographic ...

Time-course changes in left ventricular myocardial deformation in STZ-induced rabbits on velocity vector imaging

Objectives To clarify the time-course changes in left ventricular myocardial deformation using velocity vector imaging and to provide insights into our understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology in diabetes mellitus. Methods Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into either the control group (n = 10) or the diabetes mellitus (DM) group (induced with STZ, n = 20). ...

Transcranial doppler ultrasonography should it be the first choice for persistent foramen ovale screening?

Background Persistent foramen ovale (PFO) is considered a cause of cryptogenic stroke and a risk factor for neurological events in young patients. The reference standard for identifying a PFO is contrast-enhanced transesophageal echocardiography (TEE).The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of transcranial color Doppler (TCD) and its diagnostic sensitivity compared ...

Arterial stiffness in adult patients after Fontan procedure

Objectives Increased arterial stiffness is a risk factor of atherosclerosis and cardio-vascular complications. The aim of the study was to determine whether peripheral vascular function might be an early marker of impaired health status in patients with a single ventricle after Fontan procedure. Methods and results Twenty five consecutive adults (11 women and 14 men) aged ...

Predictors and prognosis of early ischemic mitral regurgitation in the era of primary percutaneous coronary revascularisation

Background Studies assessing ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) comprised of heterogeneous population and evaluated IMR in the subacute setting. The incidence of early IMR in the setting of primary PCI, its progression and clinical impact over time is still undetermined. We sought to determine the predictors and prognosis of early IMR after primary percutaneous coronary ...

Echocardiographic follow-up of patients with systemic sclerosis by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography of the left ventricle

Background Subclinical myocardial involvement is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and associated with poor prognosis. Early detection, particularly during follow-up, is important. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has already been shown to detect early left ventricular systolic impairment in SSc patients with advanced disease. The aim of this study was to ...

Coronary artery occlusions diagnosed by transthoracic Doppler

Background Our aim was to assess whether anterograde flow velocities in septal perforating branches could identify an occluded contralateral coronary artery, and to assess the feasibility and accuracy of diagnosing occlusions in the three main coronary arteries by the combined use of several noninvasive parameters indicating collateral flow. Methods A total of 108 patients ...