Cardiovascular Ultrasound

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List of Papers (Total 654)

Left ventricular torsional dynamics post exercise for LV diastolic function assessment

Aims 2D speckle tracking echocardiography allows for assessment of left ventricular (LV) torsional deformation as a composite function of the radial, longitudinal and circumferential fibres. We test the hypothesis that post-exercise LV torsional dynamics are more sensitive markers for myocardial dysfunction than resting measures, and better predictors for exercise capacity compared ...

Normal and shear strains of the left ventricle in healthy human subjects measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography

Background Animal studies have shown that shear deformation of myocardial sheets in transmural planes of left ventricular (LV) wall is an important mechanism for systolic wall thickening, and normal and shear strains of the LV free wall differ from those of the interventricular septum (IVS). We sought to test whether these also hold for human hearts. Methods Thirty healthy ...

Different contribution of extent of myocardial injury to left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in early reperfused acute myocardial infarction

Background We sought to investigate the influence of the extent of myocardial injury on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in patients after reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Thirty-eight reperfused AMI patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging after percutaneous coronary revascularization. The extent of myocardial edema and ...

Effect of ivabradine-induced heart rate reduction on flow-mediated dilation measured with high-sensitivity ultrasound in patients with stable coronary heart disease

Background Experimental data suggests that exclusive heart rate reduction with ivabradine is associated with the amelioration of the endothelial function. Since it is presently unknown whether this also applies to humans, the aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether heart rate reduction with ivabradine modulates the endothelial function in humans with an established ...

Reference intervals for the echocardiographic measurements of the right heart in children and adolescents: a systematic review

Background Transthoracic echocardiography is the primary imaging modality for the diagnosis of right ventricular (RV) involvement in congenital and acquired heart diseases. There is increasing recognition of the contribution of RV dysfunction in heart diseases affecting children and adolescents, but there is insufficient information on reference intervals for the echocardiographic ...

Effect of food intake on left ventricular wall stress

Objective Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 ± 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential ...

Foetal aortic flow velocity waveforms in healthy and hypertensive pregnant women

Background The foetal aortic Doppler frequency spectrum is influenced by cardiac output and contractility of the foetal heart as well as vascular compliance, blood viscosity and impedance of the arterial vascular system. The present study aimed at comparing Doppler flow pulsatility (PI) and resistance (RI) indexes of foetal proximal descending aorta (AoF) in the first, second and ...

Assessment of left ventricle function in aortic stenosis: mitral annular plane systolic excursion is not inferior to speckle tracking echocardiography derived global longitudinal peak strain

Background Early detection of left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction is essential for management of patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Two- dimensional speckle tracking derived global longitudinal peak strain (GLPS) is more sensitive than ejection fraction (EF) but requires good image quality and is not easily accessible. The aim of the study was to compare GLPS with traditional ...

Assessment of left ventricular volumes and primary mitral regurgitation severity by 2D echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Background Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE) remains the first-line diagnostic imaging tool to assess primary mitral regurgitation although cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has proven to establish left ventricular function more accurately and might evaluate mitral regurgitation severity more reliably. We sought to compare routine evaluation of left ...

Evaluation of left atrial deformation to predict left atrial stasis in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation – a pilot-study

Background Speckle tracking-derived strain and strain rate are recently available parameters to assess left atrial (LA) deformation. We hypothesized that such new parameters could be of interest to evaluate the risk of LA stasis among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Single-centre study enrolling all patients with non-valvular AF lasting longer than 48 hours for whom ...

Left ventricular strain distribution in healthy dogs and in dogs with tachycardia-induced dilated cardiomyopathy

Background Recently, left ventricular (LV) strain distribution pattern has been assessed in several cardiac disease states. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) is an animal model of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy well characterized in terms of global LV dysfunction but with poor understanding of regional variability in LV function. We hypothesized that TIC induces specific ...

Novices may be trained to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysms using ultrasound

Background Highly trained vascular sonographers make up a significant cost of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ultrasound screening. However, they are over-trained for this very limited task. Others have reported that health workers (e.g. emergency room staff and nurses) with far less training may be able to perform these scans. The national AAA screening programme in the UK uses ...

Myocardial contractility in the stress echo lab: from pathophysiological toy to clinical tool

Up-regulation of Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ channels by high rates of beating is involved in the frequency-dependent regulation of contractility: this process is crucial in adaptation to exercise and stress and is universally known as force-frequency relation (FFR). Disturbances in calcium handling play a central role in the disturbed contractile function in myocardial failure. ...

Differences of left ventricular systolic deformation in hypertensive patients with and without apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Background We tested the hypothesis that the apical myocardial mechanics differ from those of other ventricular segments in hypertensive patients with and without apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM). Methods We retrospectively studied hypertensive patients with and without ApHCM. Left ventricular longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strains were examined by ...

Quantitative assessment of carotid plaque surface irregularities and correlation to cerebrovascular symptoms

Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether surface irregularities measured from ultrasound images of carotid artery plaques and quantified using a novel method, correlate with the presence of ipsilateral hemispheric cerebrovascular symptoms. Methods A plaque surface irregularity index (SII) was measured in 47 carotid artery plaques (32 subjects, stenosis range ...

One, two and three-dimensional ultrasound measurements of carotid atherosclerosis before and after cardiac rehabilitation: preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial

Background It is still not known how patients who are post-transient ischemic attack (TIA) or post-stroke might benefit from prospectively planned comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR). In this pilot evaluation of a larger ongoing randomized-controlled-trial, we evaluated ultrasound (US) measurements of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects following TIA or mild non-disabling ...

Wall motion in the stenotic carotid artery: association with greyscale plaque characteristics, the degree of stenosis and cerebrovascular symptoms

Background Systolic dilation of the atherosclerotic carotid artery depends on several factors including arterial compliance and the haemodynamic environment. The purpose of this study was to quantify wall motion in stenotic carotid arteries and investigate any associations with the ultrasound greyscale plaque characteristics, the degree of stenosis, and the presence of ...

Volume quantification by contrast-enhanced ultrasound: an in-vitro comparison with true volumes and thermodilution

Background Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has recently been proposed as a minimally- invasive, alternative method for blood volume measurement. This study aims at comparing the accuracy of CEUS and the classical thermodilution techniques for volume assessment in an in-vitro set-up. Methods The in-vitro set-up consisted of a variable network between an inflow and outflow tube ...

The prognostic value of mechanical left ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with acute coronary syndrome

Background Echocardiography is a well-established tool for risk stratification in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS has significant impact on LV dyssynchrony, and detrimental effects on systolic function and long term outcome. The aims of this study were to determine whether LV dyssynchrony carries any predictive information in an unselected ACS population and to ...

Speckle tracking derived strain in infants with severe perinatal asphyxia: a comparative case control study

Background Speckle tracking echocardiography is increasingly being used to assess cardiac function in neonates. The objective was to compare speckle tracking strain indices between asphyxiated infants and healthy controls and to ascertain correlations between strain and 2D Doppler derived indices and cardiac troponin (biochemical marker of myocardial injury). Methods Clinical and ...

Visualization of multimodal polymer-shelled contrast agents using ultrasound contrast sequences: an experimental study in a tissue mimicking flow phantom

Background A multimodal polymer-shelled contrast agent (CA) with target specific potential was recently developed and tested for its acoustic properties in a single element transducer setup. Since the developed polymeric CA has different chemical composition than the commercially available CAs, there is an interest to study its acoustic response when using clinical ultrasound ...

Is strain by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography dependent on user controlled spatial and temporal smoothing? An experimental porcine study

Background Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE) strain analysis relies on both spatial and temporal smoothing. The user is often allowed to adjust these smoothing parameters during analysis. This experimental study investigates how different degrees of user controllable spatial and temporal smoothing affect global and regional STE strain values in recordings obtained from normal ...

Additional value of lateral tissue Doppler imaging in the assessment of diastolic dysfunction among subjects with pseudonormal pattern of mitral inflow

Background There has been a lack of research on further stratification of subjects who have pseudonormal pattern of mitral inflow. The study aim was to clarify 2 different groups with different diastolic function grades among these subjects using lateral tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Methods A total of 122 consecutive subjects showing pseudonormal pattern of mitral inflow (E/A ≥ 1 ...

Stress echocardiography: safety and tolerability

Background Stress echocardiography is a valuable tool for the noninvasive diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Despite its widely use in the clinical practice, safety and side effects profile have never been evaluated in Moroccans. The aim To assess the safety and tolerability of the two stress echo modalities in Moroccans. Methods The study was made by 311 patients with known or ...