Fordham Law Review

http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/flr/

List of Papers (Total 2,934)

A Perspective on the Potential Role of Neuroscience in the Court

This Article presents some lessons learned while offering expert testimony on neuroscience in courts. As a biomedical investigator participating in cutting-edge research with clinical and mentoring responsibilities, Dr. Ruben Gur, Ph.D., became involved in court proceedings rather late in his career. Based on the success of Dr. Gur and other research investigators of his ...

Neuroscience and Sentencing

This symposium comes at a propitious time for me. I am reviewing the sentences I was obliged to give to hundreds of men—mostly African American men—over the course of a seventeen-year federal judicial career. As I have written elsewhere, I believe that 80 percent of the sentences that I imposedwereunfair,unjust,anddisproportionate. EverythingthatIthought was important—that ...

Can Neuroscience Help Predict Future Antisocial Behavior?

Part I of this Article reviews the tools currently available to predict antisocial behavior. Part II discusses legal precedent regarding the use of, and challenges to, various prediction methods. Part III introduces recent neuroscience work in this area and reviews two studies that have successfully used neuroimaging techniques to predict recidivism. Part IV discusses some ...

A Glimpse Inside the Brain’s Black Box: Understanding the Role of Neuroscience in Criminal Sentencing

This Article begins by discussing what neuroscience and the smaller associated field of study, neuropsychology, are and what they can tell us about an individual. It then recounts a brief history of sentencing in the United States. Additionally, it expounds on how the legal system currently utilizes neuroscience in the courts, noting specifically the ways in which neuroscience can ...

How Prosecutors and Defense Attorneys Differ in Their Use of Neuroscience Evidence

Much of the public debate surrounding the intersection of neuroscience and criminal law is based on assumptions about how prosecutors and defense attorneys differ in their use of neuroscience evidence. For example, according to some commentators, the defense’s use of neuroscience evidence will abdicate criminals of all responsibility for their offenses. In contrast, the ...

Neuroscience and Criminal Law: Have We Been Getting It Wrong for Centuries and Where Do We Go from Here?

Moral responsibility is the foundation of criminal law. Will the rapid developments in neuroscience and brain imaging crack that foundation—or, perhaps, shatter it completely? Although many scholars have opined on the subject, as far as I have discovered, few come from a front-line perspective.

Correctional Change Through Neuroscience

Currently, the U.S. criminal justice system is under intense scrutiny. High- profile cases question the appropriateness of specific types of evidence, decision making in sentencing, and the treatment of convicted offenders. Clearly, these issues are not new. And, as has been historically the case, the justice system looks toward science for assistance in addressing and redressing ...

Fair or Foul?: SEC Administrative Proceedings and Prospects for Reform Through Removal Legislation

This Article catalogues the long list of criticisms of the Commission’s administrative proceedings. It also evaluates data describing the outcome of litigated matters and finds that, with the exception of insider trading cases, the Commission has an exceptionally high and statistically indistinguishable record of success in administrative and federal court proceedings alike. The ...

Insta-Appropriation: Finding Boundaries for the Second Circuit’s Fair Use Doctrine After Campbell

Copyright law’s current fair use landscape is riddled with unclear standards and old considerations forced upon new media. This is especially problematic in the context of digital appropriation of art from online social media platforms—an issue highlighted by Richard Prince’s exhibit “New Portraits,” in which he appropriated strangers’ Instagram photos for his own profit. Unless ...

Shining the Light a Little Brighter: Should Item 303 Serve as a Basis for Liability Under Rule 10b-5?

This Note discusses a securities disclosure issue stemming from a split between the Second Circuit and the Ninth Circuit. The question presented is whether failure to comply with a disclosure requirement created by Item 303 of Regulation S-K can provide a basis for liability under section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5. The Ninth Circuit held that such ...

Bank Liability Under the Antiterrorism Act: The Mental State Requirement Under § 2333(a)

This Note specifically addresses the jurisdictional split on the mental state requirement necessary to hold a defendant liable under the ATA. This Note explores the current judicial interpretations of the statute and concludes that, as the statute stands, the Second Circuit best interprets the mental state requirement for § 2333(a) claims predicated on a violation of material ...

Supervised Release, Sex-Offender Treatment Programs, and Substantive Due Process

This Note argues that mandated PPG testing should be eliminated as a condition of federal supervised release. The test infringes on a constitutionally protected liberty interest against unwanted bodily intrusions and, as only the Second Circuit has held, any condition of supervised release that infringes on a constitutionally protected right may be mandated only where it is ...

Threats Against America: The Second Circuit as Arbiter of National Security Law

For nearly 100 years, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has been a leading force in defining and resolving the uniquely thorny issues that arise at the intersection of individual liberty and national security. The court’s decisions in this arena are characterized by its willingness to tackle difficult questions and its skill in balancing the needs of the government ...

Antitrust Jurisprudence in the Second Circuit

A running thread through Second Circuit antitrust jurisprudence is a willingness to examine market participants’ real-world conduct and the consequences of that conduct in seeking out the balance between incentivizing robust competition and protecting the market—and ultimately consumers—from distortions caused by anticompetitive conduct. This Article collects and describes rulings ...

The Second Circuit and Social Justice

This Article highlights just a few areas of law as illustrations of the Second Circuit’s jurisprudence in dealing with claims of marginalized and subordinated individuals and groups. In the area of civil rights, this Article focuses on sexual harassment law and prisoners’ rights. In the area of public benefits, this Article focuses on public assistance and the disability benefit ...

White Collar Crime

This Article will address six different areas of white collar law and procedure: (1) fraud, (2) the Racketeer Influenced the “Mafia Commission,” a take-down of the bosses of the Five Families of La Cosa Nostra; and Abscam, a massive sting operation created by the federal government to expose corrupt officials. Of course, the cases and doctrines discussed can only scratch the ...

Free Speech and Civil Liberties in the Second Circuit

Much of the development of First Amendment law in the United States has occurred as a result of American courts rejecting well-established principles of English law. The U.S. Supreme Court has frequently rejected English law, permitting far more public criticism of the judiciary than would be countenanced in England, rejecting English libel law as being insufficiently protective of ...

Introduction from the Editors of Volume 84

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has always held special significance for the Fordham Law Review’s student members. Ennobled by the examples of Fordham Law School and Fordham Law Review alumni Judge Irving Kaufman, Judge William Mulligan, Judge Joseph McLaughlin, and, most recently, Judge Denny Chin, the student members of the Fordham Law Review strive to impact our ...

Keeping Shareholder Activism Alive: A Comparative Approach to Outlawing Dead Hand Proxy Puts in Delaware

Current trends in shareholder activism have brought to light the competing interests of management and stockholders. With a rise in shareholder activism, firms are continuing to include change in control provisions, known as proxy puts, in their debt agreements to counter activist success. Recent litigation regarding the use of these provisions has created a debate as to whether ...

No Misrepresentation Needed: Excepting Discharge for Actual Fraud Under 11 U.S.C. § 523 Without Misrepresentation

Imagine buying a game from a seller and promising to repay him at a later date. However, instead of repayment, you decide to give the game to your friend, who in turn allows you to use it. Then your friend declares bankruptcy to discharge the price of the game from his debts, thus allowing you both to use it without paying. This repayment runaround is the issue that the First and ...

Collateral Damage: When Should the Determinations of Administrative Adjudications Have Collateral Estoppel Effect in Subsequent Adjudications?

Collateral estoppel is an equitable doctrine under which a court gives issue-preclusive effect to findings of fact or law made in previous proceedings. The U.S. Supreme Court has recently held that under certain circumstances, the determinations of administrative adjudications have collateral estoppel effect in federal court. The Court, however, did not address under which ...

Read This Note or Else!: Conviction Under 18 U.S.C. § 875(c) for Recklessly Making a Threat

What does it mean to make a threat, and under what circumstances can a speaker be convicted for making one? This Note examines these questions in light of Elonis v. United States, a Supreme Court case decided in June 2015. There, the Court held that when a speaker subjectively intends a statement be taken as a threat or knows that it will be taken as a threat, she may be convicted ...

A Copyright Right of Publicity

This Article identifies a striking asymmetry in the law’s disparate treatment of publicity-rights holders and copyright holders. State-law publicity rights generally protect individuals from unauthorized use of their name and likeness by others. Publicity-claim liability, however, is limited by the First Amendment’s protection for expressive speech embodying a “transformative use” ...