Carcinogenesis

http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org

List of Papers (Total 5,674)

Cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate keratinocyte cell–cell adhesion via TGF-β-dependent pathways in genotype-specific oral cancer

The interrelationship between malignant epithelium and the underlying stroma is of fundamental importance in tumour development and progression. In the present study, we used cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) derived from genetically unstable oral squamous cell carcinomas (GU-OSCC), tumours that are characterized by the loss of genes such as TP53 and p16INK4A and with extensive ...

Integration of a radiation biomarker into modeling of thyroid carcinogenesis and post-Chernobyl risk assessment

Strong evidence for the statistical association between radiation exposure and disease has been produced for thyroid cancer by epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl accident. However, limitations of the epidemiological approach in order to explore health risks especially at low doses of radiation appear obvious. Statistical fluctuations due to small case numbers dominate the ...

Plasticity of tumor cell invasion: governance by growth factors and cytokines

Tumor cell migration, the basis for metastatic dissemination, is an adaptive process which depends upon coordinated cell interaction with the environment, influencing cell–matrix and cell–cell adhesion, cytoskeletal dynamics and extracellular matrix remodeling. Growth factors and cytokines, released within the reactive tumor microenvironment and their intracellular effector signals ...

Dual targeting of MDM2 with a novel small-molecule inhibitor overcomes TRAIL resistance in cancer

Mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) protein functionally inactivates the tumor suppressor p53 in human cancer. Conventional MDM2 inhibitors provide limited clinical application as they interfere only with the MDM2–p53 interaction to release p53 from MDM2 sequestration but do not prevent activated p53 from transcriptionally inducing MDM2 expression. Here, we report a rationally synthesized ...

Sequence variation in mature microRNA-608 and benefit from neo-adjuvant treatment in locally advanced rectal cancer patients

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA genes have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, survival and response to treatment. Conflicting results are available on the association between rs4919510, a SNP in mature miR-608 and clinical outcome in CRC. Here, we analyzed the association between rs4919510 and benefit from perioperative treatment in a randomised ...

Glioma-mediated microglial activation promotes glioma proliferation and migration: roles of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1

Microglia play important roles in extracellular matrix remodeling, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and suppression of adaptive immunity in glioma. Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) regulates microglial activation and migration. However, little is known about the roles of NHE1 in intratumoral microglial activation and microglia–glioma interactions. Our study revealed up-regulation of ...

Hypermutation and unique mutational signatures of occupational cholangiocarcinoma in printing workers exposed to haloalkanes

Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although several risk factors have been suggested, the etiology and pathogenesis of the majority of cholangiocarcinomas remain unclear. Recently, a high incidence of early-onset cholangiocarcinoma was reported among the workers of a printing company in Osaka, Japan. These workers underwent ...

FGFR2 risk SNPs confer breast cancer risk by augmenting oestrogen responsiveness

The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) locus is consistently the top hit in genome-wide association studies for oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Yet, its mode of action continues to be controversial. Here, we employ a systems biology approach to demonstrate that signalling via FGFR2 counteracts cell activation by oestrogen. In the presence of oestrogen, the ...

Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer in Hispanics

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 58 susceptibility alleles across 37 regions associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) with P < 5×10−8. Most studies have been conducted in non-Hispanic whites and East Asians; however, the generalizability of these findings and the potential for ethnic-specific risk variation in Hispanic and Latino (HL) individuals ...

Liver carcinogenesis: from naughty chemicals to soothing fat and the surprising role of NRF2

The liver is a key metabolic organ that is essential for production of blood proteins, lipid and sugar metabolism and detoxification of naturally occurring and foreign harmful chemicals. To maintain its mass and many essential functions, the liver possesses remarkable regenerative capacity, but the latter also renders it highly susceptible to carcinogenesis. In fact, liver cancer ...

Understanding mutagenesis through delineation of mutational signatures in human cancer

Each individual cell within a human body acquires a certain number of somatic mutations during a course of its lifetime. These mutations originate from a wide spectra of both endogenous and exogenous mutational processes that leave distinct patterns of mutations, termed mutational signatures, embedded within the genomes of all cells. In recent years, the vast amount of data ...

Mouse models for ROS1-fusion-positive lung cancers and their application to the analysis of multikinase inhibitor efficiency

ROS1-fusion genes, resulting from chromosomal rearrangement, have been reported in 1–2% of human non-small cell lung cancer cases. More than 10 distinct ROS1-fusion genes, including break-point variants, have been identified to date. In this study, to investigate the in vivo oncogenic activities of one of the most frequently detected fusions, CD74-ROS1, as well as another SDC4-ROS1 ...

Manipulation of the gut microbiota using resistant starch is associated with protection against colitis-associated colorectal cancer in rats

This study evaluated whether dietary resistant starch (RS) and green tea extract (GTE), which have anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, protect against colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) using a rat model, also investigated potential mechanisms of action of these agents including their effects on the gut microbiota. Rats were fed a control diet or diets containing ...

Identification of the CIMP-like subtype and aberrant methylation of members of the chromosomal segregation and spindle assembly pathways in esophageal adenocarcinoma

The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen significantly over recent decades. Although survival has improved, cure rates remain poor, with <20% of patients surviving 5 years. This is the first study to explore methylome, transcriptome and ENCODE data to characterize the role of methylation in EAC. We investigate the genome-wide methylation profile of 250 samples ...

The feedback loop between miR-124 and TGF-β pathway plays a significant role in non-small cell lung cancer metastasis

Increasing evidence shows that micro RNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in tumor development. However, the role of miRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis remains largely unknown. Here, we found that miR-124 expression was significantly impaired in NSCLC tissues and associated with its metastasis. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that restoring miR-124 ...

MicroRNA profiles in colorectal carcinomas, adenomas and normal colonic mucosa: variations in miRNA expression and disease progression

MiRNAs are small, non-protein-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression either by post-transcriptionally suppressing mRNA translation or by mRNA degradation. We examine differentially expressed miRNAs in colorectal carcinomas, adenomas and normal colonic mucosa. Data come from population-based studies of colorectal cancer conducted in Utah and the Kaiser Permanente Medical ...

Mucins and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in gastrointestinal cancers: an unholy nexus

The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is indispensable for embryonic development, maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis and repair of epithelial injury. Unsurprisingly, aberrations in this pathway occur frequently in many cancers and often result in increased nuclear β-catenin. While mutations in key pathway members, such as β-catenin and adenomatous polyposis coli, are early and ...

Flaxseed lignans enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside prevent acute asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation in mice

Malignant mesothelioma (MM), linked to asbestos exposure, is a highly lethal form of thoracic cancer with a long latency period, high mortality and poor treatment options. Chronic inflammation and oxidative tissue damage caused by asbestos fibers are linked to MM development. Flaxseed lignans, enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory ...

Editor's choice: Differential DNA lesion formation and repair in heterochromatin and euchromatin

Discretely orchestrated chromatin condensation is important for chromosome protection from DNA damage. However, it is still unclear how different chromatin states affect the formation and repair of nucleotide excision repair (NER) substrates, e.g. ultraviolet (UV)-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PP), as well as ...

Deficiency of multidrug resistance 2 contributes to cell transformation through oxidative stress

Multidrug resistance 2 (Mdr2), also called adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette B4 (ABCB4), is the transporter of phosphatidylcholine (PC) at the canalicular membrane of mouse hepatocytes, which plays an essential role for bile formation. Mutations in human homologue MDR3 are associated with several liver diseases. Knockout of Mdr2 results in hepatic inflammation, liver fibrosis ...

Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma: a population-based study

Factors known to affect melanoma survival include age at presentation, sex and tumor characteristics. Polymorphisms also appear to modulate survival following diagnosis. Result from other studies suggest that vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms (SNPs) impact survival in patients with glioma, renal cell carcinoma, lung, breast, prostate and other cancers; however, a comprehensive ...

Cancer prevention as part of precision medicine: ‘plenty to be done’

Cancer burden worldwide is projected to rise from 14 million new cases in 2012 to 24 million in 2035. Although the greatest increases will be in developing countries, where cancer services are already hard pressed, even the richest nations will struggle to meet demands of increasing patient numbers and spiralling treatment costs. No country can treat its way out of the cancer ...

The potential for chemical mixtures from the environment to enable the cancer hallmark of sustained proliferative signalling

The aim of this work is to review current knowledge relating the established cancer hallmark, sustained cell proliferation to the existence of chemicals present as low dose mixtures in the environment. Normal cell proliferation is under tight control, i.e. cells respond to a signal to proliferate, and although most cells continue to proliferate into adult life, the multiplication ...

Restoration of paclitaxel resistance by CDK1 intervention in drug-resistant ovarian cancer

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) commonly acquires resistance to chemotherapy, and this is the major obstacle to the better prognosis. Elucidating the molecular targets altered by chemotherapy is critically required to understand and overcome drug resistance. As a drug combination including paclitaxel is a prevalent prescription for treatment of EOC, to uncover gene expression ...

Editor's choice: miR-342-3p regulates MYC transcriptional activity via direct repression of E2F1 in human lung cancer

Accumulating evidence indicates that altered miRNA expression is crucially involved in lung cancer development, though scant information is available regarding how MYC, an archetypical oncogene, is regulated by miRNAs, especially via a mechanism involving MYC cofactors. In this study, we attempted to identify miRNAs involved in regulation of MYC transcriptional activity in lung ...