Cardiovascular Ultrasound

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List of Papers (Total 657)

Transcranial doppler ultrasonography should it be the first choice for persistent foramen ovale screening?

Background Persistent foramen ovale (PFO) is considered a cause of cryptogenic stroke and a risk factor for neurological events in young patients. The reference standard for identifying a PFO is contrast-enhanced transesophageal echocardiography (TEE).The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of transcranial color Doppler (TCD) and its diagnostic sensitivity compared...

Arterial stiffness in adult patients after Fontan procedure

Objectives Increased arterial stiffness is a risk factor of atherosclerosis and cardio-vascular complications. The aim of the study was to determine whether peripheral vascular function might be an early marker of impaired health status in patients with a single ventricle after Fontan procedure. Methods and results Twenty five consecutive adults (11 women and 14 men) aged 24.7...

Predictors and prognosis of early ischemic mitral regurgitation in the era of primary percutaneous coronary revascularisation

Background Studies assessing ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) comprised of heterogeneous population and evaluated IMR in the subacute setting. The incidence of early IMR in the setting of primary PCI, its progression and clinical impact over time is still undetermined. We sought to determine the predictors and prognosis of early IMR after primary percutaneous coronary...

Echocardiographic follow-up of patients with systemic sclerosis by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography of the left ventricle

Background Subclinical myocardial involvement is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and associated with poor prognosis. Early detection, particularly during follow-up, is important. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has already been shown to detect early left ventricular systolic impairment in SSc patients with advanced disease. The aim of this study was to...

Coronary artery occlusions diagnosed by transthoracic Doppler

Background Our aim was to assess whether anterograde flow velocities in septal perforating branches could identify an occluded contralateral coronary artery, and to assess the feasibility and accuracy of diagnosing occlusions in the three main coronary arteries by the combined use of several noninvasive parameters indicating collateral flow. Methods A total of 108 patients...

Increased longitudinal contractility and diastolic function at rest in well-trained amateur Marathon runners: a speckle tracking echocardiography study

Background Regular physical activity reduces cardiovascular risk. There is concern that Marathon running might acutely damage the heart. It is unknown to what extent intensive physical endurance activity influences the cardiac mechanics at resting condition. Methods Eighty-four amateur marathon runners (43 women and 41 men) from Berlin-Brandenburg area who had completed at least...

The value of diastolic function parameters in the prediction of left atrial appendage thrombus in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

Background Left ventricular diastolic impairment and consequently elevated filling pressure may contribute to stasis leading to left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated whether transthoracic echocardiographic parameters can predict LAAT independent of traditional clinical predictors. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort...

Predictive role of renal resistive index for clinical outcome after revascularization in hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: a monocentric observational study

Background The present study evaluated the predictive value of renal resistive index (RI) for renal function and blood pressure (BP) outcome in hypertensive patients with unilateral atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis submitted to successful revascularization. Methods In 158 hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis RI was acquired. Twelve months after...

Left ventricular torsional dynamics post exercise for LV diastolic function assessment

Aims 2D speckle tracking echocardiography allows for assessment of left ventricular (LV) torsional deformation as a composite function of the radial, longitudinal and circumferential fibres. We test the hypothesis that post-exercise LV torsional dynamics are more sensitive markers for myocardial dysfunction than resting measures, and better predictors for exercise capacity...

Normal and shear strains of the left ventricle in healthy human subjects measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography

Background Animal studies have shown that shear deformation of myocardial sheets in transmural planes of left ventricular (LV) wall is an important mechanism for systolic wall thickening, and normal and shear strains of the LV free wall differ from those of the interventricular septum (IVS). We sought to test whether these also hold for human hearts. Methods Thirty healthy...

Different contribution of extent of myocardial injury to left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in early reperfused acute myocardial infarction

Background We sought to investigate the influence of the extent of myocardial injury on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in patients after reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Thirty-eight reperfused AMI patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging after percutaneous coronary revascularization. The extent of myocardial edema...

Effect of ivabradine-induced heart rate reduction on flow-mediated dilation measured with high-sensitivity ultrasound in patients with stable coronary heart disease

Background Experimental data suggests that exclusive heart rate reduction with ivabradine is associated with the amelioration of the endothelial function. Since it is presently unknown whether this also applies to humans, the aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether heart rate reduction with ivabradine modulates the endothelial function in humans with an established...

Reference intervals for the echocardiographic measurements of the right heart in children and adolescents: a systematic review

Background Transthoracic echocardiography is the primary imaging modality for the diagnosis of right ventricular (RV) involvement in congenital and acquired heart diseases. There is increasing recognition of the contribution of RV dysfunction in heart diseases affecting children and adolescents, but there is insufficient information on reference intervals for the...

Effect of food intake on left ventricular wall stress

Objective Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 ± 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential...

Foetal aortic flow velocity waveforms in healthy and hypertensive pregnant women

Background The foetal aortic Doppler frequency spectrum is influenced by cardiac output and contractility of the foetal heart as well as vascular compliance, blood viscosity and impedance of the arterial vascular system. The present study aimed at comparing Doppler flow pulsatility (PI) and resistance (RI) indexes of foetal proximal descending aorta (AoF) in the first, second and...

Assessment of left ventricle function in aortic stenosis: mitral annular plane systolic excursion is not inferior to speckle tracking echocardiography derived global longitudinal peak strain

Background Early detection of left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction is essential for management of patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Two- dimensional speckle tracking derived global longitudinal peak strain (GLPS) is more sensitive than ejection fraction (EF) but requires good image quality and is not easily accessible. The aim of the study was to compare GLPS with...

Assessment of left ventricular volumes and primary mitral regurgitation severity by 2D echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Background Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE) remains the first-line diagnostic imaging tool to assess primary mitral regurgitation although cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has proven to establish left ventricular function more accurately and might evaluate mitral regurgitation severity more reliably. We sought to compare routine evaluation of left...

Evaluation of left atrial deformation to predict left atrial stasis in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation – a pilot-study

Background Speckle tracking-derived strain and strain rate are recently available parameters to assess left atrial (LA) deformation. We hypothesized that such new parameters could be of interest to evaluate the risk of LA stasis among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Single-centre study enrolling all patients with non-valvular AF lasting longer than 48 hours for...

Left ventricular strain distribution in healthy dogs and in dogs with tachycardia-induced dilated cardiomyopathy

Background Recently, left ventricular (LV) strain distribution pattern has been assessed in several cardiac disease states. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) is an animal model of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy well characterized in terms of global LV dysfunction but with poor understanding of regional variability in LV function. We hypothesized that TIC induces specific...

Novices may be trained to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysms using ultrasound

Background Highly trained vascular sonographers make up a significant cost of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ultrasound screening. However, they are over-trained for this very limited task. Others have reported that health workers (e.g. emergency room staff and nurses) with far less training may be able to perform these scans. The national AAA screening programme in the UK uses...

Myocardial contractility in the stress echo lab: from pathophysiological toy to clinical tool

Up-regulation of Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ channels by high rates of beating is involved in the frequency-dependent regulation of contractility: this process is crucial in adaptation to exercise and stress and is universally known as force-frequency relation (FFR). Disturbances in calcium handling play a central role in the disturbed contractile function in myocardial failure...

Differences of left ventricular systolic deformation in hypertensive patients with and without apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Background We tested the hypothesis that the apical myocardial mechanics differ from those of other ventricular segments in hypertensive patients with and without apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM). Methods We retrospectively studied hypertensive patients with and without ApHCM. Left ventricular longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strains were examined by two...

Quantitative assessment of carotid plaque surface irregularities and correlation to cerebrovascular symptoms

Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether surface irregularities measured from ultrasound images of carotid artery plaques and quantified using a novel method, correlate with the presence of ipsilateral hemispheric cerebrovascular symptoms. Methods A plaque surface irregularity index (SII) was measured in 47 carotid artery plaques (32 subjects, stenosis range...

One, two and three-dimensional ultrasound measurements of carotid atherosclerosis before and after cardiac rehabilitation: preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial

Background It is still not known how patients who are post-transient ischemic attack (TIA) or post-stroke might benefit from prospectively planned comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR). In this pilot evaluation of a larger ongoing randomized-controlled-trial, we evaluated ultrasound (US) measurements of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects following TIA or mild non-disabling...